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SiNCK the publication of the third volume of this edition of the Rig-veda, 
the age and authenticity of the sacred writings of the Brahmans have become 
the subject of new and animated discussions, and many points in the history 
of the ancient literature of India which seemed almost beyond the reach of 
reasonable criticism, have become overcast by doubts and surmises. Alth(jugh 
it would be impossible to examine every objection that has been raised, 
there are some which deserve a careful consideration ; and I feel that it 
becomes part of the duty incumbent on me, as the editor of the Rig-veda, 
to state how far the convictions which I expressed on former occasions as 
to the age and character of the Vedic literature in its four divisions, tlie 
A7iandas, Mantra, Brahmawa, and Stitra periods, have been either changed or 
strengthened by the researches and arguments of other scholars. 

The first question which requires to be considered anew is, 
Ccm the aye of the Vedic hymnti he fixed by astronomical evidence ' 

In my 'History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature' I have endeavoured to 
show that it is possible to distinguish four great classes of literary couqw- 
sitions, corresponding to four great periods in the growth of the Vedic 
religion and of the theological system of the Brahmans. The most recent 
of these fo ir periods extends to about 200 B.C., and from the peculiar style 
in which all the works belonging to it are composed, it has received the 
name of the Sdtra period. Several of the most eminent among the authors 
of SAtras or aphorisms lived prior, if not to the origin, at least to the 
spreading and the jjolitical ascendancy of Buddhism, and hence the date 
600 B. c. was assigned as the most probable for the beginning of the Stitra 

It is, I believe, admitted by all scholars, that the Slitras presuppose the 
existence of the Br^hmawas, another class of Vedic writings, which together 
constitute what I call the Br^hraana period. As that period compi'ehends 



the first 'establishment of the elaborate Brahmanical ceremonial with its four 
classes of priests, the composition of separate theological treatises, the so-called 
Brfi,hma«as •, their collection, and again the schism of sects which were founded 
originally on the basis of the great collective Br4hma/ias, it would seem 
impossible to bring the whole of this literary and theological activity within 
a narrower sjiace than 200 years. I thereforq assigned to it a duration from 

800 to 600 B. V. 

'Hie Bruhmawas, again, presuppose the existence of a complete collection of 
Vedic hymns, such as we now possess in the ten books of the Rig-veda-SamhitA. 
Seven out of these ten books beloliged originally to separate families or clans, 
and each contains a number of hynms, clearly the productions of different 
generations of poets. Some of tljese hymns are written in imitation of others, 
and the more modern assume a decidedly ritual character. As Mantra is the 
technical name of a hymn employed for sacrificial purposes, I have designated 
the period during which the latest sacrificial hymns were written, and collected, 
together with the older hymns, at first into separate books, and afterwards 
into a complete body of sacred find liturgical poetry, the Mantra period. 
Several generations of modern poets, and probably two classes of collectors, 
have to be accommodated in it ; so that if we allow 200 years to this period, 
this is hardly out of proportion to the work which had to be j^ei'formed 
in it. 

There remains the last and most important period in the history of Vedic 
literature, that of th^ ancient poets or Rishis, who, by their songs, gave the 
first impulse to the religion, the poetry, the worship of the Aryan dwellers 
in India. Tlieir forefathers were strangers in the land of the Seven Rivers, 

' I differ from Professor Westerguard (Alihand- 2. Briihiimn does not occur, at least in, ancient 

luujfeu, p. 57). ""'I still prefer to derive liralimana works, ia the sense of ' the holy element in tKe sacri- 

liom brahmto, the priest,' not from brahman, which ficc;' it moans 'prayers,' 'ofFeriugs.' In later works 

IS hiiirt to have the §ense of ' the holy clement in the it is used for Veda or holy word, etc. 

sacrifioe.' (Eoth,Nirukta, p.xxvi.) My ftasons are, 3. The lirilhniajias trout chiefly of the outward oere- 

1. It is nut correct to form a derivative like brah- monial, the karnian. They give the vidhis, 'rules,' 

niana from a neuter, br£thraan, in tlxe sense of treating or the kalpa, 'ceremonial,' together with the artha- 

cif or concerned with the brahman. We should not vSdas, ' comments.' The brdhmau is treated of in the 

find a work, treating of ntoan or sSman, called nS- Aranyaka'i and Upanishadn, which constitute the brah- 

lUiina or sfinmnii ; at least I know of no analogous niakftarfa, as opposed to the karmakfinda. 

formation in classical Sanskrit. It would certainly be 4. The Hiahmanas contain just that kind of in- 

againstl'Snini.for I'ujiiui allows the snffi,\ afl only after formation which the Brahmilns, as overseers at sacri- 

words which have not the udatta on the first syllaMo ficee, would want, nay, without which thoy could 

(IV. 2, 44). He would allow biahmana to be formed hardly have exercised that ministerial function which 

from brahmiin, ' priest,' but not frombrdhmaii, ' prayer. ' was peculiarly their own. 


and some of the thoughts and accents of the earliest Vedic hymns may point 
beyond the natural frontiers of the great Indian peninsula. To assign any 
definite date to the first or the last of the old Rishis is clearly impossible ; yet 
looking at the numerous relics of that early age, I ventured to suggest 200 
years as a minimum, which few, acquainted with the early history of mankind, 
could consider extravagant. I ihus arrived at about 1 200 b. c. as the latest 
date at which we may suppose the Vedic bards settled in the Northern regions 
of the Indian continent. I pointed out repeatedly, tliat beyond the frontiers 
of the SAtra period (600-200 a c.) our chronological measurements must 
necessarily be of a merely hypothetical cha,racter ; yet I felt convinced that 
those who from an intimate acquaintance with the Vedic literature are most 
competent to form an opinion as to the time required for its growth, its 
maturity, and its decay, would allow that the minimum durations assigned 
hj me to the Br4hma?ia, Mantra, and 7v7(andas periods were below rathei' 
tlian alx;)ve the average durations of similar periods in the intellectual and 
literary history of other nations. I may be allowed to quote the concluding 
words of my History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, as I find they liave 
given rise to a curious misunderstanding. ' The chronological hmits,' I said, 
'assigned to the Sdtra and Brahma^a periods will seem to most Sanskrit 
scholars too narrow rather than too wide, and if we assign but 200 years t<i 
the Mantra period, from 800 to 1000 B.C., and an equal number to the 
7i7<andas period, from 1000 to 1200 b. c, we can do so only under the su})- 
l)osition that, during the early periods of hi.story, the growth of the human 
mind was more luxuriant than in later times, and that the layers of thouglit 
were formed less slowly in the primary tlian in the tertiary ages of tlie 

I should have thought that the meaning of this paragraph could iiardly 
have .been misapprehended, and that the expression ' layers of thought,' was 
sufficient tc show that the terms 'primary and tertiary ages of the world,' 
could not refer to geological periods and to the growth of the czust of the 
earth, but were used metaphorically of the perfods in the historical growtli 
of the human mind. I was not prepared therefore for a question addressed 
to me rather bluntly by a distinguished philosopher. ' Is 1200 B.C. a primary 
age of the world except in Biblical geology?' — a question to my mind entirely 
meaningless, unless we .ascribe to it a meaning unworthy of so intelligent 
and liberal-minded a writer. 

With this single exception, however, my anticipations of the judgment of 
VOL. IV. b 


all competent scholai-s with regard to the minimum durations assigned by 
me to the four periods of Vedic literature have not been deceived. On a 
question so purely hypothetical as the chronological system on which my 
History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature was built, the assenting votes of in- 
dependent and fair-minded scholars are, of coiuse, of great importance, and 
I shall therefore (piote the opinions of some who have a right to be heard on 
these difficult problems. Professor Wilson, in his Review of my History ', 
.says : 

' Professor Max Miiller thinks it imjwssible to assign a shorter interval than 
two centuries for the origin and accumulation of the mass of Brahmanical 
literature that nnist have existed. We confess that we are disposed to look 
upon this limit as much too brief for the establishment of an elaborate 
ritual, for the appi'opriation of all spiritual authority by the Bnllimans, for 
the distinction of races or the institution of caste, and for the mysticism 
and speculation of the AraJtyakas or Upanishads : a period of five centuries 
would not seem to be too protracted for such a complete remodelling of the 
primitive system and its wide dis.seminatIon thi'ough all parts of India 
where the Brdhmans have spread. There seems no reason to question the 
general accm-acy of the lists of teachers preserved by Brahmanical tnxdition, 
and which, as Professor Max Miiller remarks, would extend the limits of this 
age to a very considerable degi'ee. These traditions are preserved in diffei'ent 
supplementary works or Va?M.s'as, also regarded as Brahmanas, several of which 
are extant. There are several of these in the »Vatapatha Brahma/ia, which 
Professor Max Miiller quotes, and he concludes that from their extent it is 
possible that the limit he suggests will have to bo extended. We quite concur 
in this anticipation, and think there can be little doubt that, instejwl of two 
centuries, we may venture to conjecture four or five, and so carry the com- 
mencement of the Brdhmana pei'iod to the tenth or eleventh century u.v.' > 

The same scholar, after stating his reasons for treating the Mantra aiifl 
/iT/tandas periods as one ' complete in itself, though extending over a long space 
of time, and in some instances to a very remote antiquity,' hints at the twelfth 
to the twentieth centuries is.o. as the probable limits of the age which gave 
bii-th to the poetry of the Veda. 

M. Barthdlemy Saint-Hilaire^ in his articles on the same work (January, 
P- 53)> ^''^^ the following remarks as to the approximate durations assigned by 

' Hdiiiburi;li Ruview, i860, p. 375. 
Journal di's Savaiitn, August, Scj)tenibcr, October, Uecembei, l86o, and January 1861. 



me to the four periods of Vedic literature: 'Ces considdrations m'amcnent natur- 
eilement k la derniere question que je voulais traiter, en rendant compte de 
I'ouvrage de M. Max Miiller, et que j'ai d^j^ plus d'une fois indiquee ; c'est celle 
de la ehronologie. L'auteur-ne pouvait guere se borner il diviser I'histoire de 
I'ancienne littcrature Sanscrite dans les (juatre p^riodes distinctes cpie nous 
avons successivement parcourues avec lui ; il devait aussi tenter d'assigner a 
chacune de ces pdriodes une dnr-6e approximative. Mais c'est Ih qu'est le peril, 
(piand on songe h quelles incertitudes est encore li^ree presque toute la chrono- 
logie indienne, et de quelles tc^nbbres elle est couverte. Cependant, en s'appuyant 
sur quelques donnees gc^-norales, qui sont actuellement admises par les indianistes, 
et dont j'ai parld plus haut, M. Max Miiller dtablit que les quatre periodes re- 
pondent aux dates suivantes ; la periode des Soutras, qui dure quatre siecles 
s'etend en remontant de I'an 200 avant J. (1 h I'an 600 ; celle des Bi-<lhmanas 
comprend de I'an 600 il I'an 800 ; celle des Mantras, de Fan 800 ^ I'an 1000; et 
enfin la pdriode du Tchliandas va de I'an 1000 a I'an 1200 avant I'cre chretienne. 
II est bien entendn (pie ce ne sont lc\ (pie des il peu [n-hn, et, nialgr(< ra])parente 
ngueur de ces cbitfres, i! est clair (pi'on ne pent arriver en ceci a aucune deter- 
mination ]-)rt'cise. Aussi M. Max Miiller aui-ait-il peut-dtre bien fait de ne [)as 
ohercher h, fixer des liinites aussi arretees et de ne pas circonscrire si nettement 
les choses. Connne il y a nccessairement toujours beaucouj) de vague dans les 
af.prcciations de ce genre, il est l)0ii quo la forme donn(<e il des hypotheses soit 
ind(5cise elle-meme autant (pie les assertions ; et, comme il n'y a rien de moiiis 
flexible qu'un nombro une fois qu'il est cnonctj, il efit mieux valu, je crois, restei- 
dans une demi-obscurite, (]ui est, d'ailleurs, bien excusable en ces maticres. Tout 
le monde reconnaitra, du reste, que les su})i)utations de M. Max Miiller scat 
tres-niod(<r<$es, et, s'il a failli en quelque chose, c'est plut(U par un exces de 
reserve. La duree de chacune de ces periodes est bien courte ; et, conune les 
Sainhitils, telles quo nous les possedons, sont r()digties un millier d'annces an 
moins avant notre hm, on pent faire remonter sans la moindre crainte la pdriode 
du Tchhandas fort au dela, et Ton en revient ainsi aux calculs de Sir William 
Jones et de Colebrooke, qui reportaient la composition du Rig -Veda il quatorze 
ou quinze cents ans avant J. C. 

'D'un artre c6t6, cette dur(3e uniforine de deux siecles donnee ^ la pdriode 
des Brdhmanas, comme h, celle des Mantras et du Tchhandas peut dgalement 
pr6ter k la critique. Si la pdriode des SoAtras a pu remplir quatre sifecles entiers, 
il parait peu probable que celle des Brilhmanas, qui sont beaucoup plus longs 
et tout aussi nombreux peut-etre, n'en ait pas remplit davantage, en y compre- 



nant les Aranyakas et les Oupanishads. II y a certainement aussi beaucoup 
raoiiis fie distance entre les Brilhmanas et les SoAtras, qu'il n'y en a entre les 
Mantras et les Bnlhmanas. Cependant M. Max Miiller ne compte que deux 
si^cles entre chacune de ces deux classes. L'analogie semblerait autoriser ;\ 
mettre bien plus d'intcrvalle entre les unes qu'enti*e les autres. II y a une 
immense difference entre I'epoque ou Ton con/stitue les recueils de la podsie 
sacrde et I'opoque ou on les commente ; il y en a moins entre cette dernitire et 
celle oil Ton reduit ces conlmentaires difFus et obscurs il des regies claires et 
nieth<)di(|ues. (Juant a la periode des Mantras, elle semble, de son c6to, trop 
developpoe, si celle des Bnlhmanas ne Test point assez. En admettant qu'il ait 
fallu deux siecles pour la composition des Bnlhmanas, la simple collection des 
iSamhiti'is n'a pas du en exiger autant. Ainsi done, sans contester la dur«5e 
absolue des periodes reunies, leur duree relative no parait pas trbs-acceptable, 
et cette proportion pourrait etre etablie d'une manitlsre toute diffcrente, qui se 
justifiei-ait non moins bien. Quant h la jiei-iode du Tchhandas, la premiere de 
toutes, et la plus toconde puisqu'elle a enfante tout le reste, il est bien il pre- 
sumer <iu'elle a i5te la plus longue ; et cette inspiration, (pii a vivifie, durant 
plus de trois mille ans, toute la croyance rcligieuse d'un grand i^eujjle, Ji'a pas 
])u etre passagere pour (pie ses effets aient ete si dui-ables. Mais je quitte lo 
chanq) des conjectures, et je m'empresse de resumer cette analyse ((ue j'ai faito 
avcc taut de details, et taut de satisfaction du livre de M. Max Mliller.' 

Like Professor Wilson and M. Bartheleiny Saint-IIilaire, Professor Whitney 
too, the learned editor of the Atharva-veda and of the SArya-siddhanta, has 
expressed his conviction that the chronological limits assigned by me to the 
four periods of Vedic literature are too narrow rather than too wide. 

'Wo may next follow Professor Max Miiller,' he writes, 'in his attempt to 
establish a chronological groundwork for the Vedic literature. How extremely 
delicate and difficult a task this is wont to be in matters affecting the literary 
history of India, is sufficiently known to all who have had any occasion to deal 
with the subject. What wild and baseless theories respecting the dates of 
events, and the periods of works, or classes of works, in Hindu antiquity, have 
been built up and accepted, only to be overthrown again and forgotten ! But 
also what learned and cautious conclusions ujjon like subjects have been drawn 
hy critical scholars, to be proved fallacious and set aside by farther research ! 
It can scarcely be said that there is a single Sanskrit work, not of quite modern 
author.slup, in existence, whatever be its prominence and importance, over the 
l)eiiod of which there reigns not an uncertainty to be measured only by cen- 


turies. The one reliable date which we possess for Indian history, until 
times long posterior to the Christian era, is furnished by the Greek accounts 
of the Indian sovereign " Sandrocottus," contemporary of the early successois 
of Alexander. That this is the king called by the Hindus Chandragupta, 
the founder of a new dynasty upon the Ganges, there can be no reasonable 
doubt ; luckily, the prominence* of his grandson, A^oka, in Buddhist history, 
as the Constantine of Buddhism, the first who gave that religion supremacy 
ill India, has led to the preservation of such trustworthy accounts of him as 
permit the satisfactory identification of the two personages. This datum is 
well styled by our author the sheet-anchor of Indian chronology ; without 
it we should be, even respecting the most important eras of Indian history, 
drifting almost hopelessly at sea. If there has been, besides this, any date 
in which nearly all students of Hindu archjeology have acquiesced, agreeing 
to regard it as satisfactorily established, it has been that of the death of 
Buddha, as supposed to be fixed by the Buddhists of Ceylon, at b.c. 543. 
But, in the work now under consideration, Professor Max Miiller attacks 
witli powerful arguments tlie authenticity and credibility of tliis date also : 
ho points out tliat the Ceylon data, if compared with and corrected Ijy tlie 
Greek era of (Chandragupta, indicate rather 477 tiian 543 b. t;. as Buddha's 
death-year ; and he argues farther, tliat the data themselves contain an arti- 
ficial and arbitrary element which destroys their faith; and that back of the 
great synod under Asoka, about 250 H.C., we really know nothing of i\\v 
chronology of Buddhism. From this conclusion we do not ourselves feel inclineil 
to dissent ; the considerations adduced by Max Miiller as the ground of liis 
scepticism are not easily to be .set aside ; and we have been taught, by long 
and sad exjierience, that a Hindu date is not a thing that one can clutch 
;;nd hold. But while we pay our author homage in his character of Siva, 
the Destroyer, we cannot show him e(jual reverence when he acts the part 
of Brahma, Jie Constructor ; for the basis of evidence on which he founds 
his system of chronology for the Vedic literature seems to us far less sub- 
stantial than that which had been relied u])on to establish the date of Buddha's 
entrance upon nihility. Let us briefly review his reasonings. He begins with 
laying down as strongly as possible the marked distinctness of the periods 
represented by the three principal classes of the Vedic literature, showing 
that each class necessarily pi'esupi)oses the existence and full development 
of that which precedes it : as regards the two later classes, he dwells upon 
the native distinction of them as sruti and smriti, "revelation" and "tradl- 



tion," respectively, contending that this implies a recognition of the latter as 
of notably later origin than the other. He farther divides the period of the 
Hymns into two, that of their composition and that of their collection and 
arrangement: the former he styles the chhandas period, the period of spon- 
taneous poetic productiveness ; the latter is the mantra period, that in which 
this poetry had become invested with a conventional and adscititious charac- 
ter, — had become mantra, "sacred formula." To such a division no Vedic 
scholar will refuse assent ; the wide difference, in time and in character, 
between the singers and the diaskeuasts of the hymns has long been recog- 
nised, and has only failed to be marked by a suitable and happy nomenclature ; 
that proposed by our author will probably henceforth be generally adopted. 
Professor Max MuUer thus establishes fom- chronological steps, or separate 
and successive epochs of time ; and, save that we may regard it as still 
uncertain how far these periods have interlaced with, or even slightly over- 
lapped one another, we find nothing in his method to criticise.' 

Professor Whitney then proceeds to state some objections to the dates 
commonly assigned to PS,/nni and K4tyt\yana, and he continues (p. 263) : 
'Adopting 600-200 R. c. as the period of the s^ltra literature, our author 
assumes that each of the two which preceded it may have lasted for a couple 
of centuries, and accordingly suggests as the epoch of the composition of the 
Vedic Hymns the time prior to 1000 B.C.; or, if to it be assigned the same 
length as to the two succeeding epochs, 1 200-1000 B.C. To this date for the 
beginnings of Hindu history and culture no one will deny at least the merit of 
extreme modesty and caution : it stands in this respect in most refreshing 
contrast with the theorizings of many others who have had occasion to treat 
the same point. The era of the Vedic poets is more likely to have preceded, 
perhaps considerably, the time thus allotted to it, than to have been more 

uiodern It is, upon the whole, clear that a final positive determination of the 

controversy, if ever attained, must be arrived at, not by following any one clew, 
however faitiifully and perseveringly, but by carefully combining all evidences, 
whether literary, historical, astronomical, or of whatever other character they 
may be. Professor Max Miiller can by no means be blamed for adhering to the 
general methods of his work, and refraining from entering upon those other 
lines of inquiry ; but we should have been better satisfied if he had guarded 
against misappi-ehension by at least referring to their existence, and their 
indispensableness to the full solution of his problem.' 

I need hardly say that I agree with almost every word of my critics. I 



have repeatedly dwelt on the merely hypothetical character of the dates 
which I ventured to assign to the first three periods of Vedic literature. All 
I have claimed for them has been that they are minimum dates, and that 
the literary productions of -each period which either still exist or whlcli 
formerly existed, could hardly be accounted for within shorter limits of 
time than those suggested. Like most Sanskrit scholars, I feel that 200 
years, or about six generations, are scarcely sufficient to account for the 
growth of the poetry and religion ascribed to the Alandas period. There are 
vistas opened to those wiio are able to appreciate the perspective di.stances 
of thought which seem to reach to a nmch more remote past. But unless 
sucli general impressions can be clearly defined, so as to force conviction 
even from the prejudiced and the unwilling, it is woi-se than useless to 
express them at all. Nothing has brought Oriental studies into greater dis- 
repute than the constant attempts of enthusiastic scholars to claim an exor- 
bitant antiquity for the primitive civilisation of the East; and the equally 
imreasonable scepticism which rejects all history previous to 500 B.C. as 
fable or forgery, is but a natural reaction called forth by tiie over-confident 
assertions of the students of Egyptian, Babylonian, and Indian aiitiquities. 

It has been pointed out, however, that although on the evidence of lite- 
i-ature alone, no higher antiquity could have l)een claimed for the earliest 
])oetry of India than the thirteenth century b. c, I ought to have strengthened 
my argument by additional evidence, and particularly by that of certain 
astroixomical data which have long been brought forward as establishing 
the existence of Vedic poetry as early as the fifteenth century b. (;. My 
reasons for not entering upon a discussion of these astronomical questions 
in a history of Sanskrit Litei-ature have been rightly guessed by Professor 
Whitney. My object was to show how fiir the literary productions of the 
Vedic age could by themselves be made to bear witness to the anticpiity of 
the Vedic re'igion and poetry. I was writing a history of Vedic Literature, 
not of Indian Astronomy. Nor could I have supposed that my not alluding 
to the trite arguments of Bentley, Colebrooke, Laplace, and Biot on the chro- 
nological meaning of certain astronomical observations preserved in certain 
Vedic treatises, could be so far misintei-preted as to me to the charge 
of either disregard for ignoring, or ignorance for disregai-ding the theories of 
those eminent scholars and astronomers. That I was not ignorant of their 
researches, I had shown by what I wrote in 1846, when first announcing my 
intention of publishing an edition of the Rig-veda. ' With regard to the 


antiquity of the Veda,' I then said, ' the most striking remark is that of Cole- 
brooke, bearing on an astronomical observation of the position of the colures. 
That observation is to be found in a small treatise appended to the Veda, 
which, j)artly by its position as a Veddnga or member of the Veda, partly 
by its general stylo, belongs to an earlier period than the great scientific 
astronomical works of Var/iha Mihira, Brajimagupta, and others. These 
astronomers refer to that observation as one of earlier date, and we may 
well believe in its reality, if we bear in mind that the Brahmans themselves 
never make use of it as a proof of the high antiquity of their sacred lite- 
rature, nay, that they could not have done so, because, if used for chrono- 
logical purposes, the date derived from that astronomical notice would stand 
in direct contradiction to their own system of chronology. Brahmagupta ', 
who lived at the end of the sixth and the beginning of the seventh centuries, 
as proved by the ])osition of the colures at his time, and who knew the 
observation of the earlier position of the colures, declares against the admis- 
sion of a precession of the equinoctial jjoints ; and although other astronomers 
admitted a precession or vibration ^, yet they, too, were not in possession of 

^ 'En effot, Biahm;i^u)iia n'a pas cii l'a\antage 
(i'etre uii personage mytholdfiiqiic. On suit qu'il a 
existo tie.s-rot'UenuMit vers la fin ilu \'i<= on au coni- 
niericemeut du vii<! .-lecle ile iiotre oie, et qiiMl ap- 
|)aitcn!Ut au college <l'(^c)jein, celebre alois dans I'lude 
ciimme nn centre dc science astiondniiqne.' Biot, 
Journal des Savants, 1859. Etudes sur rAsticnouiie 
Indienne, p. 31. Colelirooke (Misc. Essays, If. p. 463) 
established the date (if Biahmagnpta by the following 
])rocess • 'The star Chitra, which iinquestiouaMy is 
Spica Viiginis, was refeiied by Brahmagupta to the 
103rd degree counted from its oiigin to the intersec- 
tion of the star's circle of decliualion; A\hence the 
star's right ascension is deduced 182° 45'. Its actual 
light ascension in a.d. 1800 was 198° 40' 2". The 
difference, 15° 55 2" is the quantity l>y which the 
beginning of the first zodiacal astevism and lunar 
mansion, Asvini, as infemble from the position of the 
star Chiti^, has receded from the equinox: and it 
indicates the lapse of I2i6 years (to a. d. 1800) since 
that point c oincided with the equinox ; the annual 
precession of the stai being leckoned at 47", 14. The 
star liovati, which appears to be C Piscium, had no 
longitude, according to the same author, being situated 
precisely at the tlose of the asteiism and commeuce- 
ment of the following one, A^vinl, without latitude or 

declination, exactly in the ecjuinoctial jioiut. Its actual 
right fisccnsi.m in tSoo was 15" 49' i,^". This, which 
is the quantity by which the origin of the Indian 
ecliptic, as infciriblc from the position of the stai 
Kevati. has receded from the equinox, indicates a 
peiioil of 1221 years elapsed to the end of the eigh- 
Iccnth contuiy; the annual prccessiim of that star 
being 46", 65. The mean of tlic two is 12184 years; 
which, taken fioin 1800, leaves 581 or 582 of the 
Chiistian eia. Brahmagupta, then, appeals to have 
obscived and written towards the close of the sixth or 
the beginning of the following contuiy ; for, as the 
Hindu astrononieis seem not to have been very ac- 
curate observers, the belief of his having lived and 
published in the seventh century, about a.d. 628, 
wliich answeis to 550 Saka, the dale assigned to liiiii 
by the astrcnoniers of Ujjayiuf, is not inconsistent 
with the position, that the vernal equinox did not 
sensibly to his view deviate fioni the beginning of 
Aries or Mesha, as determined by him from the star 
Revatf (^ Piscium), which he places at that point.' 
Biot (Journal des Savants, 184,5, P- 4') gives 572 as 
corresponding to the equinox of J Piscium. 

^ ' L'autre notion que Colebrooke pr^sentait encore 
comme propro aux Hindoux, c'Aait le mouvement de 
trepidation p^riodique attribu<;e par eux aux points 


sufficient observations to prove, still less to utilise for chronological purposes, 
a regular periodical precession of the equinoctial points. This is an argument 
which, as it reaches back to the fourteenth century B.C., may be used with 
advantage against those critics who cannot be convuiced of the antiquity of 
any work except by figures .and dates.' 

Though much has been written in the interval on Indian astronomy, and 
in particular on the possibility of deriving certain chronological dates from the 
astronomical observations alluded to before, I still adhere in the main to the 
opinion which I expressed sixteen years ago. Rut I do not intend to deny 
that many and very weighty objections may be lu'ged against the use which 
Bentley and Colebrooke made of these observations, and I doubt whether an 
appeal even to the authority of a Colebrooke, the greatest of all Sanskrit 
scholars, is sufficient to silence the opposition of astronomers and historians. 
It may be as well to state some of these objections in order to warn those wlio 
allow themselves to be guided by the authority of even so eminent a scholar 
and astronomer as Colebrooke, against the dangers which this kind of au- 
tlioritative belief invariably entails, namely, a tendency to shrink from the 
trouble of examining all evidence to the contrary, and to speak with greater 
certainty of the results obtained by independent inquirers than these inquirers 
themselves have claimed for their discoveries. 

The first time that Colebi'ooke refers to the date of the Vedas is in the 
year i8or, in the seventh volume of the Asiatic Researches (p. 283), in a note 
to his article on the Religious Ceremonies of the Hindus (Miscellaneous Essays, 
I. p. 200). In describing the offerings to the manes, Colebrooke mentions a 
prayer in which the six seas(Mis, the hot, the dewy, the rainy, the floweiy, 
the frosty, and the sultry, are enumerated ; and he adds a passage from the 
Veda, first quoted by Sir W. Jones (As. Res. III. j). 258), in which these six 
seasons are each identified with M'hat he considers two lunar months. He 
then argues in the followinfif manner : ' Accordinf^ to the Veda, tlie lunar 

o o o ' 

equiuoxiaux et solpliciiuix de I'orlra si)liiire. lietnm- fiiiro wiuiifcmaer qu'ello avai( ileja ccnirs an temps do 

vaiit plus tard cette idee dans Alhategni et chez Ics oe grand (ibHcrvateur, p^li^qu'un induvemeut d'oscil- 

Arahos d'Ehpagne, il laorojait deiivce des aBtronomi'i latiuu huppoMC piopre a I'lirlm siihiire produiiait, en 

Hindoux par les mnimiinications cpii a'l^talilirententro ctFct, dcs variations cories])oiid.ui(es dans cotte diireo. 

enx et les Aralicn de Bagdad an temps du calife A]- Si I'on admet lino transmi^sinn direoto on indirecte 

manzor.' (Biot, Journal de« Savants, 1845, pp. 383, des tbeories grccques dans I'lnde, comnio eela parait 

385, 447.) 'Mais nous vojons aujonrd'bui dans les iinpo.^sible k mecoumillre, ri<lee de la tr^jiidation, qui 

tables nianuellesde 'Hi&n, quo cette id(?eetaitpareille- en faisait partio, a dft y parvenir en memo tenlp^^.' 

meut Alexandrine, et les doutes d'Hippaique siir la Biot, I.e. 
Constance do dureo de I'ann^o tiopiquo pourraient 




months Madhu and Miidhava, or Chaltra and Vai^dkha, correspond with' 
Vasanta or the spring. Now the lunar Chaiti-a, here meant, is the primary 
lunar month beginning from the conjunction which precedes full moon in or 
near Chitnl, and ending with the conjunction which follows it. Vaisdkha 
does in like manner extend from the conjunction which j^i^ecedes full moon 
in or near Visilkhd to that which follows it. The five Nakshatras, Hasta, 
(Jhitrd, Svdti, Visdklid, and Anurddhd,\ comprise all the asterisms in which 
tlie full moons of Chaitra and Vaisdkha can happen ; and these lunar months 
may therefore fluctuate between the first degree of Uttara-Phalguni and the 
last of Jycshthd. Consequently the season Vasanta might begin at soonest 
when the sun was in the middle of Piirva-Bluidrapadii, or it might end at 
the latest when the sun was in the middle of Mrigasiras. It appears, then, 
that the limits of Vasanta are Pisces and Taurus, tliat is, Mi'na and Vrisha. 
(Tliis corresi)onds with a text which I shall forthwith quote from a very 
ancient Hindu author.) Now, if the place of the equinox did then correspond 
with the position assigned by Pai'dsara to the colures, Vasanta might end at 
the soonest seven or eight days after the equinox, or at latest thirty-elglit 
or thirty-nine days ; and on a medium (that is, when the full moon happened 
in the middle of Chitnl) twenty-two or twenty-three days after the vernal 
e<piinox. Tliis agrees exactly with the real course of the seasons ; for tlio 
rains do generally begin a week before the sununer solstice, but their com- 
mencement does vary, in dilferent years, about a foi'tnight on either side of 
that period. It seems therefore a probable inference, that such was tlie 
position of the equinox when the calendar of montlis and seasons was ad- 
justed as described in this passage of the Veda. Hence T infer the probability, 
that the Vedas were not arranged In their present form earlier than tlie 
fourteenth centuiy before the Christian Era.' 

It will be clear to every attentive reader, that tlie object of CoIel)iooke in 
these remarks is to protest .against the received chronological notions of the 
Bralonans, who place the Veda at the beginning of the Kali-yuga, 3102 b.C- 
Hc wishes to show that it could not be older than the fourteenth century. 

' Tlii-i staleinout is based oil iistniiiomic^al consiclera- and p. 358. I .should have lliouglit tliat (JyoshMii 

tious, :md is quite iudepeiidfint of the statements of ■would lio more likely as the fifth Naksliatra than 

later Indian ar^tiouoniers, huch as the author of the Ilasta ; hut all depends on the nature of the months, 

Sflrya-siddhantn. As long as the Nakshatras are whether syiiodical or sidorcal, a di3tin<tion which has 

taken in theii original sense, as twenty-seven equal been completely overlooked by late writers on this 

divisions of the heavens, two raonths, or two-twelfths subject. 

of the year, correspond, not with foui, but with four '^ Stlrya-siddhrmta, ed. Burgess and Whitney, p. 29. 
and u half Nukshatias. Sec Weber, Nakshatras, p. 348 ; 



This he states distinctly in what follows : ' If the Vedas were compiled in India 
so early as the commencement of the astronomical Kali-yuga, the seasons must 
have then corres})onded with other months; and the passage of the Veda, wliich 
shall be forthwith cited, must have disagreed with the natural course of the 
seasons at the very time it was written.' But even if wishing only to fix 
the earliest possible date of the Veda, Colebrooke has taken many things for 
granted which would not be granted to him at present. The passage of the 
Veda on which he builds his conclusion is, as he says, taken from Apastamba's 
copy of the Ya^/ur-veda, usually denominated the White Ya^/ush. There Is 
no copy, i. e. no skkU, of Apastamba for tlie White Yayush. But be that 
as it may, no such passage identifying the twelve months with the six 
seasons occurs in the Big-veda ; and the Ya^ur-veda, both the Black and the 
White, m which such passages' do occur, belong to a secondary period of Vedic 
literature. This objecticm, however, applies only against Colebrooke as wishing 
to prove that the Veda could not be older than the fourteenth century. It is of 
no importance for our own objects. 

But, secondly, the course of the seasons differs in different parts of India, 
and because in CJentral India the rains begin generally one week before the 
summer solstice, we are not at liberty to conclude that it was the same in tlie 
North of Incha, where tlie hymns of the Veda were composed. 

Tlurdly, the montlis and seasons would not at once have changed their 
names, even though they bad ceased to coincide with the time of the year from 
which their names were originally derived, to say nothing of the different 
systems of counting time in different parts of India. We know from tlio 
Nirnayasindhu (Calcutta, 1833), that South of the Vindhya the lunar montli 
begins with the moon's decrease, \\hereas in the Nortli it begins with new moon 
or the moon's iivcrease. It is said in the same work that a Brdhmawa begins his 
month with the new moon or Amavasya, a Kshatriya and Vaisya with the 
Samkranti or Jie entrance of the sun into a new sign. In more ancient times 
we are told that the rmmljer of the seasons varied from three to five and six ■', 
and that different castes began the year with different seasons'. 

' The earliest passage is Taittiiiya-Samhita IV. 4, ^ 3T^ I ?mT Jp}: '^ Wef^ fV^t^ WWT^: I 

^T^riraj^f^ ^if^rg t?Tf?r«»iTfg^ 1 tt?^ jfH: 11 

'HJ^^ ^UjMgg^ II For other passages see Biiht- ^ Gyotisha-bhlishya, p. 3"'. IfTJ ^f^ q ^ vjj^atfj 
lingk and Roth, Sanskrit Dictionary, s. vv. ^Wn\ 3tT^ ^SfTWjtr: ^TfTO lp\ ^^ nm 

Gyotisha-bhashya, p. s,\ ^^^l ^'qtM^^P l ^^JJ^ Wfn^3VifJ^(V(l^l^ H^T: II 

C 2 


Fourthly, the observation of the colures by Parasara and the calculated date 
of that observation as 1 39 1 B. c. are taken for granted. 

This argument therefore is, as Colebrooke himself has freely acknowledged, 
' vague- and conjectural,' and, in the present state of Sanskrit scholarship, it 
ought no longer to be quoted. 

Coleljrooke, however, again touched on thecSame question in the year 1805, 
in his Essay on the Vedas, in the eighth volume of the Asiatic Researches, 
p. 471, Misc. Essays, I. p. 108. He had then met with the passage in the 
(/yotlsha, so often quoted afterwards, where the solstitial points are mentioned, 
as at the beginning of Dhanish</id and the middle of Aslesha, and he maintained 
that this situation of the cardinal points was true only in the fourteenth century 
a. c. Here two points have to be considered, i. the character of the astrono- 
mical treatise, the Cyotisha ; 2. the astronomical interpretation of the solstitial 
points as there mentioned. 

The Oyotisha may have been written, as Colebrooke says, in the infancy 
of astronomical knowledge, but that it is later than the Rig-veda, later than 
the Ya^ur-veda, Liter than all the Brahma»!as and all the Vedic Bvitras, no one 
would doubt at present \ What Colebrooke meant by infancy of astrono- 
mical knowledge, may best be gathered from the following facts » ' The (Vyotisha 
is adapted to the comparison of solar and lunar time with the vulgar or civil 
year. The cycle there employed is a period of five years only. The month 
is lunar, but at the end, and in the middle, of the quiiKpiennial period, 
an intercalation is admitted, by doubling one month. Accordingly, the cycle 
comprises three common lunar years, and two, which contain thirteen lunations 
each. The year is divided into six seasons ; and each month into half months. 
A conqilete lunation is measured by thirty lunar days ; some of which miist of 
course, in alternate months, be sunk, to make the dates agree with the nycthe- 
niera. For this purpose, the sixty-second day appears to be deducted - : and 
thus the cycle of five years consists of i860 lunar days, or 1830 nycthemera, 
suVyect to a further correction, for the excess of nearly four days above the 
true sidereal year : but the exact quantity of this correction, and the method 
of making it, according to this calendar, have not yet been sufficiently investi- 
gated to be here stated. The zodiac is divided into twenty-seven asterisms, 
or signs, the first of which, both in the Cjyotisha and the Vedas, is Krittik^,, 

M. M.'h lliNtoiy of Sanskrit Literature, p. 2ioseq. third day which was deducted. Perhaps this Hindu 
The Atlicnirin year was regulated in a similar calendar may assist iu explaining the Grecian system 
maimer ; but, accordiii;; to Uemmus, it was the sixty- of lunar mouths.' Colebrooke. 


or the Pleiades. The place of the colures, according to these astronomical 
treatises, will be forthwith mentioned : hut none of them hint at a motion 
of the equinoxes. The measure of a day by tliirty liours, and that of an 
hour by sixty minutes, are explained, and the method of constructing a 
clepsydra is taught.' 

From these remarks it is clear, that though in one sense all this may l)e 
called the infancy of astronomy, the method of constructing a clejisydra and 
other scientific processes of a similar character are not exactly wliat we ai-c 
prepared for when we speak of a knowledge of the stars and seasons in tlie 
fourteenth century b. c. in India. The most important jioint, however, is this, 
that the passage which, according to Colebrooke, contains the statement of 
the solstitial points, such as they were, according to him, in the fourteenth 
century, does not occur in the Mantras, the age of which is certainly anterior 
to the tenth century n. c, nor in the BrAhma/ias, nor in the Sutras, but in 
a treatise, the (ryotisha, which no scholar would j)lace higher than the tliird 
century n.c.^ This treatise was written, not for astronomical purposes, hiit 
to ex[(lain the princijiles for fixing the hours, days, and seasons of the ancient 
sacrifices. Even if it liad l)een written but yesterday, the writer would have 
had to acconunodate himself to tlie primitive ideas on the motions of tlie 
heavenly bodies, as jjrevalent in the littn-gical traditions of the Brahmans, 
just as a scholar who writes on the festivals of the Greeks would liave to 
s])eak in the primitive astionomical language of Greece, not in that of Goper- 
nicus. To make this clear I shall quote the introductory verses of the (jyotislui-. 
The only MS. which I possess is that of the E. I. H. 1510, containing text 
and commentary. Colebrooke says, that the conuaentary is the work of an 
unknown author, and that it is accordingly assigned to a fabulous personage, 
/Seshanaga. This is indeed the nau\e of the commentator as given at the 

It 13 curious tli.'it ni) Sutras on astroiKJiny Imvo as umHas iiiul Kiilpa-sfttras, as wheu the .v.d.i|)iitlia Brflli- 

yet been discdvored. I'ro«o qnotatiimH mi sacrificial ni.'ina iiiul tlie .Sftiikhiiyana ISiahinana speak of the full 

astroijoiiiy occur here and there iu commeutarics, but moon iu Phrdgima as the firHt iii the year (^^^ 

they seem extracts from Kalpa-sOtras or Hrilimanas. q,|yjj.ft lf) (^ 4<H! n #^WT^ UTTT Tlf^O' '' 

Thus Somakara quotes Uugakslii as^ having said : passage which shows as clearly as posMblo that the full 

'TQTT: '^'RT^rr^grf : «l<,*Sllf(,*i«lfM<l<l ^- ,„oon iu ri.alguui is meant as the first in the year, 

^9a,'four days before the full moon iu Miigha, they not thePhSlgnna month, whether sidereal orsynodical. 

aaerifi<e to the year,' i.e. to the new year, lie like- Professor Weber (Nakshatra, p. 329) takes a diir«rent 

wise quotes Garga, sometimes in Slokaji, sometimes in view. 

prose; for instance: Tm ^ ^: I %^ ^ ^^ '^ [The whole text has since been published by 

TT'^fT'Jn ^5 Wf^Frar: H VJJ U^H tjI^ |. But Wcber, Uber den Vedakalender, Nauiens Jyoli- 

these are passages such as occur frequently iu Brah- sham.j 



eiul of the book (tfn ^iSym^l^ s^tfTTtHWnrw ^WTh). But I believe we ought 
to read, ^ ^^nfTPTOnaftfirtwr^HTTsi, so that 6', sometimes the name 
of ViitiihgnVi, would be the author of the text, whereas the commentary was 
com})osed by Somakara, as stated by himself (^flT^C-Sf f^fsfWr II^WT). 

f^5Tiq^r[jirem Tiw^ f^wi 'gf^: mi 

' Having bowed with my head to tlie lord of the universe, the ovei'seer of 
the (luinquemiial Yuga, whose members are days, seasons, half-years, and 
months, [ shall explain in ordei-, full of purity, the whole course of the celestial 
luminaiies, as it is a[)[)roved by the chief Brahmaiis, for the acconii)lishmcnt 
of those objects which are dependent on the times fixed for sacrifices.' 

Tlie next verse exj)lained by the commentator does not occur here in the 
MSS. of the text-; but it is found towards the end of the ^'yotisha, and is quoted 
also as belonging to this Vedanga in lladhakant's 6'abdakalpadruma : 

' As I differ in the translation of these two verses WH^ ftlT^ ^IST^W^T^T^ ^T^fft' I 

from the explanation given liy the commeutator, I ifiT^H'PT H^^TTH ^1^^ JT?TWT: II 

Kulgoin liis own wouls: T^ ^^'l^f *!I^^T- 'Having 1kjwc(1 with my head to K.aia (time), and 

•^ifH?i^^f?lfi)a^*|fli *(*1tJ(*< '^^4«*<l*i^iTt- having saluted Sarasvali (goddesH of eloquence), I 

t?! I ft^TTT I "if ^'? ;^ I ^I4l^;cM<<"l^' S^^frf- f'lial' promulgate the knowledge of time of the high- 

niiudcd Lagadha.' This would he inii)ortaut as 
giving the name of the reij\ited author, Lagadha ; but 

^ ^ . the whole verse is ignored hy the commentator. As 

gxJS I^^TT^ira^^^^T tn^ I TT^T ^TOTT m,^^,„,., [3 considered the Uirthplaco of several of 

smSJUjX'frt I *«^HHHI«(»TOri I TT^ % 'f^- the exact sciences of the Hindus, and as particulaily 

%'^T \fH ^%; I f55T€ I ^■Sl«ni'!ll'«Sftl^«l I Magadha-meahuics woie widely used in India after 

^1^tf^?T5ST5jf^Vn«TT^fj?HI^: I f^ ?i^T I they had been first introdueed or regulated by the 

•mm I TTngiW I ^ I imTtlfff l ^^ \%^ l P^si^i"" ^^'^laka and others, one might bo led to 

«~ , ... . • '-1 - , ' ■i _,,; , .; ..• • , suppose that the original leading had been Miigadha, 

. _»-___TN -i ' • meaning a native ol Magaiiha. Uut all the Moo, 

,nn^i;TrtTwl:^J^^T^^?^T:5mTTai^ l <raT ,,g^^^ ■„ lagadha in this ,is .cU an in another passage 

gJITtq^ IWflT^fi gi^T^ ^ ^Blt (^STt?) I of the Gyotisha, without however giving any more iu- 

7{W[ f^^^^Jrrari't l ^T^rR^jrr f^T^^ formation about the author. [See Webor, History of 

^^l'lir*1 11 Indian Literature, p. 2,58.] 

Otliei MSS. have f^HTTin 'ff'W ^^ instead of " On the strength of this and similar differences 

SrnS^f^TWt ?W(T ; the coninieatator roads ??^ in otli^f scholars admit two Gyotishas, one for the Kig- 

the fii St aud q^!?} m the tliii d line. Between the first ^^''■■»' i">other for the Ya<;ur-veda. See my History of 

aud second, tlio lolluniug stanza is inserted : Aucieut Sauskiit Literature, p. 211. 



' The object of the Vedas is -the sacrifice, and the sacrifices are instituted 
according to a certain order of time. Therefore wliosoever knows tins 
(/yotisha, imparting the doctrine of the regulation of time, he will know 
the sacrifice'.' 

The next verse, according to the commentary, is 

' Like the crests of peacocks, like the gems (in the heads) of serpents, so is 
calculation placed at the head of the Veddnga doctrines.' 
Then follows in the commentary : 

'They te;icli the knowledge of time of the (juiuquennial lustrum, which 
begins with the light half of the month Magha, and ends with the dark 
half of the month Pausha-.' 

Then follow tlie verses on which Colehrooke founded his chronological 
calculations : 

Ft^ ^7f I ■^^ TRifq^ v\^ ifi[ I TTOT jn^^raTi^q^'^Rrrf^ (si,) wtfij c^ftrawrei- 

^1^ ff ^^rraTT^rrr f^nn^"^ i ^ ^^Wr^ "^ ?t^ i ^^iiPHTf ^rtf^TqrcTr^rff ^^gfiraraV 
^ ^ ^ I 3Ji^:'3iTWBr: 5fiTsr^^Jrsnr£rr «i%^^^yr^T^w!i^T^*t mv. i % ^^f^f*i- 


' When tlie sun and moon ascend tlie sky together, being in the constellation 
over which tlie Vasns preside, then does the (quinquennial) cycle begin, and 
the (month) Magha, and the warmth, and the bright (fortnight), for the path 
(of the sun) is north.' 

'The sun and moon turn towards the north at the beginning of *S'ravish<Ai\; 
but the sun turns towards the south in the middle of the constellation over 
which the Serpents preside; and this (the turning towards the north and towards 
the south) always (happens) in (ilie month of) Milglia and *Sriivana^' 

;5,f^w f^Tiwr ^^^r^^^ g II til* 

'In tlie northern progress, an increase of day and decrease of night take 
jilace, amoimting to a pi-astha (or 32 palas) of water: in the southern jirogress, 
both are reversed (i.e. the days decrease and the nights increase), and (the 
diii'erence consists), by the journey, of six muhClrtas.' 

^iTfj^f^ g^ I <T^Tfg[ g^iirrt'ft *[^'l I fim '"ft: ^rra: (ms. e. i. h. p. 2S8, 2). "rhe animal 

rj^ TTEft Tre ^B^ *t%<i; I fWT ^ '1?^ fT^ sacrifice is cither obligatoiy or voluntary. The ohli- 

^ ^ _^L. • life. 'I'ho time for one is in the i.ionth of Miiirha, 

^ ^ ^ . ^ .■^^ . wlien the sun has gone to tlio Nakshaira UhaniKhMft; 

*(%f^ TTf?mTII 'ig ^ra^ ^^rg^ '5Wm ,^0 time for the other U the month AsharfAa, when 

WV^m W^: I <lr^"5i: ^?m Xfn l ^^ l m^ the sun has entered into the second half of Asleshft.' 

^tSt^ «*i5i^8i»>if«^T«i5fi^»> nfrn: II * coniin. fn?i ^j j ^ j H ^^iHt f^rf*i% ^|%- 

- Cumm. ^ffg ^['tg ^;5^^*<*ii3<4H^fTf ji^tftffT «n *»!}«<: i ^ iTJif^Ti i wf ^^ 

TJ^ ^fKri^ ^" ^fwt wj^ I Tri «i<jn«« i Trf^TR i ^srt tt^t^ TTf^tTrag ^rf^ i 
wm«(i4(T!t^: 5H^3irra ij^^ft ^iwtfMW^: ii <t^tw^ f^^»rrf«T ^>5^ i TTf^^gmwN^ i tp»- 

" How this beais on the proper time for certain %4 fl^ <^R«lfll fqM^lH: I f^'Etift ftlfTTirrf I 
sacrifices iimy he seen fr.)m passnjrcs like 7R tj^- l4«.*J^ilT I T^W^ ffijJT^I' I (TOT "^ ^TTft 

f^af: ^rpHT^ i w^ fMm'. ^zg m%g m^^^ f^^nftwrf i Tm- 1 ijTfwTf^raifim^: ii 


It is, however, only in the first year of each quinquennial cycle, that Sun 
and Moon are said to be together on the first of M%ha, in the Constellatit^n 
of the Vasus, at the winter solstice. For the intervening years their relative 
])Osition is thus given : 

1st Year (called Samvatsara', sacred to Agni). 

Winter solstice : Sun, ) ^^^ ^^ Matrha \ ^^ ^'^'^ beginning of SiiivlshthL 
Moon, ) ' (in the beginning of Siu\iH\\tJdi. 

Summer solstice : Sun, ) , , ^ o a „ i '» the middle of A.s'lesh^. 
Moon, f (in A'itr4. 

2nd Year (called Parivatsara, sacred to Arka). 

Winter solstice : Sun, ) .^ ^^ M/Wha i "^ ^'^° beginning of SnivishthL 
Moon, i ' ^ ' I in Ardr^. 

Summer solstice : Sun, j j^ ^f ^Vavana (dark half), \ I" t' '"'^x^!^' ^f A.leshi 
Moon, ) ( m Furva-Bhadrapadii. 

3rd Year (called Id^vatsara, sacred to VAyu). 

Winter solstice : Sun, j ^^^^ ^^ Magha(dark), I '" *''^' ^«g'"'""g of ^SVavish^M. 
Moon, ) (in Anuradha. 

Summer solstice : Sun, ) , ^ r. a (in the middle of A.?lesha. 

^^ [ ist of /Sravana, j. . /■ t , , . 

Moon, ) ( m the middle ot A.vlesha. 

4th Year (called Anuvatsara, sacred to Indra). 

Winter solstice : Sun, ) ,i fivf* u ( hi the beginning of iS'ravish/M. 

Moon, ) ( in A.svini. 

S\nnmer solstice : Sun, | . i /■ o ■> ( ""> the middle of Ai'lesha. 

> 13th 01 oravana, { ,^, . , . „» 
Moon, ) ^ I Pi^rva-AshacM. 

5th Year (called Idvatsara, sacred to Mn'tyu). 

Winter solstice : Sun, ) ,, fiu^^i, i] u\ I in the beginning of (SVavish^a. 
Moon, i "^ ^ ^ ag a ^c ar j, I .^ Uttara-Phalguni. 

Summer solstice : Sun, ) ,, ,. c, ^ l in the middle of AA-lesli;i. 

" loth 01 oravawa, ' 

Moon, ) (in Rohim^. 

' Ou these names see Weber, Navatra, p. 298; that therefore 12 such inonlhs + 12 il;iyn are iie(en.>.ai\ 

Taitt. S. V. 5, 7, 3; 4. Vay. Sainh. 27, 4,r',. Taitt. Br. to fill a lunar year of 372 dajs fti older to brim; 

III. 10, 4, J. KaM. 13, 15; 39, 6; 40, 6 (five). Vaji. the winter solstice, which in thethiid .vear falls on llio 

S. XXX. 5. Taitt. A. IV. 19, i (six). Pa«*av. Br. loth of il.tgha (daik half), in the fourth year ba(k 

XVII. 13, 17. Taitt. Br. I. 4, 10, I (four). Taitt. S. to the 7th of Magha (light half), a month of 30 flays 

V. 7, 3, 4. Ath. Samh. VI. .55, 3 (three). Taitt. A. must have been intercalated; and in the same manner 

X. 80. Kau*. 42 (two). See Bbhtlingk and another savana month mii?t have been added at the 

Roth, s. vv. end of the fifth year, in order to bring the uintcr 

^ This wonld show that the months are to be con- solstice, which fell upon the 4th of MSgha (dark half), 

■<idered as nftvana nionlhs of 30 AborStras each, and back to the i^l of MSgha (light half). 

VOL. IV. d 


These extracts are sufficient to enable astronomers to form an idea of the real 
character of this treatise, which altogether consists of about thirty-six verses. 
It was cleai'ly written at a time when more was known of astronomy than was 
required for the ancient calendar of the Vedic festivals. The general notions 
which its author lays down for fixing the lieginning of the yeai', the months, and 
seasons, and the proper times of the Vedic sacrifices, had been hiinded down by 
the tradition of priestly families ; they were not invented by himself. He was 
forced to .suirender the more scientific astronomical notions cuirent in his own 
time, and had to adapt himself to the more primitive notions of those who had 
comj^osed the hymns and Brdhmanas, and had settled the sacrifices of the 
Vedic age. He may have reduced those jnimitive astronomical notions to a mine 
systematic form than they ever bad in the minds of the early Eishis : hui in a 
case like the one wliicli occupies us at present, the beginning of the year and the 
position of the solstitial points, we may fairly grant to (yolebrooke and others, 
that there was a real tradition which fixed these important points as they are 
fixed in the (^/yotisha ; nay, we may believe for .sacrificial purposes thcsr 
points were still supposed to be in the same j)Osition even at a time when, by 
the laws of nature, they had a^nsiderably receded from it. 

The next question, then, which arises is this, Docs the traditional ])osition of 
the solstitial points, as recorded in the G'yotisha, j)oint back to the fouiteentli 
century n. (•. as the only time in which it could have been the result of actual 
observation? (Jolebrooke does not enter into details. He simply affirms tliat 
the position of the solstitial points at the beginning of Dlianish^Atl and in the 
middle of A.slesha could have been a reality at no tin\e exce})t in the fourteentli 
century M.v. He dejjends, In fact, on Davis, who, hi his Essay on the Astrono- 
mical Computations of the Hindus (As. lies. II. p. 268), recorded the |)ositIon of 
tlie colures, <as observed by Para.sara, — this being identical with that of the 
'/yotlsha ;— and on Sir W. Jones, who, In a Supplement to this Essay (/Vs. Kes. 
11. ]). 393), touched on the same sui.iject. After fixing the date of Vanlha Mihira, 
from the observation of the solstitial })oInts at his tune, at 499 A. p., Sir Wilfiani 
writes: 'By Newton's demonstrations, which agree as well with the phenomena 
as the varying density of our earth will admit, the e(iuin(XK recedes about 50" 
every year, and has receded 17 55' 50" since the time of Vaniha, which gives us 
more nearly in our own sphere the first degree of Mesha in that of the Hindus. 
\iy the ol).servatioTi recorded in older S.lstras, the ecpiinox had gone back 23" 20', 
or about 1680 years hiwl intervened between the age of the Muni (PaniAara) 
and that of. the modern astronomer : the former observation, therefore, must 


liave been mafle about 2971 years before the ist January 1790, that is, ii8r 
before Christ.' 

In the fifth volume, however, of the Asiatic Researches, p. 288, Colonel 
Wilford published the following; new Supplement to Sir W. Jones' Supplement : 

'It has been stated,' he writes, 'that Panlsara lived about 11 80 years n.c., 
in conse(pience of an observation of the places of the eolures. But Mr. Davis 
having considered this subject with the minutest attention, authorizes me tn 
say, that this observation nnist have been made 1391 years B.C. This is also 
confirmed hy a passage from the Panisara-Sanhitil, in whicli it is declared, that 
tlie Udaya or heliacal rising of Canoj)us (when at the distance of thirteen 
degrees from tlie sun, according to the Hindu astrouomei-s) happened In the 
time of Parttwara on the tenth of Kdrttika ; tJie difference now amounts to 
twenty-three degrees. Having connuunicated this passage to Mr. Davis, he 
informed me that it coincided with tlie observation of the places of the cohn-es 
in tlie time of Panisara.' 

Thus vanishes the fourteenth century ; and a fact wliich was spoken of as 
Ix^yond the reach of doubt, dwindles down to a statement made by Colonel 
Wilford, the result of a private conversation with Mr. Davis! With all possible 
regard for Mr. Davis and Colonel Wilford, we cannot accept sucl\ assertions In 
heu of ))rooi'. 

The astronomical Interpretation of the position of the solstitial points, as 
recorded in the ^'yotisha, led Mr. Bcntley to the year 1181 B.C. Archdeacon 
Pratt, who lately re-exann'ned the whole evidence, arrives at the same result. 
His calculations may best be stated in his own woi'ds, from a letter addres.scd 
by liim to IVt)fessor (4)well, March 21st, 1862 '. 

' In reply to your (juestlon, How did Colebrooke deduce the age of the Vcidas 
from the passage which he (|uotes from the Jyotlsha or Vedic Calendar in bis 
Essays (vol. I. p. no) ? I beg to send you the following remarks : 

' In that piissage it is stated that the winter solstice was, at the time the 
Vedas were written (?), at the beginning of Sravlshtha or Dhanlshtha, and the 
.sunuuer solstice at the middle of As'e.sha. 

'Now the Hindus divided the Zodiac into twenty-seven e(jual parts, called 
Lnnnr ]i[a),iis, of 13 20' each. Their names are 

1. A^vini 3. Krittika 5. Miigasiras 

2. Bharanf 4. Rohini 6. Ardrd, 

' JoiirnftI of tlio Asiatic Society of Ucugal, iSfia. p. 51. 


7. Punarvasu 14. Chitrd. 21. U. AsMdh^ 

8. Pushya 15. Svati 22. Sravana 

9. Asleslid 16. Visiikhd 23. Dhanishthd 

10. Maglut 17. Anurddhd 24. Satabhishd 

11. P. Phalgunl 18. Jyeshthii 25. P. Bhddrapadii 

12. U. Phalgunl 19. Miila 26. U. Bhddrapadii 

13. Ilasta 20. P. AshdfUiii 27. Revati. 

' The position of these lunar mansions among the stars is determined by the 
stars themselves and not by the sun, and is therefore unaffected by the 
precession of the equinoxes. If, therefore, we can determine tlieir position 
at any one epoch, we know their position foi' all time. The Hindu books 
furnish us with the recjuisite information. Tn the translation of the Surya- 
siddhdnta, published in the Bibliotheca Indica, (vhap.VHl. p. 62, you will iind 
tliat the conspicuous star llegulus, or a Leonis, is placed by the Hindu astro- 
nomers at 4 signs, 9 degrees from the beginning of these lunar mansions (or 
iisterisms, as they are tliere called). As 4 signs equal one-third of the whole 
zodiac, they equal 9 lunar mansions. Hence the position of Regulus is 9' in 
Maghd, the loth lunar mansion. 

' But by the Jyotisha, the summer solstice was in the middle of Aslesha, tlie 
9th lunar mansion, at the e}K)ch of the Vedas : therefore Regulus was half 
a lunar mansion -\-<j , that is, 15' 40', east of the summer solstice at that time. 

'By the Nautical Almanac for 1859, the positicm of Regulus is given as 
follows : 

' Right ascension, January ist, 1859 ... ... loh. om, 53 s. 

' North declination, ditto ... ... 12 39' i2"7. 

' From this I obtain, by si)herical trigonometry, the following result : 
' Longitude of Regulus, January ist, 1859 ... 147' 52' 30". 

' Hence Regulus was east of the summer solstice at that date by 57' 52' 30". 
The summer solstice had, therefore, retrograded through 42' 12' 30" = 42-208 
since the epoch of the Vedas. As the equinoxes and solstices move backward 
on the ecliptic at the rate of 1 in 72 years, it must have occupied 72 x 42-208 = 
.3039 years to effect this change. 

' Hence the age of the Vedas was 3039 on 1st January, 1859 ; or their date is 
I 181 B.C., that is, the early part of the twelfth century before the Christian era. 

' This differs fvon» Mr. Colebrooke's result : he makes it the fourteenth century. 
Two more degrees of precessional motion would lead to this ; but where he gets 


these from, I do not know, unless it be by taking the constellations loosely, 
instead of the exact lunar mansions. Thus Dhanishthd, being taken to be tlie 
lunar mansion above which the Dolphin occurs, it is possible that he may have 
considered the first star in the- constellation Dolphin to be the " beginning of 
Dhanishthii" alluded to in the Jyotisha ; and similarly he may have taken u 
star in the middle of Hydra's head to represent the " middle of Aslesha." But 
even this supposition will not carry us into the fourteenth century. If we take 
the first star « in Dolphin and the opposite star C in Hydra's head to be the 
solstitial points, the precessional motion will only be about 40' more than above, 
and the date will be b. c. 1229 or late in the thirteenth century. But tlien C is 
not in the middle of Hydra's head ; it is about 2 east of it ; and therefore I have 
no doubt the lunar mansion, and not the constellation, is what the Jyotisha 
refers to, and the early ]«xrt of the twelfth century is the correct result.' 

This lucid statement of so careful a reasoner as Archdeaccjn Pratt .shows 
clearly that the position of the solstitial points as recorded in the 'ryotisha, 
belongs to the twelfth, not to the fourteenth century B.C. 

It is not my wisli to invalidate the conclusions that have been drawn (Vom 
the recorded observation of the colures. But 1 feel bomid to remark that unless 
tliere was internal evidence that tlie Vedic hynnis reached back to that remote 
antiquity, this passage in the ^/yotisha would by itself carry no weight what- 
ever. First, it might be perfectly true that such an observation was really 
made, as recorded in the O'yotisha, but where is there the slightest hint thiit at 
the same time a single Vedic hynm had been in existence, or, as lias been 
as.serted with greater boldness than discretion, that a collection of Vedic iiymns 
was com])leted ? As well might we say that the Prayer-book contaisis 
u Table to hnd Kiister-day foinided on the Gregorian Calendar, tlierefore the 
Service for Charles the Martyr nnist have been composed, and the collection 
of the Prayer-book have been completed before the year 1582. But, .secondly, 
the maimer in which the observations of the solstitial points are recorded, is 
.so vague and unscientific that any astronomical critic, at all unfi-iendly to 
the pi-etensions raised by Saixskrit scholars in favour of a high antiquity of the 
Vedic hymns, could dissect them without difficulty. What is tliought of the 
accuracy of Indian observations even wlien, after the model of the Greek, they 
had framed a system of scientific astronomy, may be seen from the remarks 
of Professor Whitney, Siirya-siddh^nta, pp. 212 and 220. It is not too nnich to 
say, and every practical astronomer I have consulted has confirmed my opinion, 
that, to judge from their much later performances, the Bnlhmans in the twelfth 




century B. c. had no means foi' observing witli astronomical accuracy the 
solstitial points, a task by no means easy even at the present day ; and 
in deducing any chronological dates from observations so loosely i-ecorded 
as those of the (7yotisha, a margin of several centuries ought to be left on 
either side. 

The truth therefore is simply this, that the dates derived from the observa- 
tion of the solstitial points in the (Vyotisha are welcome as confirmatory 
evidence, after we have from internal evidence establislied the existence of 
Vedic poetry in the twelftli century a. c, but by itself tliis observation would 
be of no use for establishing the age of Vedic literature. 

As [ have been obliged to enter so fully into a controversy whicli moat 
Sanskrit scholars would consider as closed long ago, I may, for the sake of 
historical completeness, mention one or two attempts of the same kind which, 
if too much importance lias been attributed to Colebrooke's speculations — not, 
liowever, Ijy himself, but by his indiscriminate admirers — have been treated 
with perhaps greater neglect than they deserved. 

Bentley, in his Historical View of the Hindu Astronomy (Calcutta, 1823), 
a work which has been justly criticised l)y Professor Whitney in his Surya- 
siddhanta, has the following remarks. After treating of the position of the 
solstitial points, tlie same as recorded in the r/yoti.sha, and deducing from it the 
date 1 181 B.C., he states that at a still earlier period the autunmal equinox 
was, not as in 1181 B. c. at 3' 20" of the asterism Viiaklia, but just on tlie 
middle of it, and that lience the name of Vi.^aklia. According to Hentley, 
Vl.sakha received its name from the equinoxial cohne cutting it in the middle, 
and thei'eby bisecting it, or dividing it into two equal sections or branches. 
Althoxigh the meaning commonly ascribed to viiakha is ' branchless,' yet vi^ikha 
may mean, and originally did mean, ' possessed of two expanded Ijranches,' 
■ l)ranclied,' 'bisected,' like vidala, 'opened,' 'split,' vidruma, 'coral,' i.e. 'with 
expanded stems,' and other adjectives in which vi, before a substantive, is not 
used in a privative sense. So far nothing could be said against Bentley's view. 
lint that the asterism Visakha was so called from the equinoxial colure bisecting 
it, and not from any other cause, is a mere "conjecture, which may be right or 
wrong, Ijut which requires stronger proof than Bentley has adduced in support 
of it. He maintains that the original name of the asterism was liadha, and he 
takes tlie name of the asterism immediately following, Anur^dhS,, in the sense 
of post-Rildhani. He then proceeds to adjust the other points in accordance 
with the autunuial equinox bisecting Visakh^, which gives him (page 2) — 


The vernal equinoxial point in the beginning of Krittikd ; 
The summer solstice in lo' of A.s'lesh4 ; 

The autumnal equinox in the middle of Rklha, thence called Visdkha ; 
And the winter solstice in 3-20' of DhanishfM. 
He then proceeds : 

' In order to ascertain tlie time when this observation was made, we nnist 
find the precession from the j)Osition of some of the fixed stars at the time. 
Thus the longitude of Cor Leoais (Regulus) in the lunar mansion Ma(jhd i.s 
always 9'. The vernal ecpiinoxial point was found by the observation to be in 
the beginning of Krittika ; and from the beginning of Krittikd to tlie beginning of 
Maghd. is seven lunar mansions of 13 20' each, and therefore equal to 93 20' 

Add longitude of Cor Leonis in Maghd 9 o 

Their sum is the longitude of Cor Leonis from Aries 102 20 

Longitude of (y'or Leonis in a. d. 1750 was 146 21 

1 )iil'erence in the precession 44 i 

or tlie quantity l)y which the e<{uiiioxes fell back in respect of tlie fixed stars 
since the time of the observation. Now to fmd tlie number of years correspond- 
ing to this precession, it must be observed that, as we go back into anti(|uity. 
tlie rate of precession diminishes about 2", 27 for every century. If we a-ssume 

that tlie observation was made i4i;o J5. c, then -'*'' ^^ = 1600: from wliicli 

.ulttracting 1450, we got a. d. 150 for the middle point. Now in the first cen- 
tury of the (Christian era, the pi'ecession was i 23' 6"4, to which if we achl 2"27. 
we get I 23' 8"67 for the mean precession; that is to say, the precession that 
corresponds to tlie second century of the Clu'istian era, in which the middle 
jioint is found. Thf^refore, as 1 23' (S"65 is to 100 years, so 44 1' to 3176 ye.irs ; 
from whicli subtracting 1750, we get 1426 li. 0. for the time of the observation, 
and the formation of the lunar mansions.' 

It cannot b(^ denied that the siime objections which apply to Colebrooke's 
Kilculations, apply in w. still stronger degree to this argument of Bentley's. 
But, with these necessary (pialifications, Lentl&y's statements are certainly 
deserving of more attention than th^y have hitherto received. Tiiough I know 
of no passage in Vedic literatui'e ' where the vernal equinox is referred, l)y 
astronomical observation, to the lunar mansion of the K/'t'ttikils, it is true that 
the K/'tttikiis occupy the first ])lace in all the a!\cient lists <jf the Nakshatras. 

The voinal equinox i» referred to the first (lef;roe of Kri'ttikS in liiler works; for instance, in tlie Vi5h»u- 
]'iir{i»a, p. 224. 


even when it is distinctly stated that the winter solstice was at the beginning 
of Sravisht/d, and hence the vernal equinox at the last quarter of BharawJ. For 
.sacrificial purposes, in fact, the KWttikds are always to be considered as occu- 
pying the first place among the Nakshatras ', and in the (ryotisha itself, 
though the vernal equinox would fall, as we saw, at the end of Bharani, Agni, 
the presiding deity of the Krtttik4s, stands first in the list. The same applies 
to the lists of the Nakshatras contained in the Taittiriya Samhit4 IV. 4, 10, i ; 
and in the Taittiriya Br4hma«a I. 5, i, i. In the Taitt. Bi-. I. 5, i, 7, it is 
distinctly stated that the Nakshatras of the gods begin with the Krittik^s and 
end with Vi.«akh^ ; whereas the Nakshatras of Yama (so called because Yama 
presides over the last of them) begin with the AnAr4dhas and end with the 
Apabharajus. In the third book of the Taittiriya Brahma/iii, the Krtttikas, 
witli Agni as their deity, occupy again the first place. Even in the Atharva- 
veda (I. 19, 7), in a passage of decidedly modern date, and in the Law-book of 
Yi\f/«avalkya (I. 267), the Krittikas continue to occupy their early position. 

Although, however, the KWttikas retained their place even in later works 
which treat of sacrificial and astrological subjects, they were su])])lanted by the 
lunar mansion of Asvim in the later astronomical literature. At what time tiiat 
change took place is difficult to determine with exactness. It coiild not have 
been till the vernal equinox actually touched A.svini, having receded from the 
K?v'ttikas and from the intervening mansion of Bharani. It must have been 
before Varaha Mihira (499 a.d.), at whose time the ecpiinox fell in the beginning 
of A.<vini. All works in which the lists of the Nakshatras bojrm with Asvini 
must be later than the first year in which the equinox touched A.s'vint, and this 
would tend to fix the date of the Amara-kosha (I. i, 2, 23) and other works ^ ; 
but it does by no means follow that works in which the Krittikfls are mentioned 
as the first Nakshfitra are therefore prior even to Varaha Mihira, nor has it over 
))een proved by Bentley or Vjy others, that any actual observation took place 
when the equinox coincided with KrittikA. 

The KWttikas, as has been shown by C!olebrooke and others, are the same 
stars which are familiar to us ftnder the name of the Pleiades ; and it is curious 
to observe that the same uncertainty as to their number, which in Greece gave 
rise to well-known legends ', existed to a certain degree in India. The state- 
ment in Bohtlingk and Roth's Dictionary, that their number was six, is, in this 

' ?tm ^"^ 'R^rnsrf ^1^ Wf^nilT: H«J«*<t- ^ sir C. Lewis, Historical Survey of the Astronomy 

^^ I GyotiHha-bhasliyii, y. 3". of the Ancients, p. 65. 

^ Of HeniaAandra-ku'-ha, loS. 



general form, bardly correct ; for though that number is given in later astrono- 
mical works (see Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, II. p. 331; S<irya-si(lclhanta, 
ed. Whitney, jx 184), the earliest authorities speak of the Kr/ttikils as seven. 
'J'heir names are mentioned (Taitt. Sa?Mh. IV. 4, 5, i, and Taitt. I3r. III. i, 4, 1); 
as, I. Ambd, 2. Dukl, 3. Nitatni, 4. Abhrayanti, 5. Meghayanti, 6. Vansbayanti, 
7. /uij)unika^ It was therefore not a numerical fancy which in Greece fixed 
the number of the Pleiades at seven ; but it is more likely that one of the seven 
stars, which Hipparchus still affirms to have been visible in a clear moonless 
night, its primitive splendoui-, — a fact by no means without a jmrallel in 
the liistory of astronomy. 

The next calculation of Bentley's shows his ingenuity as nmch as his want 
of critical caution. The names of the planets on whicli lie Imilds his theorv 
are believed to be of very modern origin^, or, at all events, they have never 
been met with as yet either in the Vedas, or in any of tlie early productions of 
Sanskrit literatui'e. Nevertheless, if his calculations are right, the coincidence 
between these modern names and the ancient astronomical facts to which tho\' 
owe their origin, is all the more interesting, and rccpiires an explanation at the 
liands of experienced astronomers. Dak.slia, says the legend, gave his twentv- 
se\en daughters, the hniar asterisms, to the moon. From the union of the 
<langhters of I )aks]ia with the moon, the ancient (i) asti-onomers feigned the 
birth of four of the planets, that is to say. Mercury from Rohi;)i ; hence he is 
called Molii/zeya aftei- his mother. Magh4 brought forth the beautiful planet 
Venus ; hence one of the names of that planet is Maghabbii. The lunar 
mansion Asluu///;'i brought fortli the martial ])lanet Mars, who was tiience 
cidled Asliilt/Aabhava, and Purva-phalguni brought forth Jupiter, the largest 
of all the planets, and the tutor of the gods ; hence he is called Purva- 
phalgunibhava : the moon, tlie father, being jn-osent at the birtii of each. 
The observations here alluded to aie supposed by Bentley to Iiave been 
occultations of the planets by the moon, in the respective lunar mansions 
from which they are named. They are supposed to be occultations, because 
they are not made in the time of a single rovo'lution of the moon, but take 
place in the space of about sixteen months, from igtli August 1425, to 
the 19th April 1424 B.C.; and this idea of tlie oUservations being confined to 

Their number is staled ))y the coiiinient,ator« ou Piiifida to the Siiii/li, in .^uppoit of the legendaiy 

'l"!iitt. Br. I. g, I. The thiid immo is NitataiA ia the derivation of the names of the plaiietB. iSee VishHin 

Taitt. .Samh. I'ui,1»a, p. 225. 
^ Tlie Vayii-Puriiia appeals to the ^'ruti, (he Lihga- 

vor.. IV. e 


occultafu.nR is stipportod by Saturn not being indudcd, becmise that planet 
was il.en out of the moon's course. These occultations would refer us to the 
years 1424-5 B.C., tlius corrolx.rating the result of the observation of the 

Tlie iilaiiet Mercury and the Moon in llohi/n, 17th A])ril 1424 RC 

The planet Jupiter and the Moon in Purva-Phalguni, 23rd April 1424 J^.v. 

The planet Mars ar,d the Moon in Purva-Asliiu/Z^i, Tgth August 1424 n.v. 

The ])lanet Veinis aTid the ]Moon in Magha, 19th August 1425 u.c. 
All \\ithin the space of al>out si.vteen months; and there is no other year, as 

K.uiie-i of NakhliatriiK. 

Jjnttr N.1111CS. 
.SVavisli///.\, J)haiiisli(;//a 

Names of presiding Deities. 

r. .SVavisli/Z/a// (t'ciii.) 4 
2. .S'ataliliisliak 

A'asava/ (8) 


liidi-a// {\»vuii-j./i 111) 

:;. Purve I'msh/Z/apaila// (uuisc.) 

1". liliadiaiiaila 

Aya I'^kapad 

4. fttaro Prosli///aj>a(la// 

U. I!ln\drapad."i 

Aliir Undhniya// 

J. lU'vati 



6. Awayuyan 



7, Apahliarawi/J, (liharawi// III) 



.S. K/vttika// 7 (tVni.) 



9. H(ilii«i 

Itiihi/zl (Hvalnni 

Than. Tv 



JO. Tiivak.'i// (^^/■/s•a•v■il•sllam 111; 

M /vi^a.viras. Af;raliaya^a, A.K. 


11. Hahu (Ardra III) 
1 i. runarvasu 



I'linarva^u (Van 

lakaii, J f. 



13. Tisliya;^ 

ru^-hya (Sidliya 

A. Iv.) 


14. A.vleslu// (.'VmvsIi.V/. t'inii. Til) 



1,-,. .\hi-ha// (IVni.)(A-liA//, IJ.V.) 

16. Tnr\oPlial.n'niii(-ni// 1 II)(Aryuin, R.V.) 


P. JMialifuiu 

Aryaina ( 1 7II1) 

17. rtlaiv J'halg'uui (fom. dual) 

V. I'lialjiUiii 

T51ia^'a// (i6tli) 

■ iX. Ilasta// 


Dc'va// Savita 

U). A itr'i 
; 20. ^'i-!l^■,\ (Svatl, T. S.) 


Indva// (Tvasli/a IIT) 

\ Svati 


J il. \ iAaklu' 


, A. Kosl 



; 2Z. Ain'ir.'uUia// (iiiasc.) 



2]. l{olii«i, (Vyoli///ai;-lini (^ycsli///;! 
' Z4. Mulal>arha//i(MulaiiillT.Vi/!T(ta 


fi'\ ('sli///a 




Niivvtl// (Pi-a-zapali/f! IIT), Pitara//, '!'• >^ 

: 25. l^"u-va Aslia'///,V/ (rem.) 
:6. Uttara .\^h.V//^"l// 

1'. A^luV/Z/a 


Li. A>luV///.\ 

Vi.vvo Deva// 

i AWii'/it (II.1) 


T^i-alima (III) 

z~ . .S'rowa, 



Xiinws !,'iveii irum T.iiUiiiy.i Hinluri uiii I. 5, I & J- ! -M""'' ni iiiujius as colleiUd l,y lr..l 

j Tmportaiit v.iT-iatioiH ..(coniiiu in T.uUii ,v.v Hr. !1I 1, | Wliit.iii'y, Srtrya-siildli. ji. i8.v A.J<. 

I -ft, iiiaikB.l llf: .ithcra >,i,i.liita IV.4. I nuaiH Viiiar.vltoslia j H. K., IluQi.v 

10, iii.iikc.l T. 8. I /aiulra-kortlm. 



Ucutloy aflirnis, either before tiiat period or since in wiiicli tliey were so jilaccd 
or situated. Saturn is not mentioned among these hirths, probably IVoni his 
))eing situated out of tiie moon's course; but was feigned to have l)een botn 
afterwards from the shadow of the earth, at the time of clumiiiig the ocean, 
or the war lietween the gods and the giants. 

Finally, Bcntley maintains that tiie names of the twelve Indian months 
could only have been formed in 1181 n.c. His argument is this: 

Tiie position of the twenty-seven huiar mansions at this period would have 
been as follows : 

(T)jaw > 

\ ;is:intii// 








Twelve Jlontlis. 

J. MiV^hii//, Tajias 

■2. riu'ilji'iina/^, Ta])ns3-a// 

3. A'aitra//, Madlm// 

4. N'ai.vaklia//, Mailhava// 

5. (iy!\[sh//in./i, iS'iikra// 

6. AbhiVMa//, Sn/ii// 

7. <S'n'iva«a//, JN'ablias 

8. Uliridrapaila//, NaMiasya// 

9. A-vvina//, 1/ 

iS'aral, )0. Karttika//, t'vk 


I Winter) 

11. Marga.s-irsha//, Salia// 

12. J'auslia/, Sahasya// 

AsUrisins in wliicli lull 

nionii uiixy (iccnr, jLccurdiu^ 

to Siir )a-fi<lJli. I'. 270 


XYI. WIT. xvin. 

XIX. xx. 


XXI 11. X.XIV. 
II. HI. l\. 
\. \J. YII. 
X. XI. 

Fobitioii of the Sun, iiSi n. 

\\'iiiltT PoLsticf, ln'i,nriiiinL', of ,S'iji\ i.--}i//j.*i ('(la^-a};tn:Lri 

l^N'^priial oquiuox, ouim-iiliti;; with TlevaU {( IM-sciniti), 

tiiiR' nf I'.ralnimgnjda, ^Si A. h ) 
|\'<-ili;il ir|uiiiox, hi^giiiimiL,' of Asvini, tunc nf \'.ualiu 

]\hliir.% .\i)'j A.I) 
V<Tii:tl ei|tnniix, lait (inailcr of Hhanuit. iiSi v. <■ 

Siimuier sitlstic'e. mitliUi ('f .\>K>Ii.( 

AiUumiinl cfjniiiu\, .sccoii'l ijiKiitoi nt Vusitkh. 

e 2 


There can be no doubt that tlie names of the montlis, MAglia, Pluilguna, 
Aaitra, Vai.sakha, Gyetihtlta, Ashiir/Aa, »S'rava/i,a, Blitl(hu, Asvina, Karttika, 
Margasirsha, and Pausha were derived from the names of tlie twelve lunar 
mansions, Magha, Phalguni, A'itril,Vi*uklia, G'yesh^Aa, Afilmlhk, »Srava'/(,a, Bhadnl, 
Asvini, Kyv'ttika, Mr^'gaxiras, and Pushy;\. P>ut it is at first sight difficult to 
explain why the succession of the months is so different from that of the lunar 
asterisiiis. When the sun stands in >.Sravisli^/<a, with tlie Vasus, the month is 
called Milgha, but Maghil is not the first, but the fifteenth Nakshatia ; and 
wlien tJie sun is in A.sleslia, with the Serj)ents, the month is called »SravaHa, 
wliile >SVavaH,a is not the fourteenth, but the twenty-seventh Naksliatra. 
Bentley offers the following explanation : 

' In the same manner as the lunar mansions were fabled by the Hindu 
poets to have been married to tlie moon, and that the first offspring of that 
poetic union were four of the planets ; tlie Hindu poets feign, that the twelve 
months sprang from the same union, each month deriving its name in the form 
of a patronymic, from the lunar mansions in which the moon was supposed to 
be full at the time. 

'Let us therefore, in the case before us, apply this principle. At the above 
ej)0cli, 1181 B.C., the sun and moon were in conjunction at the Avinter solstice ; 
and as the months l)eg!in when the sun entered the signs, the first month 
therefore betran at the winter solstice. Now to find tlie name of that month, 
the moon Avould ))e full at about 14^- days after the wintei- solstice, and would 
then be in the opposite part of the heavens to the sun. The sun would have 
advanced in 14.} days about 14 ', and therefore would have entered the second 
lunar asterism, *Satal)hislia : a line drawn from the point in which the sun is 
thus situated through the centre, would fall into the lunar asterism Magha, 
in which the moon was full, on the opjtosite side, and consetpiently, on the 
principle stated, the solar month was from thence called Magha in the form of 
a patronymic. At the next full, the moon would be in Uttara Phalguni, and 
the solar month from thence called Phillguna ; and on this ])rinciple all the 
months of the year were name'd. 

' Hence it is very easy to demonstrate the utmost ]>ossible anti(piity of the 
time when the months were, or could be, so named : for there are certain 
limits ]:)eyoiid which the Yme cannot be drawn : and these are the termination 
of the lunar mansion and the commencement of the solar month which 
determines the time, because it points out the commencement of the solar 
month in respect of the fixed stars at the time. Thus, at the time of the above 


observations, the summer solstitial point was found in the middle of the lunar 
asterism A.slesha, and the solar month (SVavana then began ; for in the ancient 
astronomy of the Hindus, that month always began at the summer solstice. 
Now the niontli /SVAva^ia derives -its name from tJie lunar asterism «S'rava/ia (tlie 
twenty-seventh), then in the opposite part of the heavens. Let, therefore, a line 
be drawn from the solstitial point, or commencement of the month, cutting tiie 
centre, and it will fall into the very end of the lunar asterism /SVavana, from 
wliicb it derives its name &3,va)ia; which line is, therefore, at its utmost limit, 
as it caimot go farther without falling into a mansion of a very different name. 
This position of the line, therefore, proves that the months received their names 
at the time of the above obsei'vatlons, and not Ijeforc. For If we wish to make 
it more ancient, let the solstitial point be supposed moi'e advanced in resjiect 
of the fixed stars, say one, two, or three degrees, then a line drawn from tli(^ 
solstitial [)oint, or commencement of the month >S'rava/«i, cannot fall Into any 
pai-t of the lunar asterism /^'rava/ta, from which it derives its name, but into 
Sviivisihl/rX (the first). Therefore the name which it possesses could never be 
given to it till tlie solstitial point, and commencement of tiie month, actually 
coincided with the middle of the lunar asterism A.s'lesha (the fourteentli), luing 
tlie same with the observation which refers us to the year 1181 u.c, and this 
is the utmost antlrpilty of tlie formation and naming of (he Hindu months.' 

1 have recalled these speculations of Bentley and others, |)artly because 
lliey .show considerable Ingenuity and open some ([uestlons which have not yet 
been solved by either scholars or astronomers ; partly because I wisheil to 
convince my critics that If I do not always enter into all the controverted 
poiiits, the theories, guesses, doubts, as.sertions, and counter-assertions of various 
scholais, It Is not because I .shrink from the trouble of examining them, (much 
of what Is here piinted was written twelve years ago,) but 1 believe it 
Is our duty, as Frederick the Great' said, to learn to distinguish between what 
is Important a..d what is not. We only retard the discovery of truth by 
entering into every by-jyath on the right and on the left. The straight line Is 
always the best, the simplest machineiy the most perfect. If w(! can pi'ove o)ir 
point without a great ap|)aratus of so-called learning, it is our duty to do so. 
He sweeps clean3st that makes the least dust. 

Are the Indian N<tlcsh<ilras of native or foreiijn origin.' 

Another controversy, most seriously affecting, not oidy the age of Vedic 

' Oiiivic.s, vti), i. p. 264. 


poetry, but the \\ho\e history of the growth of the Indian mind in those remote 
ages, has been revived of late with so much vigour and acriiuony, tliat, though 
it has hardly yielded a single new result, it cannot here be passed over in 
silence. The (piestion is, whctlier one of the simplest and fundamental notions 
of Indian astronomy, the division of the heavens into twenty-seven equal parts, 
eonmionly called the twenty-scveir Nakshatras or A'/kshas, was indigenous to 
India, or borrowed from without. As one allusion to these Nakshatras occurs 
in the hymns of the Rig-veda, and as the twenty-seven divisions, with their 
asterisms and ])rosiding deities, are known in the Brahma/(as, the princi})al 
charm of Vedic antiquities, namely, its inde])endent originality, would be de- 
stroyed, if it could he proved that even at that early time, the rays of a foreign 
civilisation had influenced the growth of the Indian mind. If so important a 
subject as the division of the heavens into twenty-seven sections, a dhdsion 
which is at the root of their sacred calendar, and without which none of the 
sacrifices enjoined in the BrAhma/(as could be conceived, was borrowed from 
without, what security woidd there be that the gods worshi])ped at the sacri- 
fices, and the hynms i'e])eatcd at the annual festivals were not liorrowed from 
the same quarter i' If at first the movements of the sun, the moon, and the 
stars sut^'gested the fa.)<fi, or festivals of the ancient world, the regulation of 
these festivals soon gave rise to a more accurate study of the i)eriodical i-etui-ns 
of the heavenly hnninaries ; and what we call the ancient calendars is but the 
result of this mutual action and reaction of astronomy and religion. And if 
that (juarter from which the ancient Indian astronomy is su])[)Osed to have 
been boirowed was (!liina, would not all our i-ecoived ideas on the earliest 
history of mankind be U])set f Would not the national individuality of tlie 
Aryan race be tainted in its core, and the Turanian man rise sui>erior to his 
Aryan and Semitic biothcrs ? Wliere so nnich is at stake, it would l)e wrong to 
trust to convictions, however firmly rooted ; and when the arguments proceed 
from one of the most eminent men of ouj- age, and are i-epeated l)y liim, after a 
hqise of twenty years, with inci'eased warmth and vigour, it is necessary to 
meet argument by argument, liowever strong our feeling that the conflict arose 
from a mere misunderstanding, and ought never to have taken ])lace. 

IJidI, one of the most eminent among living, — I may now add,— one of the 

most emiiK^nt aniong departed astronomers', published a number of articles in 

the Journal des Savants in the years 1839, 1840, 1845, '^'"l fJ-gain in 1859, i860, 

and 1 86 1, in which he endeavoured to prove the origin of the Indian 

' S.-B. IMot died the 3rd of Febiuaiy, 1862, eighty-eight year^ of age. 


Naksliatras. lie iiiaintaiiied that the number of the Naksliatras was ovi<^iiiiilly 
twenty-eig'ht, and afterwards reduced to twenty-seven; that originally tiiey did 
not I'epresent the twenty-seven equal divisions of the Indian ecliptic; that they 
had no connection with the course of the moon, hut were single stars, near the 
equator, the Intervals of which in time had l^een carefully determined, in order 
to refer to them the positions of other stars and planets comliiL;' to the meridian 
between them. 

Such was the authority which of right belonged to the opinions of so great 
an ixstronomer as l^iot, and such the learning ajid ingenuity with which lie 
defended his proj)ositions, that Professor Lassen allowed lilmself to be swayed 
Ijy Blot's arguments, and, in his 'Indian Anti(]uitics,' admitted the introduction 
of the Chinese Sieu into Northern India before the foui'tecntli century is. c. 
I (piotc from the first volume of his excellent work, page 747: 'As a primitiu' 
intercourse between Hindus and (Chinese, never sus]»ected Ix^fore, is now iirmly 
establlslied, and as the latter em}»loyed their Sieu at a much earlier period, it 
is impossible to use the (/hincse origin of the Naksliatras as an a,rgument 
against their employment by the Hindus at the time of their own most ancient 
and still preserved astronomical observations. These observations belong to 
the fourteenth century n.c, and it follows from them that the Hindus were at 
that time settled in the north of India.' 

These eai'ly observations, however, -which were supposed to point to the 
fourteenth century, j)i-esup])osed, as we said, the emjiloyment of twenty-seven 
Naksliatras, (otbci'wlse the solstitial ])oiiits there mentioned would be :\t 
une((ual distances from each other,) whereas, according to Blot's own state- 
ments, the number of the (Jhlnese Sieu was only twenty-four, and ^vas not 
I'aiscid to the number of twenty-eight till the year iioo B.C. This dilliculty did 
not escape so careful a scholar as Professor Lassen. He admits (p. 7,15) that 
the Hindus could not have received the division of the heavens into twenty- 
eight sections b fore iioo n.c; but, in order to save the early obser\atioiis of 
the fourteenth century, he adds (p. 746), that though the ciimplete number of 
the twenty-eight Nakshatras was not known in India before that date, their use 
may have been transmitted there at an earlier period. 

I doubt whether even the authority of a Lassen was strong enough to give 
currency to Blot's theory among Sanskrit scholars; but it soon became appa- 
rent that historians and philosophers were attracted by its novelty, and used 
it as an im|)ortant help for determining the mutual relations of the principal 
races of the East at the very dawn of history. Thf lute Mr. Hardwick, in his 


learned and thoughtful work, 'An Historical Inquiry into some of the chief 
Parallelisms and Contrasts between Christianity and the Religious Systems of 
the Ancient World,' 1855-58, had the following remarks on the supposed 
intellectual intercourse between China and India : 

' Before the name of the Middle Kingdom had been ever uttered in the 
learned halls and avenues of the Athenian Academy ; before the eagle of the 
Roman legions, thirsting after universal sway, had tried its earliest fliglit 
across the Central Appennines ; before the English of that ancient world, the 
colonising merchants of Plioenicia, had unfurled their sails upon the waves of 
tlie Atlantic, and trafficked in the precious metals on the coasts of Albion and 
lerne ; large communities of settlers, stretching far across the plateau of Upper 
Asia, were already living under the patriarchal rule of great and powerful 
princes. Chinese ports were even then frequejited by adventurous traders 
from Ceylon, from Itidia, from the Persian Gulf A knowledge of Chinese 
astronomy found its way beyond the movnitains, and took root in Northern 
Hindustan.' — Pages 7, 8. 

In a review of this work, which I publislied in 1858, I felt it necessary to 
protest strongly against treating the Chinese origin of the Indian Nakshatras 
as a recognised fact, and thus disturbing, without sufficient evidence, the early 
history of Eastern civilisation. I may be allowed to give a short extract from 
niy Review : 

' Now, in stating that a knowledge of Chinese astronomy found its way 
at that early period beyond the mountains, and took root in Nortliem Hindu- 
stan, Mr. Hardwick has the authority of Professor I^assen on his side, or rather 
that of M. Biot, whose views on this subject were adopted by Professor Lassen. 
But did Mr. Hardwick consider what is involved in such an admission, and how 
violently the true relation of these two ancient races, the Aryans in India and 
the Chinese in the Middle Kingdom, would be disturbed if this admission was 
well founded? Astronomy — at least that part of it to which Mr. Hardwick 
more particularly refers, the Nakshatras, or the twenty-seven lunar mansions 
of the Brdhmans — is most intimately connected with the religious worship of 
the Veda. No Hindu sacrifice could have been properly performed without 
a knowledge of the lunar mansions ; no month could have received its present 
appellation without names being first given to those constellations from which 
the months derived their titles. Now, Mr. Hardwick would never admit that 
a Chinese or Turanian race cbuld have exercised any very definite influence on 
the faith and worship of the Aryan settlers of India, and he would scout the 


idea of tracing Sanskrit words back to Chinese monosyllabic terms. Yet, if 
a knowledge of Chinese astronomy found its way across the mountains, and 
took root in Northern Hindustan, the event must have taken place at a very 
early period, previous at least to the composition of the Vedic hymns. The 
Nakshatras are mentioned in the ancient songs of the Veda. Thus, we read, 
liv, I. 50, 2 : — " Like thieves, the Nakshatras (the stars) depart every night, 
before the sun who illuminates everything." Here it might be said, that 
Nakshatra signified stars in general, and not the twenty-seven constellations 
rendered important by the passage of the moon. But it is in connexion with 
the moon, and therefore with an allusion to an equally-divided lunar zodiac, 
that the Nakshatras are mentioned in the Veda. " Soma, or the moon," it is 
said, in a hymn of the tenth MaracZala (X. 85, 2), " is placed in the lap of the 
Nakshatras." The moon is called the month-maker, mAsakn't, in the first book 
of the Rig-veda, at least according to one of the ancient commentators ; and one 
of the principal sacrifices, mentioned in the ceremonial portion of the Veda, is 
that of the Full and New moon. The exact time of these lunar festivals is 
fixed with such minute iiccuracy, that the Hindus, at the time when these 
public sacrifices were established, or at least when they were regulated by the 
sacred institutions of the Brilhmanas, must have been considerably advanced in 
astronomy ; and the base of their ancient astronomy was the zodiac of the lunai' 

' The gradual growth of astronomical knowledge in India is intimately 
connected with the whole intellectual and religious history of that country. 
The primitive division of the year into lunar months must have taken place 
previously to the first separation of the Aryan family, for the name for moon 
and month is the same in the dialects of nearly all of its membei-s. The proper 
names of the months, however, are peculiarly Indian. They exist in Sanskrit 
only, but not in Greek or Latin. Now these Indian names of the months were 
derived from tbs names of the Nakshatras, and the names of the Nakshatras 
again were derived in several instances from the names of ancient Vedic deities'. 
If, therefore, we find the same names of the months in Sanskrit and Chinese, 
and if these names are inexplicable in the Chinese dictionary, surely the 
conclusion is evident, that they were borrowed by the Chinese from the Hindus, 
and not by the Hindus from the Chinese. The three winter months are called 

* Prof. Whitney points out the Vedic character of the deities, Sflrya-siddli. p. 203. The important point is. 
that some of them are exclusively Vedic. 

VOL. IV. f 



in Chinese, Pehoua, Mokue, and Pholkuna ; names which Dupuis ^ has compared 
with the three Indian months, Pamhya, Mdgha, and Phdlguna. These Indian 
months had received their names according to a definite system, from the 
corresponding Nakshatras, Pushyd, Maghd, and Phalgunt. Shall we suppose, 
then, that the Hindus borrowed the idea of the lunar Nakshatras from the 
('hinese, but that the Chinese borrowed their names from the Hindus? In 
order to defend sucli a supposition, it would be necessary to establish the 
antiquity and genuineness of the early literature and civilisation of China on 
a much firmer basis than that on which it rests at present. 

'Mr. Hard wick, who is at other times so sceptical about the early dates 
which Oriental nations claim for their literature, seems to have lent too willing 
an ear to the assertions of the Chinese scholars. It is true, that many of the 
most distinguished " Sinologues" speak with perfect confidence of (^hinese dates, 
going back as far as tliree and four thousand years B. c. Such dates occur in 
the original chronicles of the Chinese, and they are given there as if they had 
been written down at the time by imperial historiographers and astronomers. 
But has their value ever been tested by the same critical tests which have 
reduced the mythical chronology of Greece and Rome to sucli small dimensions ? 
In Roman history, the destruction of the city and the burning of the Capitol are 
generally considered fatal to the genuineness of any dates previous to those 
events. Now, in Chinese history one of the most indisputable facts is, that 
between 480 and 206 B.C., that is to say, after that period of Chinese literature 
which is marked by the labours of Confucius and his collections of. the ancient 
written and oral traditions of the country, China was devastated by revolutions 
and civil wars. In 213 B.C., the famous emperor Tsin-chi-hoang ordered all 
books to be burnt, except those treating on medicine, astrology, agriculture, and 
his own family annals. The punishment of death was threatened and inflicted 
on those who should venture to conceal books ; and all Chinese authorities 
agree, that, during the years 213 to 206, this literary crusaxle had proved 
completely successful. In 206 a new dynasty, that of the Hans, came to the 
throne, and every effort was made by them to collect from written documents or 
from oral tradition, the remains of Chinese literature. But whatever the Chinese 
may relate of the miraculous escape of some of their old classics, and however 
plausible the arguments may sound by which Chinese scholars have defended 

' Memoire explicatif du Zodiaque, par Diipuis, tioned by Diipuw have been authenticated by Chinese 
Paris, 1806, p. 15. 1 cannot ascribe much importance scholars. [Professor Legge assures me that they are 
to thiB argument until these barbarous names men- mere inventions.] 


the general fact of the high antiquity of Chinese civilisation, it would have been 
difficult to recover from oral tradition minute astronomical observations. M. Biot 
feels this himself ; and he tries, very ingeniously, to save " a little of ancient 
astronomy." Speaking of the emperor Tsin-chi-hoang, he says, "II ordonna, 
sous peine de mort, de brftler tous les livres, ^ I'exception de ceux qui traitaient 
de medicine, d'astrologie (consequemment un peu (Tastronomiey." This language 
shows sufficiently what the claims of the Chinese to genuine and accurate 
astronomical observations, fixing the days and hours of historical events, about 
4000 B.C., really are; and we cannot bring ourselves to admit that, either in 
language, religion, or science, the relation of the early Aryas to the Turanian 
inhabitants of China was that of pupils to their teachers. On the contrary, we 
believe that the relation of India to China has always been the same which we 
find at the time when Buddhism was introduced into the Middle Kingdom ; 
and we know of no fact, even in later times, which would lead us to suppose 
that China had ever repaid to India the debt which it owed to that ancient 
cradle of Eastern civilisation. If this relation of the two countries is once 
established and well kept in mind, it would require stronger evidence than the 
hypothesis even of so learned an astronomer as M. Biot, or the admission of 
so careful a Sanskrit scholar as Professor Lassen, to induce us on a sudden to 
invert the relative position of China and India, and to admit a civilising 
influence, exercised by the former on the latter. Such exceptions occur, no 
doubt, now and then in the ancient history of religion and civilisation, as well 
as in the ancient history of language. But, a general rule once being estab- 
lished, the exceptions require very strong evidence before they can be admitted. 
No one would allow an ancient Sanskrit word to be derived from Greek. But 
if words of decidedly Greek character have found their way into the Sanskrit 
dictionary, it becomes more necessary than ever to determine their relative 
ages : and we shall find that, in every instance, those Greek words, such as the 
words connected with the solar zodiac, are of a very late date in Sanskrit ; in 

' A etill stronger admission has been pointed out and practice of the astronomical calculus became 
by Prof. Weber (p. 300) from Gaubil (Observ. 11. gradually lost. When the emperor Tsin-chi-hoang 
3 seq.). Ganhil says that according to the unanimous ordered the great burning of hooks, Gaubil continues, 
testimony of Chinese astronomers, astronomy had been ' suppose qn'il y eut des livres oil il se trouv&t des 
almost entirely neglected after the time of the Tchun- observations celestes et de preceptes d'astrouomie, on 
tsieou, edited by Confucius (died 480 B. c.). Eclipses les perdit il ne restoit que des traditions con- 
were no longer observed, their calculations were no fuses, des catalogues d'^toiles et de constellations et 
longer handed to (he emperor, the tower of the mathe- des fragmens de quelques livres caches.' 
maticians was but seldom ascended, and the science 



fact, not anterior to the well-established historical intercourse between India 
and Greece after the time of Alexander. 

'We have dwelt rather long on this single (juestion about the Chinese 
origin of Hindu astronomy ; but it will be seen, we hope, that, though it seems 
to be an isolated fact, it involves important consequences with regard to the 
organic structure, if we may say so, of the whole ancient civilisation of the East. 
We do not blame Mr. Hardwick for having been swayed by the authority of 
such men as Biot and Lassen ; but we thought it right to point out how, in 
travelling over the unexplored and unmapped regions of the ancient world, he 
might have guarded himself against ever missing the right direction, if, instead 
of trusting to partial guides, he had clearly impressed on his own mind the 
great watersheds of thought and language which divide the principal families 
of the human race. Mr. Hardwick mistakes the place where the currents of 
Chinese and Indian civilisation effect their first junction.' 

Shortly after these remarks were published, Biot renewed the controversy 
about the Chinese origin of the Indian Nakshatras, and he succeeded by his 
learning and by his eloquence to win the approval of at least one more Sanskrit 
scholar, and one eminently qualified to express an opinion on such a subject, 1 
mean Professor Whitney, the editor of the Atharva-veda, and of the important 
astronomical manual, the Stirya-siddhanta. In his Notes on the Stirya-siddhttnta 
the Professor gives a most careful analysis of all the information that could be 
collected on the Indian Nakshatras, the Chinese Sieu, and the Arabic Manzil. 
He determines the situation of the stars and groups of stars, which, under their 
Sanskrit, Chinese, and Arabic names, are referred to by the astronomers of 
the East, and he arrives at the conclusion, that 'after the exhibition of the 
concordances existing among the three systems, it can enter into the mind of no 
one to doubt that all have a common origin, and are but different forms of one 
and the same system.' (Page 201.) 

He then enters on an examination of Biot's hypothesis, according to which 
the Indian Nakshatras are derived from the Chinese Sieu. ' According to Biot,' 
he writes S ' the Sieu form an organic and integral part of that system by 

' SQrya-siddh&nta, edited by Burgess and Whitney, jounial nifime : Le trait distinetif de I'astronomie des 

p. loi soq. I add the last statement which Biot has Chinois, c'cst I'observation assidue des astres quaud 

left of his views on the Chinese Sieu: ' Je vais signaler ils passent au m^ridien, en notant, an moyen des hor- 

a I'avance lo but unique vers lequel nous aliens mar- loges d'eau, les instants oil ils se trouvent dans ce 

cher. II est tout entier compris dans la proposition plan. Vingt-huit Aoiles, r^parties sur le contour du 

suivante, que je me borne k reproduire d'apris les toujours les mteies, leurservent comma autant 

^nonc^s que j'eu ai plusieurs fois donnas dans ce de signaux fixes, anxquels ils rapportent les positions 


which the Chinese, from an ahnost immemorial antiquity, have been accus- 
tomed to make their careful and industrious observations of celestial pheno- 
mena. Their instruments, and their methods of observation, have been closely 
analogous with those in use among modern astronomers in the West : they 
have employed a meridian-circle and a measure of time, the clepsydra, and 
have observed meridian-transits, obtaining right ascensions and declinations of 
the bodies observed. To reduce the errors of their imperfect time-keepers, 
they long ago selected certain stars near the equator, of which they deter- 
mined with great care the intervals in time, and to these they referred the 
positions of stars or planets coming to the meridian between them. The stars 
thus chosen are the Sieu. Twenty-four of them were fixed upon more than 
two thousand years before our era, &c.' (Pages 201-203.) 

After expressing his entire concurrence in the views of Biot, Professor 
Whitney proposes nevertheless another theory, according to which the know- 
ledge of Chinese astronomy was not imported straight from China to India, 
but (p. 205) ' was carried, together with the Chinese system of division of the 
heavens into twenty-eight mansions, into Western Asia, at a period not much 
later than B. c. 1 100, and was then adopted by some western people, either' 
Semitic or Iranian. In their hands it received a new form, such as adapted it 
to a ruder and less scientific method of observation, the limiting stars of the; 
mansions being converted into zodiacal groups or constellations, and in some 
instances altered in position, so as to be brought nearer to the general planetary 
path of the ecliptic. In this changed form, having become a means of roughly- 
determining and describing the places and movements of the planets, it passed 
into the keeping of the Hindus — very probably along with the first knowledge 
of the planets themselves — and entered upon an independent career of history 
in India. It still maintained itself in its old seat, leaving its traces later in the 
Bundehesh ; and made its way so far westward as finally to become known to, 
and adopted by, the Arabs.' 

Though I had hoped that some one better qualified than myself would vin- 
dicate the Indian origin of the ancient Indian astronomy, and though I consider 
Professor Whitney, who, to an extensive acquaintance with astronomy adds a 

relatives des astres ainsi observes. De cette seulo ments d'uu caloudrier luiii-solaire sufBeant a tons le» 

pratique, invariablement suivie depuis un temps im- besoins publics ; et aussi imo ample provision, inccssa- 

m^morial, ils ont su d^uire par^ux-mtoea lea dur^es ment rououvel&, do pronosties astrologiqiws, ce beeoin 

nioyennes des revolutions du soleil, de la lune, et des primitif et univorscl de I'eeprit humaiii.' Journal des 

plan^tes; les p^riodes de temps qui raminent ces astres Savants, i8<Si (p. 9). 
eu conjunction ou en opposition entre euxj les &e- 


scholarlike knowledge of Sanskrit, an antagonist even more formidable than 
Biot, yet, as I protested against the conclusions of the one, I feel bound to 
oppose the arguments of the other. I do not see that we gain anything by 
assuming an indirect instead of a direct importation of Chinese wisdom into 
India, particularly if the intermediate stage seems to have no other object than 
to bring the scientific discoveries of the Chinese down to the level of the Indian 
understanding. Nor do I see that we fare better if, as Professor Weber ^ pro- 
poses, we admit a spreading of astronomical knowledge from a Semitic centre, 
and assume the fundamental notions of chrononomy to have been imported 
from Babylon to China on one side, and to India on the other. I differ toto coelo 
from every one of these theories. I feel as strongly to-day as I did when, in 
the year 1846, I read at Paris the articles then published by Biot, that the 
BrUhmans cannot have borrowed the idea of the Nakshatras from the Chinese. 
I maintain, i. that the Nakshatras were suggested to the Hindus by the moon's 
sidereal revolution ; 2. that they were intended to mark certain equal divisions 
of the heavens ; and 3. that their number was originally twenty-seven, not 

Though the custom of beginning a discussion with verbal definitions has 
got into disrepute, I think it best to adhere to the old rule ; nay, I believe that 
its observance would have shortened, if it had not prevented, this long con- 
troversy. What then is meant by Nakshatra ? Nakshatra has three principal 
meanings. Originally it meant stars in general ; secondly, it meant the * 
twenty-seven equal divisions of the heavens, constantly referred to in the 
Br^hmanas and SMras ; and thirdly, it meant the twenty-eight asterisms, con- 
sisting of either one or more stars, which in later scientific treatises served as 
'points de depart ' for astronomical observations. In order to avoid confusion 
I shall in future use Nakshatra in the second sense only, translating it by 

' Die Vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra ; ments ia that he has not made it clear to himself in 

erater Theil, i860; zweiter'lTieil, 1862. These Essays every instance whether the months he is speaking about 

are very creditable to the author, and did not deserve are sidereal or synodical. Their relation to the fixed 

the withering contempt with which they were treated stars (Nakshatras) and to the seasons would be much 

by Biot (Prdcis de I'Histoire de TAstronomie Chinoise, affected by this difference. At Rome, in spite of intor- 

p. 9). 1 differ from nearly all the conclusions at which calary months, January, at the time of Csesar, occupied 

Prof. Weber arrives, but I admire his great diligence the season of the year which ougbt to have been oc- 

in collecting the necessary evidence. It is not neces- cupied by October. (Sir 0. Lewis, Survey of Ancient 

sary, however, to enter on a discussion of all the Astronomy, p. 337-) Much greater confusion must 

problems touched upon by the learned author, and I have existed in ancient India, where the standard 

have tried to confine myself as much as possible to the measure of time was simply nycthemcric, modified on 

main issues of this already but too complicated con- certain occasions by lunar, solar, or sidereal time, 
troversy. What vitiates many of Prof. Weber's argn- 


lunar mansions, while I use TArA instead of Nakshatra, if employed in the third 
sense, translating it by asterism. 

The coincidences between the Indian and Chinese systems of astronomy 
which struck Biot, and which before him had struck Anquetil and Bentley. 
refer entirely to the Indian TArAs and the Chinese Sieu. I can understand how 
an astronomer who for the first time perceives these coincidences, should be 
strongly inclined to waive all minor diflferences and assume that the conceptions 
shared in common by Indian and Chinese astronomers were derived by the 
Indians from the Chinese, or by the Chinese from the Indians, or by both from 
a common source. But now that the novelty of the discovery has well-nigh 
passed away, a more sober examination of the case would seem to lead to 
different results. I cannot agree with Prof. Weber when, in the beginning of 
Ills Essay, he asserts that 'the thorough analogy or even identity of botli 
systems necessitate the admission of a special relationship.' The Sieu were 
originally twenty-four in number, they were afterwards raised to twenty-eight. 
There Is no trace of a similar change in India. The Sieu throughout are single 
stars ' ; the TiirS.s are, for the most part, groups or clusters of stars. The 
system of single stars, Yoga-t£lris or junction-stars, is of so decidedly modei'ii 
a date that Prof Whitney places its introduction in the sixth century of our 
era {l)age 212). But as to the coincidences themselves, taking it for granted 
that tlie Sieu stars are in all cases rightly identified with the stars of our 
globes, it should be borne in mind, that the identification of the Hindu Thrks 
is in many cases extremely problematical. Al-Biruni, who, in the eleventh 
century, attempted for the first time to aiithenticate the Indian T5,rSs, relates 
that the Indian astronomers were unable to pouit out the stai-s to him. He 
was obliged to leave seven or eight as unknown or doubtful'''. Sir W. Jones 
and Colebrooke, who, in more recent times, undertook the same task, com- 
plained of the same difiiculty. But even in the astronomical works of the 
Hindus there is some discordance as regards the stated position of the junction- 
stars of the asterlsms^ and with regard to the number of stare comprised 
in each asterism the opinions vary even more considerably*. But if we waive 
all these objections, nay, if we allow a still further latitude, and count all 
Sieus and Tdr^s as identical whenever the Sieu star corresponds with any one 
star of the Hindu asterisms, what Is the result'? Out of twenty -eight Sieus 
there are seventeen only that can be identified with the T^r^. Now, if a 

' Whitney, p. 207. ^ Whituey, p. 181 ; Journal des Savants, 1843, pp. 39-54. 

^ Whitney, p. i8j. * Weber, p. 380 seq. * Whitney, p 200. 


scientific system is borrowed, it is borrowed as a whole. When the Hindus 
borrowed the twelve zodiacal signs, they did not borrow one-half of them only, 
but the whole. Unless therefore the discordance of nearly one-half of the Hindu 
and Chinese asterisms can be satisfactorily accounted for, I, for my part, must 
confess that I do not see so startling a problem that requires to be solved. If 
certain stars suggested themselves as particularly useful to the Chinese 
astronomers, some of them, not all, might have recommended themselves 
for the same reason to the Hindus. Under the supposition that the Hindus 
were the pupils of the Chinese, the coincidences arising from this cause 
would be far less startling to me than the differences. On a point like 
this, however, I shall be inclined to defer to the authority of astronomers, 
and I am quite prepared to find that sooner or later the differences between 
the Sieus and Tdr^s may be accounted for. What then? Every Sanskrit 
scholar will most readily surrender the whole system of the Tdrds and 
Yoga-tc\rfe, or junction-stars, whether twenty-seven or twenty-eight in number, 
as of foreign origin. It never occurs in the ancient literature of the Brah- 
mans, it is not mingled with any of their ancient rites or traditions. It 
comes in at a time when India was no longer shut out from the rest of the 
world, and when a scientific study of astronomy had succeeded to the homely 
rules of the Vedic priests. That the system of the Stirya-siddhdnta points to 
Greek and Alexandrian models has been proved by Prof. Whitney, and before 
him, by Colebrooke. Let us hear what Colebrooke said on this subject' : 

'The Hindus had undoubtedly made some progress at an early period in 
the astronomy cultivated by them for the regulation of time. Their calendar, 
both civil and religious, was governed chiefly, not exclusively, by the moon 
and the sun : and the motions of these luminaries were carefully observed by 
them, and with such success, that their determination of the moon's synodical 
revolution, which was what they were principally concerned with, is a much 
more correct one than the Greeks ever achieved. They had a division of the 
ecliptic into twenty-seven and twenty-eight (?) parts, suggested evidently by 
the moon's period in days, and seemingly then: own: it was certainly bor- 
rowed by the Arabians. Being led to the observation of the fixed stars, they 
obtained a knowledge of the positions of the most remarkable ; and noticed, 
for religious purposes, and from superstitious notions, the heliacal rising, with 
other phenomena of a few. 

' Miscellaneous Essays, II. p. 447. 


'Whatever may have been the period when the notion was first obtained, that 
foreknowledge of events on earth might be gained by observations of planets 
and stars, and by astronomical computation, or wherever that fancy took its rise, 
certain it is, that the Hindus have received and welcomed communications 
from other nations on topics of astrology: and although they had astrological 
divinations of their own as early as the days of Partera and Garga, centuries 
before the Christian era (?), there are yet grounds to presume that communica- 
tions subsequently passed to them on the like subject, either from the Greeks, 
or from the same common source (perhaps that of the Chaldeans) whence the 
Greeks derived the grosser superstitions engrafted in their own genuine and 
ancient astrology, which was meteorological. 

' Joining this indication to that of the division of the zodiac into twelve 
signs, represented by the same figures of animals, and named by words of the 
same import with the zodiacal signs of the Greeks ; and taking into consider- 
ation the analogy, though not identity, of the Ptolemaic system, or rather 
that of Hipparchus, and the Indian one of excentric deferents and epicycles, 
which in both serve to account for the irregularities of the planets, or at least 
to compute them, no doubt can be entertained that the Hindus received bints 
from the astronomical schools of the Greeks.' 

At the time at which Professor Whitney places the selection of the junction- 
stars to represent the asterisms, namely, in the sixth century of our era, there 
were Chinese travelling in India, and Hindus settled in China. An Indian 
religion had been imported into China, Indian festivals were celebrated in that 
country, and an Indian calendar had to be accommodated to that of the Chinese. 
At that time it was not only possible, but almost necessary that some compro- 
mise should be effected between the astronomical grammar's of the two nations ; 
and I have little doubt that the distinguished scholar whose works have thrown 
so much light on the intellectual and religious intercourse between China and 
India in the seventh century a. d., will be able to solve the problem, how it was 
that some of the Chinese determinative stars were identified with the Tkrifi 
or Yoga-tirAs of the Hindus, and a twenty-eighth asterism added to the 
twenty-seven heretofore in use. If the Chinese had been acquainted with 
India at the eaily period implied in Biot's theory, would it not be extra- 
ordinary that the name of India should never occur in their ancient annals? 
It is commonly admitted that India was unknown to the Chinese before 
the expedition of Tchang Khian, 126 B.C., and its usual name, Thiantchu 
(Sindhu), is in the Chinese annals mentioned for the first time in the eighth 
VOL. IV. g 


year of the emperor Ming-ti, 65 B.C.' The name of 'China' has commonly 
been supposed to imply a date. If it is derived from the dynasty of the Tsin 
which came to the throne in the year 246 B.C., then no work in which 'China' 
occurs as the name of the country, could be older than the third century B. c. 
I confess that I feel very unwilling to give up this view, and the fact that 
the name of China occurs in the so-called Code of Manu and in the Mahl.- 
bh^-ata, so far from invalidating the date of the name, would only tend to 
confirm the modern origin now assigned to these works by all critical Sanskrit 
scholars. The difficulty is that 'erez Sfnfm' occurs in Isaiah xlix. 12, and that 
the passage in which it occurs is considered by unprejudiced scholars as beyond 
any reasonable doubt more ancient than the third century u. c. It has been 
pointed out, however, that the dynasty of the Tsin, before its accession to the 
imperial throne, had been reigning for 600 years in the province of Tsin (now 
Shensi), in that part of China which was the most likely to be first visited 
by travellers either fi'om India or from Babylon. This would entail the loss 
of a most useful date, but it would help on the other hand to establish the 
possibility of Chinese astronomy being carried to Babylon, or Babylonian 
astronomy to China, at an early period, at least at the time when the second 
part of Isaiah was written ^. 

Leaving the i^roblem, if problem it can be called, as to the coincidences 
between certain of the Chinese Sieu and certain of the Hindu T4r4s, to be 
settled by scholars and astronomers v/ho take an interest in the medieval 
history of India and China, we now approach a second question, namely, 
whether it is possible to identify the Chinese Sieu with the Hindu Nakshatras 
or twenty-seven lunar mansions. Bentley declai-ed decidedly that such an 
attempt was useless. ' With respect to the lunar mansions of the Chinese,' he 
writes, ' they differ entirely from those of the Hindus, who invariably make 
tlieirs to contain 1 3 20' each on the ecliptic ; whereas the Chinese have theirs 
of various extents, from upwards of 30 to a fev/ minutes, and marked by a star 
at the beginning of each, which makes them totally differ from the Hindu.' 
With the more accurate knowledge of the Sieu, which we owe to Biot, the 
difference between the two has become still greater, and instead of wasting any 
more time on attempts to compare the two, and trace them back to some common 
origin, we have only to describe the original character of the Nakshatras, in 
order to show how from beginning to end they differ from the Chinese Sieu. 

' Foe Kinie Ki, p. 14. ^ Cf. GoseniuB, ed. Dietrich, s.v. siuim. 


First then, the twenty-seven Nakshatras were suggested by the moon's 
passage. But though suggested by it, they were by no means confined to the 
one object of determining the moon's position in the heavens. Nothing was 
more natural for the sake of counting days, months, and seasons, than to observe 
the twenty-seven places which the moon occupied in her j)assage from any point 
of the sky back to the same point. It was far easier than to determine the sun's 
position either from day to day, or from month to month, for the stars being 
hardly visible at the rising and setting of the sun, the idea of the sun's con- 
junction with certain stars could not suggest itself to a listless observer^ The 
moon progressing from night to night, and coming successively in contact with 
certain stars, was like the finger of a clock moving round a circle and coming in 
contact with one figure after another. Nor would the portion of about one- 
third of a lunation in addition to the twenty-seven from new moon to new 
moon, create much confusion in the minds of the rough and ready reckoners 
of those early times. All they were concerned with were the twenty-seven 
celestial stations which, after being once traced out by the moon, were fixed 
like so many mile stones for determining the course of aU the celestial 
travellers that could be of any interest for signs, and for seasons, and for days, 
and years. Any circle divided into twenty-seven sections, or any twenty-seven 
poles planted in a circle at equal distances round a house, would answer the 
purpose of a primitive observatory. All that was wanted to be known was 
between which pair of poles the moon or the sun were visible at their rising 
or setting, the observer occupying the same central position on every day. Our 
notions of astronomy cannot be too crude and Imperfect if we wish to under- 
stand the first beginnings in the reckoning of days, and seasons, and years, 
and I doubt whether a profound knowledge of modern astronomy is not an 
impediment rather than a help to the historian of the early days of astrono- 
mical discovery. We cannot expect in those days more than what a shepherd 
would know at present of the sun, and moon, and stars, and seasons, if so much. 
We cannot expect any observation of heavenly phenomena unless they had some 
bearing on the practical wants of primitive society, and if we meet with any 
records of these we must not expect them in that scientific form In which they 
are said to have been recorded in China, but rather in the forms of myths and 
legends, the only language possible in those days of intellectual awakening. 
Thus we find the earliest allusion to the connection between the moon and the 

' Thus it is said in the Taitt. Br. I. 5, 2, i : ' Let him determine the Nakshatra about dawn ; for when 
the euD rises, one cannot see the Naltehatra,' 

S 2 


twenty-seven Nakshatras, in a legend preserved in several of the Br4hmanas. 
We read In the Kkthaka, II. 3 > : 

' Pra^ipati gave his daiighters, the Nakshatras, to King Soma (the moon). 
He dwelt witli Rohini. Those who were not visited by him, went back ; (there- 
fore does a wife, if she is not visited, go back.) He followed them, he asked for 
them again. He (Pra^&pati) did not give them back. He said. Dwell equally 
with all, then will I give them back. He dwelt with Rohini only. Therefore 
consumption seized him tipon this falsehood. (The King Soma is the moon, 
and as consumption seized the King, this is the origin of the so-called royal 
consumption.) He withereti like grass. He prayed to Pragriipati. He said, 
Dwell e<:[ually with all, then will I deliver thee of this. Therefore does the 
moon dwell ecpally with all the Nakshatras.' 

It is unfortunate that the number of the daughters of Prar^Hpati is not 
given in this passage, but it is nevertheless Important as establishing the 
fact on which I insisted, namely, that the Nakshatras represented originally a 
division of the heavens into so many equal parts, and that this division was 
suggested by the course of the moon. 

In another passage where the same legend is told (Taitt. Samh. II. 3, 5, i) 
the number of the daughters of Pra^rapati is stated as thirty-three ^, which 
may possibly be explained by the fact that in the ancient lists six of the 
Nakshatras are spoken of in the duaP. In the later literature, however, in 
the Mah^bhdrata, Manu, the VishriU-Purdwa, where the same or similar legends 
are related, the number of the daughters of Pra^iipatl or Daksha* is given 
as twenty-seven. 

But we need not depend on these legends only in order to convince our- 
selves of the intimate connection between the twenty-seven Nakshatras and 
the moon. The sidereal, or, as it is sometimes called, the periodical month, 
i. e. the time during which the moon makes a revolution from any Nakshatra 
back to the same, though it was not used by later writers for astronomical or 
historical purposes. Is nevertheless described by Garga and others on account 
of its importance for sacrificial pui'poses. I give the following extract from 

AVeber, Ind. Stud. III. p. 467. Prof. Cowell's valuable edition) explains the number 

The Trinava (27) and Trayastrimsa (33) Stoma are by counting the KHttikfts as seven, and the other Nak- 

mentioned together.Vay. Samb. XIII, 58. shatras each as one. 

^ These are 6, ii, 12, 16, 17, 31; all the rest are * See Bbhtlingk-Roth, Dictionary, s.v. Daksha; 

siKjken of either in the singular or in the plural. The Weber, Nakshatra, p. 377. 

commentary to Taitt. Samh. II. 3, 5 (just received in 


Garga which occurs In the commentary on the <?yotisha (MS. E. I, H. 15 10, 
p. 6) : 

^ffmm ^^ m^ v^ ^*^^y<^ | l*^4 i 
^m^r^ HHir?T mfk ^ »p!it^ ^i^f^nmft? ii iT?nn ii 
'•^Hi'iJflifH tirtOt tt^ T(f^^^ w <» ii 

^i!%Tf5T W^^ V^^' W^VTTr!^ II ^ II 

f^in^^^nim ^^t?© fl^^Rt ^ ^^r ^rf ii^ii 

^ftU^ TRT^ g ^^T!y;5jHT ^800 TTT^ |l 8 II 

^^^^ ^^ ^' T?^ »T^[fH ^^^ iimi 

^iik§ H^^^mf f^\i^Mi f^Hts^: II ^11 

'asm c7^Ht ^fi^" TRT: tt^^^^ert II5II 
f^^im?T^5j^ ^»Tiiflff'^% ^ II fell 

H^* (7^^^^^ W^^ fH^in^^: II ^11 
^ ff^^^tfrT « ^ irm ^3^ I 
HFTT^ Tn%: ^^?WTrM^<"afl fifftr: moil 

' Wt* MS « iT^KfTfn ? ' 0^: MS. * 9 deest In MP. 

» ^i*T: MS. « qflf^ MS 

' »rre MS. 


^tH^I«l<«l'Mrfl ^'t MKMf^T ^fiTT ^b^O II «|^ || 

>3^ % ^ WW ^T^S^^ ^ ^3^ II *i^ II 

iWT%57 cj^rmt g irf^ vjri^-^P) in? II 

^^^1^ t ^Tft ^»rRT^^: ^rf in?} II 

' And so says Garga, 

"The time In which the moon enjoys the circle of the Nakshatras, consisting 
of" twenty-seven, that is a Nakshatra month, and its half is called a paksha." 

' For there are four measures of time, and I shall propound them in the 
words of Garga ^, viz. : — 

" The libatory (s4vana), the solar, the lunar, and the sidereal (nakshatra), 
these are the four measures, by them the lustrum (yuga) is divided. 

" The measure consisting of day and night is called the vulgar and the 
libatory (s3,vana) ' ; and therefore these measures do here proceed from the 
libatory measure. 

"After it the nycthemera are fixed, and their beginnings proceed from the 
sxin ; and a lustrum is said to consist of 1830 such days. 

" The month consists of thirty nycthemera, and half of a s^vana (month) 
is called a paksha. A nycthemeron consists of 2400 lavas *. 

" The solar compT;itation is derived from the sun while Bhilskara (the sun) 
travelling round goes to the south, having first gone to the northern region. 

" This is a year in time, its half, the Ayana, consists of three seasons ; half of 
a season is a month, consisting of thirty parts ; the day is made by the sun. 

' •wjTI* MS. time. AVileon's Dictionary gives a lava either as the 

" Of four modes, namely, scilar, lunar, sidereal, and 6oth part of a nimostia, or as two feashMSn, neither of 

civil time, practical use is made among men.' SOrya- which would correspond with -j-TTT'ir "fa day and night, 

siddhaiita XIV. 2. I day and night = 6o gha/ikSs (nadi) = 24 minutes. 

' It is called s&vana from the three libations or i ghafikS = 60 kal^ (pala, vin4rfi) = 34 seconds, 

savanas, at morning, noon, and evening; it is the I kal4=6o k&5h<Aft8:=24"'. 

simplest conception of the day, extending always from I kfish/A4= 18 nimoshas. 

sunrise to sunrise, without taking into account the i nimesha=30 tatparas. 

different lengthh of the year. Cf. Sflrya-siddhanta I. I tatpara:=ioo tru^is. 

36 ; XIV. 18 : udaySd udayam bh&noA sftvanam tat pra- Other divisions are given by Bohtlingk-Roth, s. r. 

kirtitam, s&vanSni syur etena yagiilakftlavidhiH tu taiA. tru<i. Frof. Weber takes ^wPHf^PTraNi for one 

"* A lava would thus correspond to 36 seconds of our hundred and twenty-four. 


" Half of it is a solar paksha, and a day is the fifteenth paii of it ; this 
fifteenth part (one day) consists of 2600 lavas '. 

" A lustrum (or yuga) is said to consist of 1830 solar days *. 

"The lunar measure is derived from the moon by its increase and wane. 
When the moon step by step, every libatory day, increases and wanes that 
is called a lunar month ; half of it is a p&rvana paksha, and the fifteenth part 
a tithi. 

"This (the tithi) is said to be 2200 lavas in measure, and in the lustrum of 
the moon there are said to be i860 days^. 

" The time in which the moon enjoys the circle of the Nakshatras, con- 
sisting of twenty-seven, that is, a Nakshatra month, and its half is called a 

" The fifteenth part of this Nakshatra paksha is called a Nakshatra day ; 
this is said to be 3200 lavas in measure. 

" A yuga is said to consist of 2010 Nakshatra days ''." ' 

Another account of the different computations of the year is given in the 
Nirnayasindhu, written by KamaEkara Bha«a, and printed at Calcutta, 1833. 
There it is said, that 'according to Madhava's opinion, five ways exist of cal- 
culating the year, and that there is a si\vana, saura, i^ndra, nakshatra, and 
barliaspatya year. The B4rhaspatya year is regulated by the planet Jupiter, 
and is known in astronomical works only. North of the Narmadd it may be 
used for ceremonial purposes. IlemMri says, that there are only three different 
years, because the two last ai'e not employed in the Dharmasastra (law-books). 
Each year consists of twelve months, and if there be intercalary months, sixty 
<lays must be considered as one month, as Vydsa said, " Sixty days are called 
a month by the BMarayawas." Five A'dndra or lunar years make a yuga, and 
each of the sixty years has its own name. The same names apply also to the 
Mrhaspatya years, which begin with the month of M3.gha (winter solstice), 
while the Ifdnd- a years begin with the bright half of A'aitra (vernal equinox). 
At sacrifices and on other solemn occasions the A'4ndra or lunar year is to be 
used, and no other, as Arshtishena says. 

'An Ay an a (sun's road, half year) consists of tlu'ee solar seaaons. There 
are two Ayanas> a southern and a northern one, the one beginning with Karka 

' There in .some mistake in the MS., which will have ^ ilSI^SlSJ^n must be taken m a feminine, a sum 

to be corrected with the help of other MSS. The con- of eighteen hundred. 

"truction is that the j6th hundred of laviis is the 15th * The first lino is not clear, and throughout the 

part of the paksha. whole extract both text and translation must be cou- 

Ono line seems to be wanting. sidered to rest on the authority of one MS. only. 


(Cancer), the other with Makara (Capricorn), and different sacrifices are to be 
performed, according to different authorities, either in the one or the other 

' A season consists of two months, but here too an intercalary month is 
not counted by itself A month is of two kinds, lunar or solar. The first lunar 
month is iTaitra in Vasanta, the first solar month begins either with Mlna 
(Pisces) or Mesha (Aries), as Baudh&yana says : " Vasanta (spring) is in Mtna 
and Mesha, or in Mesha and V?-isha (Taurus)." For srauta and sm&rta cere- 
monies the lunar seasons ought to be used, and, if this be impossible, the solar 
ones. There are six seasons, lunar as well as solar : Vasanta, Grlshma, Varsha, 
/Sarad, Hemanta, and Sisira. 

' There are four kinds of months : 

"i. Sivana, 2. Saura, 3. K&ndra, 4. Nd.kshatra. 

1. The s4vana month has thirty days and nights. 

2. The saura month goes from one conjunction of the sun to the next one. 
The first is Vaisdkha in Mesha (Aries). Although there are two Darsas (days 
of new ihoon or conjunction) in Mesha, the first is reckoned as belonging to 
Mlna (Pisces), and goes to the solar month jfiTaitra. 

' Some ghadkAs before and after the entrance of the sun into a new sign are 
considered as sacred : 

I. In Mesha 10 ghafik^s are sacred before and after the conjunction. 
. 2. In Vnsha 16 before the conjunction. 

3. In Mithuna 16 after the conjunction. 

4. In Karka 30 before the conjunction (ayanam dakshinam). 

5. In Simha 16 before the conjunction. 

6. In Kany4 16 after the conjunction. 

7. In Tul4 10 before and after the conjunction. 

8. In Yriskika. (Annaki) 16 . . before the conjunction. 

9. In.Dhanus 16 after the conjunction. 

'to. In Makara (Ghasha) 24 ghadk^s are sacred after the conj. (ayanam udak). 
(This is according to Hemd.dri's opinion. MAdhava considers 20 gha<ik§,s 
as sacred after the conjunction.) 

1 1. In Kumbha 16 ghaiik^ are sacred before the conjunction. 

12. In Mlna 1 6 . after the conjunction. 

The equinoxes fall in Mesha and TulL 

The solstices in Karka and Makara. 

3. The ^4ndra month consists of two pakshas (halves of the moon). This 


lunar month either begins with sukla (the bright half) and ends with Ain4 
(new moon), or it begins with knshna (the dark half) and ends witli full 
moon. South of the Vindhya they begin the month with the moon s increase, 
but north of it either with its increase or with its decrease, though the former 
is the more usual. The first A;dndra month is /iTaitra. 

4. The n^kshatra month consists of one passage of the moon through all 
the Nakshatras\ 

' A BrAhmawa ends his month with the new moon (Am^v^sya), a Kshatriya 
with the sun's entrance (SamkrHnti) into a new sign, a Vai,vya with full mo6n. ' 
Garga says : "The saura month is to be used at marriages &c., the s A van a 
month at sacrifices, the Adndra month at annual and obsequial rites. Other 
authorities however give different rules." ' 

Having thus established the first point, that the twenty-seven Nakshatras 
were suggested by the periodical revolution of the moon, we proceed to con- 
sider the second, namely, that the twenty-seven Nakshatras represented so 
many equal divisions of the heavens. This was clearly indicated by the legend 
of Soma being ordered to dwell the same time with every one of his wives, but 
it is likewise implied in almost every statement in \vhich the Nakshatras are 
used for chronological purposes. No one in the present day would think of 
employing instead of the equal segments of the zodiac, tlie single stars of 
the Greek constellations, the Lion &c., for fixing the time of the year; nor 
would an Indian astronomer make use for that purpose of the single stars 
of the Nakshatras, instead of the twenty-seven equal divisions in which these 
stars are scattered about. Unless the Nakshatras meant the twenty-seven 
equal divisions, each consisting of 13" 20', how could it be explained that the 
Runmier solstice falls in the middle of A.slesha when the winter solstice is 
in the beginning of (Sravish<M, thus giving thirteen and a half Naksliatras 
to the sun's road north and exactly the same number to its road south of 
the equator? 

The passages generally quoted to prove the inequality of the Nakshatras ■* 

* Thus it is said in the Grammar of Pa«ini (IV. 2, ahor.ttra (day aud uight). This is said expresHedly by 

3), that certain adjectives are formed from the names Pata%ali : m ^l W[^ T^^TST «J5Hn I "^njl" 

of the Nakshatras, to express the time connected with ,j^. n .^he day and night therefore during which 

them, i. e. the time during which the moon is in con- j^^ ^^^^^ j,^jgj through the Nakshatra Piishya in any 

junction -with any one of the Nakshatras. If therefore ^^^^jj ^^^^^ ^^ called pausha, pausham ahar, paushi 

the passage of tho moon through all the Nakshatras ,.«triA 

corresponds to one nSkshatra month, its passage 2 q( w^ber, Nakshatra, p. 309 seq. 
through each of the Nakshatras would be a nftkshatra 

VOL. IV. h 


are all taken from modern books, and, as far as I can understand them, they 
refer to the TdrSs or stars, not to the Nakshatras or lunar mansions. It is 
perfectly possible that, as Hindu astronomers maintain, the moon or the sun 
may be in conjunction with one of the stars belonging to the T4r^, before 
they have entered the Nakshatra-segment to which that T&rS, has given its 
name. Nor would this in any way disprove the equal distances of the Nak- 
shatras, for it is only in comparison with these equidistant Nakshatras that 
the stars or clusters of stars could possibly be called either deficient or ex- 
cessive. Tf the coincidences between certain TA,rS,s and certain Sieus are so 
startling as they ai'e represented to be, they may possibly find their explana- 
tion in the intercourse between the Buddhists of India and China, which 
dates from a period anterior to the first occurrence of the non-equidistant 
TsIkLs in Sanskrit literature. 

The only passage which for a moment made me doubtful as to the equal 
division of the Indian Nakshatras, is that quoted by Prof. Weber from a 
Hebrew translation of Majrlti (p. 323 .seq.). Majriti (died 1007 A. D.) speaks 
of the lunar mansions of the Hindus : he gives their names, twenty-eight 
in number, and their degrees on the ecliptic. These degrees, to judge from 
the translation supplied by Dr. Steinschneider, vary considerably. I therefore 
requested Dr. Neubauer to collate the original text of Majriti, preserved in an 
Arabic MS. of the Bodleian Libi'ary, and I was glad to find that the ap]>ai'ent 
inequalities are due entirely to the Hebrew translation, the Arabic original 
allowing about 12' 51' 26" to each of the twenty-eight manziP. This therefore 
shows again an equal division, though it does show at the same time that the 
Arabs, in other respects the docile pupils of the Hindus, divided the heavens 
into twenty-eight, instead of twenty-seven, equal segments. 

Finally, as to the number of the Nakshatras, I maintain that it was origin- 
ally, and that, in one sense, it always remained twenty-seven. Let us first 
examine Biot's view of the subject. He maintains that the number of Naksha- 
trt\s was originally twenty-eight, because such was the number of the Chinese 
Sieu ; and that " ' the omission of Abhif/it from the series took place because the 
mansion belonging to that asterism was on the point of becoming extinguished, 
the circle of its junction-star being brought by the precession to a coincidence 

' Majriti begins : Now I shall mention the effects of from a Leyden MS. in hie learned e«say on ' Pseudepi- 

the moon withiu the limits of their statione, as agreed graphic Literature,' p. 76. 
upon by the Indians, &c. Dr. Steinschneider has ^ Whitney, Sftrya-siddhSnta, p. 208. 
lately supplied a more correct list of the lunar mansions 


with that of the junction-star of the preceding asterisni about a. d. 972.' Prof. 
Whitney has pointed out some mistakes which vitiate Biot's calculation, and 
which would defer till several centuries later the date of coincidence of the two 
circles of declination. He' himself, however, believes, like Biot, that Abhigrit is 
as originally and truly a part of the system of asterisms as any other constella- 
tion in the series, which is properly composed of twenty-eight members, and not 
of twenty-seven. ' The analogy of the other systems,' he says, ' and the fact 
that treatises like the SArya-siddhAnta, which reckon only twenty-seven divisions 
of the ecliptic, are yet obliged, in treating of the asterisms as constellations, 
to regard them as twenty-eight, are conclusive upon this point. The whole 
difficulty and source of discordance seem to lie in this, — how shall there, in 
any systematic method of division of the ecliptic, be found a place and a portion 
for a twenty-eighth asterism? The Khanda-kaiaka, as cited by Albirftni, in 
jnaking out, by a method which is altogether irrespective of the natural posi- 
tions of the asterisms with reference to the zodiac, the accordance already 
referred to between their portions and the moon's daily motions, allots to Abhiyit 
so much of the ecliptic as is equivalent to the mean motion of the moon during 
the part of a day by which her revolution exceeds twenty-seven days. Others 
allow it a share in the proper portions of the two neigiibouring asterisms : thus 
the Muh6rta-M414, a late work, of date unknown to us, says, " tlie last quarter 
of Uttara-Ashilc//itl and the first fifteenth of »SravaHJi together constitute Abhiyit ; 
it is so to be accounted when twenty-eight asterisms are reckoned ; not other- 
wise." Ordinarily, however, the division of the ecliptic into twenty-seven equal 
portions is made, and Abhif/it is simply passed by in their distribution. After 
the introduction of the modei'n method of dividing the circle into degrees and 
minutes, this last way of settling the difficulty would obviously receive a 
powerful support and an increased currency, from the fact that a division by 
twenty-seven gave each portion an even number of minutes, 800, while a division 
by twenty-eight yielded the awkward and unmanageable quotient 771 i.' 

In answer to Biot, who fixes the date of the suppression of Abhi/yit at 
A. I). 972, we may simply appeal to Albir^ini. He wrote a book on India, and 
particularly on Indian astronomy, about fifty-seven years after the supposed, 
disappearance cf Abhi^it. He had been in India for several years, learning 
Sanskrit, reading in the original the astronomical works of the Br^hmans, and 
consulting living astronomers on the actual position of their stars, and asking 
their advice on any points of difficulty. Yet nothing can be more opposed 
to Biot's theory than the view which AlbirAni takes of the Nakshatras. 

h 2 


'The origin of the lunar mansions,' he says, 'amongst the Hindus is analogous 
to that of the zodiacal signs, for in reference to these mansions, the circle of the 
zodiac is divided into twenty-seven equal parts, each mansion comprising 13" 20', 
or 800'. The planets enter and leave them, moving through them in latitude to 
the north and south. The principle of this division in twenty-seven parts lies 
in the moon's moving over the whole circumference of the heaven in 274 days, 
which needs correction. The number of twenty-eight, admitted by the Arabs, 
has likewise its origin by counting from the first lunar phase in the west to the 
last in the east. They reckon as one of the mansions the falling Eagle (a Lyrae, 
Abhi<7it), so that they get twenty-eight, which has been the reason why some 
of our Arabian astronomers and almanac writers have been mistaken, asserting 
that the Hindus also had twenty-eight Nakshatras, and that they suppressed 
one which was always covered by the rays of the sun. But this is wrong, for 
originally there were only twenty-seven, and one has been added afterwards.' 

Nothing can be clearer than this ; nothing more in accordance with all we 
know from other ancient sources on the same subject. Yet Biot sees in all 
this nothing but a proof of Albiruni's ignorance, and remains tnishaken in 
his belief that Abhi^fit was one of the old Nakshatras, and disappeared in the 
year 972 a. d. 

In answer to Professor Whitney, who though differing from Biot's argu- 
ments, agrees nevertheless with him on the original number of the twenty-eight 
Nakshatras and the later suppression of Abhi^it, I beg to propose the following 
theory. We nmst, from the beginning, distinguish between two things, the 
Nakshatras as the twenty-seven equal portions of the heavens, and the Naksha- 
tras or Tar£ls as independent asterisms. We have to do the same in Greece 
with the zodiacal portions and the zodiacal stars, and it is well known that the 
Greeks for a long time admitted only eleven constellations, though they always 
had the twelve equal divisions of the ecliptic". I hold then that the names 
given to stars or constellations, such as Krittik^ &c., existed before the trisein- 

* LBtrnnno, Journal des Savanta, 1839 (p. 528): 'La Cleo«tiate los asterismos n'etaient pas memo au nomhre 

^ph4re grccque est originalo ; la foriiiatiou en a ^te sue- fie uev\f; et l)ieu qu'il u'y ait auc\iue preuvo que I'iu- 

oosHive ; rideo de la division zodiacale, ArangtSre k sa trodiiction de la Balance no soit pas due h. Hippaiquo 

premiere conBtitution, y a ite transportee apres coup ; Ini-memo, 11 est constant quo les premiers textos nil 

tuais lea figiiiea et les noms des signes sont d'invention I'eniploi de ce signe est olairemeut euouc^, sont ceux 

grecquo. — Des te.xtes existent, qui attestout I'introduc- de Gemiuus et de Varron, appartenant au milieu du 

tion successive dans la sphfere grecquo de trois au i" siJcle. — On sait que PtoMin^o dans son catalogue, 

moins des figures zodiacales. — Belier et Sagittaire par conserve xi^"' pour la constellation (ao-repto-fi^t), et 

Cleostrato de Tenedos. (d'"* siJclo.) Plin. II. 6. — Avant fvyot pour le signo {(Mtov et SaSficari/jiopioi').' 



adic division of the heavens became fixed ; that the most interesting, though 
not always the most brilliant stars were selected to serve as exponents of the 
twenty-seven divisions ; and that in this selection Abhig'it was not comprised. 
Abhigit, however, being as its very name declares, a star of good omen, con- 
tinued to be observed for sacrificial purposes, and was invoked between the 
twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh constellations, between Uttara-Ashilc^A4 and 
Srav&ni, where its real position is to be found. This is clearly shown by a 
popular legend, repeated in the Taittiriya Brihmana I. 5, 2, 3 and 4 : ' There is 
a Nakshatra, Abhigrit by name, above the AshtuMa ', below SronL The gods 
and Asuras were fighting,.the gods conquered under that Nakshatra. Because 
they conquered, therefore it is Abhi^rit, the conqueror. Him of whom one wishes 
that he should conquer an invincible enemy, one ought to stir up to fight under 
the Nakshatra Abhi^^it. He conquers even the invincible, and as if he (the 
enemy) were defeated by his own fault.' When in later times the Hindus 
became acquainted with nations using twenty-eight instead of twenty-seven 
determining constellations, Abhi(7it would naturally be thought of in order to 
bring their own system in harmony with that of their neighbours, and Araljic 
astronomers, in particular, would naturally, though wrongly, as pointed out by 
Alhirftni, adopt the theory, adopted by Biot, that the Hindus did not under- 
stand their own system, and that Abhif/it had at all times formed an integral 
part of their elementary astronomy. 

If with this view clearly before us we examine the earliest as well as the 
latest notices of the Nakshatras that can be found in the literature of the 
Hindus, many difficulties will disappear. The number of twenty-seven, though 
not to be found in the Khsmdas or Mantra j^eriods, is of frequent occurrence in 
the Br4hma«a period. Many passages containing the number of twenty-seven 
for the Nakshatras may be seen in Prof Weber's Essay, and in the Dictionary 
of Bohtlingk and Roth. In the Taittiriya Samhit4 IV. 4, 10, 1-3, where all the 
names and the 2>residing deities of the Nakshatras are given, Abhi//it is not men- 
tioned, nor is its name to be found in a similar list in the Taittiriya Brahma/ia 
I. 5, I. It occurs for the first time in a second list of the Nakshatras, in the 
Taittiriya Brahmana III. 2, i, 6; and it occurs there, what is important and not 

The commeutator states tliat Abhipit occupies the is because the other twonty-«ovoii Nakshatras hail 
fourth quarter of UttarfisharfM, and the first quarter been mentioned before in pr<ipor order, whereas Ahhi- 
of Srava»&. There is nothing to show that Abhisrit yit, not being comprised in that list, had to be re- 
was a new Nakshatra ; on the contrary, the Brdhmana ferred to the two Nakshatra divisions with which it 
connects it with ancient legends, like all the other coincided. 
Nakshatras. The only reason why its position is given 


favourable to my theory, «s the sixth asterism after Full moon. Nevertheless 
I cannot bring myself to believe that it here enjoys an equal rank with the 
other Nakshatras ; or, if it does, it does so only because certain popular super- 
stitions had attached themselves to this asterism, and because certain libations 
were offered to it at the same time as those destined for the twenty-seven 
Nakshatras. The passage from the Atharva-veda (XIX. 7, i; 8, i), so often 
quoted by Biot and others, is more decided, and certainly proves the connection 
of twenty-eight Nakshatras with twenty-eight days. But the Atharva-veda 
stands by itself, and its last books particularly contain very doubtful passages. 
Unsupported by the genuine literature of ancient Ijidia, nay, opposed by its 
almost iinanimous testimony, the charms and nursery rhymes of the Atharva- 
veda can carry no weight. 

That an attempt was made to foist in Abhi<7it as a Nakshatra in places 
where it was not intended to be, is shown in a curious way by the MSS. of the 
^^ryotisha and its commentary. The names of the twenty-seven presiding deities 
are given in the ^ryotisha in three (Slokas : 

fomu^^^ ^^^sir Tj^m^^ ^' i 

When these verses are repeated in the MS. of the commentary, Brahma, the 
presiding deity of Abhi(;it, is inserted before Vishjm, as pointed out by Professor 
Lassen, but in violation of all the rules of metre. 

The very name given to the Nakshatra zodiac, namely Trinava^akra ", shows 
that the idea of twenty-seven was foremost in the mind of those who fixed 
that name'. At the time of Amara" the word nakshatra was used almost 

' Comm. ^T^1^{f^4V<4^^1 ^- ' Cf. Bohtlingk-Roth, s. v. trinava, where Triiiava- 

^ Comm. Var l^'lim'nCII. Afterwards jHSMi^- iakra is not given. 

' «[^r4M4 ^» ^rre^t^ WX ti ^ Comm. ^7n. ° or. Amara-kosha, 2, 6, 2, 8. nakshatramMft syJt 

■* See also Taitt. Samh. VII. i, 2, 2. saptavimsadmauktikaiA. Cf. Halayudha II. 408. 



synonymously with twenty-seven, and a necklace, Consisting of twenty-seven 
pearls, was called Nakshatra-m3,M, Nakshatra-string. In like manner the 
HemaA;andra-kosha, when enumerating the Nakshatras (vv. 108-115), gives 
only twenty-seven names, and does not include Abhigrit. 

Lastly, in astronomical works, the Nakshatras, if used as clironological 
elements, are always twenty-seven in number. 

/Stlkalya, the reputed author of the >Sakalya-Samhit3., when speaking of tlie 
supposed motion of the Seven Rishis, says, 'their motion is eight minutes in 
a year ; ' and again, ' moving in the North into different positions, the Rishis 
employ 2700 years in revolving through the assemblage of asterisms '.' This is 
possible only under the supposition that the number of asterisms is twenty- 
seven, not twenty-eight. For eight minutes a year would amount to 800 
minutes in one hundred years. Now 800 minutes is equal to 1 3 ' 20' ; this 
again is the twenty-seventh part of the ecliptic, and therefore the stars called 
the Seven Rishis would require 2700 years to pass through the twenty-seven 
asterisms or the whole of the ecliptic. 

Var3,ha Mihira again, when sjjeaking of the supposed movement of the Seven 
Rishis, states on the authority of Garga, that ' when king Yudhishf/iira ruled 
the earth, the Rishis were in MaghS,, and the period of the era of that king is 
2526 years. The Rishis remain for a hundred years in eacli asterism, l)eing 
connected with that particular Nakshatra to which, when it rises in the East, 
the line of tlieir rising is directed -. The same position of the Seven Rishis at 
tlie junction of the Dvdpara and Kali-yuga is confirmed by (juotations from 
Vriddha Garga and Kftsyapa by the commentator BliaMotpala. 

Now although this movement of the Seven Rishis is but imaginary, it \va.s 
used for chronological purposes, and as the Paurdnic tradition gives 11 15 years 
as ititervening between the beginning of the Kali-yuga and Nanda, the pre- 
decessor of Aandragupta (Sandrokyptos), the Bh%avata-Pur4»ia says quite in 
accordance with the theory of the movement of the Seven Rishis, that ' when, 
from Maghft, they shall reach FdrvkshMhi, then will this Kali age attain its 
growth under Nanda and his successors ; ' for as eleven Nakshatras pass from 
MaghA to TiXryMikdha,, 1 1 x 100 years must have passed between the beginning 
of the Kali age and Nanda. 

A single allusion to Abhig^it, as one of the chronological elements of the 
BrS.hmans, occurs in a computation proposed by Lalla, as quoted by Muntsvara in 
his gloss on the /Sromani (Colebrooke, II. p. 358). Lalla says : ' If the number of 

Oolebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, II. p. 358. ^ Oolebroukc, Miscellaneuua Essays, II. p. 356. 


years of the Kali age, les^ fourteen, be divided by lOo, the quotient, as the wise 
declare, shows the asterisms traversed by Mariii and the other celestial sages, 
beginning from the asterism of Vira«Z;i (Brahm4).' Here Lalla is generally 
understood to mean the asterism Rohinl, which is sacred to Pra</Apati (or 
Brahma). But Munlsvara remarks in another place, that Lalla may here intend 
Abhif/it, which is sacred to Vidhi or BrahmA. 

But even then, what is the conclusion of Munisvara? Not that the 
movement begins in the Nakshatra Abhif^it, as one of twenty-eight Naksha- 
tras, placed between^c^/id. and (SravanS. ; but, on the contrary, that 
the movement would then begin in SraveinA, of which Abhi^rit forms a part, and 
that thus the statements of Lalla and >S4kalya would be reconciled. Abhi</it 
therefore, or Brahmd, would be simply a synonyme of ^SravanA, or of some 
part of ^ravarid : it would not be one of twenty-eight equal divisions of 
the ecliptic. ■• 

I conclude with two extx-acts from the S(irya-siddh3,nta '. We read TI. 64. 
JnffftiHlJHVfwi:. 'the portion of an asterism is eight hundred minutes,' i. e. the 
twenty-seventh part of the ecliptic. 

We find afterwards (I.e. p, 177) from VIII. 2 to 9, the position of each 
asterism in the arc of the ecliptic to which it gives name, and which is styled its 
' portion ' (bhoga), the resulting polar longitudes and the polar latitudes. The 
stars of which the text thus accurately defines the positions, do not, in most 
cases, by themselves alone, constitute the asterisms ; they are only the principal 
members of the several groups of stars, — each, in the calculation of conjunctions 
(yoga) between the planets and the asterisms, representing its group, and 
therefore called the junction-star, yoga-tA.rS,, of the asterism. 

If therefore we find, as Professor Whitney writes, that ii\ the former passage 
the ecliptic is divided into twenty-seven equal arcs, whereas in this passage we 
are told of twenty-eight asterisms, very unequally distributed along the ecliptic, 
and at greatly varying distances from it, the natural conclusion is that the 
word nakshatra had two meanings, quite distinct from each other, as distinct 
in fact as Leo, when spoken of as a fixed star, and Leo, when spoken of as 
one of the duodecimal divisions of the sky, and that these must never be 

The original meaning of Nakshatra ^ was of course the natural, not the 

^ Sftrya-siddUanta, ed.Whitney, p. 91. European scholars, there is not one that carries ooa- 

^ I say nothin({ of the etymology of Nakshatra, be- viction, or does not violate some of the laws of Corn- 
cause though many have been proposed by Indian and parative Philology. The most unobjectionable deriva- 


scientific. It meant first, star in general, afterwardi^ certain stars or portions 
of the starry heaven. In the Rig-veda, Nakshatra does not occur in its 
technical sense except in one passage, which I pointed out in my History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature (p. -212)'. This passage I communicated to Biot, 
who referred to it on several occasions. That I was right in speaking of it as 
the only allusion in the Rig-veda to the Nakshatras, in the technical sense of 
the word, is now admitted even by those who at first were sceptical on that 
point. Nor should I have ventured to suggest the teclinical meaning of 
Nakshatra even in this one passage of the Rig-veda, if it had not been that it 
occurred in the last MantZala, which contains a mixture of very ancient and 
very modem fragments. I agree, however, with Professor Weber, that even in 
this passage there is no absolute necessity for taking Nakshatra in the sense of 
the twenty-seven Nakshatras, the stations of the moon. The word nakshatra 
may even here be rendered by star. But the probabilities are in favour of the 
translation which I first proposed. There are several allusions in the hymn to 
times and seasons ^ nay, the only two names of particular Nakshatras whicli 
liave Ijeen traced in the Rig-veda occur in this very hymn, AghdA for Magha//, 
and Arf/uni for Plialguni. The text, as repeated in the Atharva Samhit^ XIV. 
1,13, leaves no doubt that the two Nakshatras MaghA/i and Phalguni are here 

' The wedding procession of S6ryS, (sun, as feminine) went forth, which Savit?*' 
sent off. At the AghSs the cows are killed, at the Ar(/unis it (the procession) is 
led back.' 

This is evidently intended simply as a symbolic sanction of some ancient 
customs, the marriage of the sun being the type of every human marriage. 
That the Ar^ruui stars were favourable for marriage ceremonies we can see from 

tion is that of Yaska, who derives nakshatra from ^t^lfl I '^URItI^ 'theu Soma, tlio moon, is placed in 

naksh, ' to coino,' ' to approach.' ' Naksh is used of the the lap of these Nakshatras.' 

light of the sun filling the sky, Rv. X. 3, 5 ; and in a ^ Verse 5. W[^' I ¥lr*l^ I ^f^rtl I ^ITPTt I 

similar sense it oceur-i IV. 43, 5, and I. 95, 10. The ^. , ^jj^; | ' ySyu is the protector of Soma, 

idea of comers or goers is certainly not a very striking (j,g ^^^^ (month) is the typo of the years.' Why 

I'ne, but the ancient poets actually used tarishnu, yftyu is mentioned as protector of Soma is not clear. 

' Roing,' as an epithet of nakshatra, Rv. X. 88, 13. See j,^_ x. 21, 10, the Maruts are called nflkshatrasav,%., 

Biihtlingfc and Roth, s. v. ^„t here nakshatra seems used in the sense of 'heaven,' 

' Rv. X. 85, a. ^nrr l Tlhrnirt l ^t l ^I'l^ l and the compound would mean 'of heavenly strength.' 

VOL. IV. i 


the Taittiriya Br^hmana I. 5, i ', where the first Phalgunis are represented as 
flanked by a husband and wife, the second Phalgunis by a dowry and those who 
carry it away from the father's house. It would be a mistake to think here 
of solar time, the time when the sun stands in Magh^ and Phalgunl being 
considered in India as anything but favourable for marriage ceremonies. If 
the expressions here used had any direct reference to a definite system of 
chronology, we could only take ' at the Aghds ' and ' at the Arj/unls ' in the sense 
of ' at the Aghii and Argrunl full moons,' and this would correspond with the 
month of MAgha or the winter solstice, the beginning of the year'', the time 
most auspicious for nuptial ceremonies. The killing of cows at marriage feasts 
may seem strange to those who are accustomed to modern Indian ideas, but the 
old Rishis had no scruples in killing the sacred animal. In the /Srauta-padma- 
nd,bhi (MS. p. 1071^) a Sdtra is given ifttpg: aRWl: f^lf^ir:, 'the cow as a sacrificial 
animal is prohibited In the Kali age,' which implies that in former ages no such 
prohibition existed. 

In conclusion, I have to say a few words on an hypothesis according to 
which the discovery of the twenty-seven Nakshatras was originally made at 
Babylon, and from thence communicated at a very early time — the date is not 
given — to the Indians in the South, the Chinese in the East, and sundry 
Semitic nations in the West. Such an hypothesis seems almost beyond the 
reach of scientific criticism, though with the progi'ess of the deciphering of the 
Babylonian inscriptions, some facts may come to light either to confirm or to 
refute it. At present, however, all that can be l>i'ought forward in proof of 
such a theory is vague and uncertain, and could not stand the test of the moat 
forbearing criticism, much less tlie attacks of that uncompromising scepticism 
which has lately been directed against all that is called ancient Babylonian 

It is certainly striking that the Arabic name of the lunar mansions, manzil 
(plur. menazil), should be derived from the same root as the Mazzaloth men- 
tioned in the Bible. In the Second Book of Kings, xxiii. 5, we read how Josiah 
(624 B.C.) 'put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had 
ordained to bum incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the 
places round about Jerusalem ; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the 
sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.' The 

The c.mmeiitato. adds . n<gjJ<| | t<mK€|| '^V«mTWr 4i<<llrij< » «^<.m fN?» II 


word here translated by planets is Mazzaloth. The LXX do not translate it, 
but render it by fia^ovfrnO, the Vulgate substitutes the zodiac ; Rabbi Jona Ibn 
Djandh suggests, as Dr. Neubauer informs me, the twenty-eight manzil. None 
of these translations rest on any tangible evidence, and all that can be said is, 
that the Mazzaloth may have been the lunar Nakshatras, but that we have no 
means of proving it. How dangerous it is to trust to mere plausibilities in 
matters involving such vast consequences, is shown by the word Mazzaroth, 
which occurs in Job xxxviii.' 31, 32 : 'Canst thou bind the sweet influences of 
Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion ? Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his 
season ? or canst thou guide Arcturus witii his sons ? ' 

Here too Mazzaroth has been translated by the twelve signs of the zodiac ; 
but as this is impossible, it was certainly tempting to take Mazzaroth as a 
dialectic variety of Mazzaloth, particularly as the expression of bringing forth 
the Mazzaroth in his season, seems so appropriate to the stars being, as it 
were, brought forth, and following each other in the succession of the seasons. 
Nevertheless, Pi'ofessor Ewald declares such an identification as inadmissible, 
and is in favour of deriving the word from nczer, 'crown,' as the name of 
a constellation. 

The fact that the Harranians ' offered sacrifices to their god Sin (moon) 
every twenty-seventh or twenty-eighth day, proves nothing whatever as to the 
e.xistence of twenty-seven Nakshatras. 

Lunar chronology seems everywhere to have preceded solar chronology. The 
Psalmist (civ. 19) sings ^, ' He appointed the moon for seasons : the sun knoweth 
his going down;' and the Vedic Rishi (X. 85, 18) when speaking of sun and 
moon, says, ' The one (sun) shines upon all creation, tlie other establishing the 
seasons is born anew.' Ibn Esra observes in his Commentary on the Pentateuch 
(Exodus xii. 2) that the Hebrew word for month, chodesh, can be intended for 
lunar months only, because it is derived from a root meaning to be new, 
whereas shanah, year, would imply a solar year, because it expresses the idea of 
annus or annulus'. It is known besides, that at Jerusalem* the Synedrium 
used to sit till two or three witnesses came to announce the first appearance of 
the new moon, and that the event was signalized all over the country by 

' Chwolsohn Ssabier, II. 37, jg6, 258, 395, quoted Gesellsohaft, II. p. 344- ^'o^- Seyffarth endeavoured 
l>y Prof. WeberiNakBhatrae, p. 316. to show that the Jews, before the destruction of Jeru- 

Humboldt, Kosmos, II. 47 (Germ. Ed.). salem, used solar months only, but big arguments are 


Cf. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 

i 2 

Ideler, Handbucb der Chronologie, p. 489. not convincing. 


bonfires. And a similar custom prevailed among the Bdhlkas, where, according 
to the Mah4bhd.rata, an old witch sang out the new moon, beating a drum 
during the night, while the town of S&kala was feasting \ I could mention 
fifty other passages where festivals are mentioned at the beginning, the middle, 
or the end of each lunar month, and I believe even that the Sabbath was 
originally a holiday connected with a lunar chronology^. But it serves no 
purpose to bring forward evidence which does not prove the point that has 
to be proved, and of which all that can be said is, that it is consistent with our 
theory. • 

More important are the passages where the manzil are mentioned in the 
Kor4n, X. 5, XXXVI. 39 ; nor can there be any doubt, after the evidence 
collected by Dr. Sprenger', that the twenty-eight lunar asterisms had been 
observed by the Beduins of the desert long before the time of Mohammed. 
Yet, after all that has been written on the subject, and I would particularly 
call attention to Prof Weber's careful reasonings on p. 320, I still hold to 
Colebrooke's view, who derives the Arabic manzil, at least in their scientific 
form, from an Indian source. Whatever view we may take on this pohit, the 
fact that Mohammed knew the twenty-eight lunar mansions, and that they 
were known to the Arabs before his time, could under no circumstances be used 
as an argimient to show that they existed at Babylon in the twelfth century 
before our era, which is the point that would have to be established. The 
passage in the Bundehesh in which the twenty-eight divisions occur, is no more 
pertinent to the establishment of the Babylonian theory than the list of Coptic 
names *, neither of them going back beyond the time of Mohammed. Why, finally, 
the latitude" to be discovered from the difference between the longest and 
.shortest days which, according to the G'yotisha, amounted to six muh^rtas, 
or 288 minutes, should prove the Babylonian origin of Indian aBtronomy, 

^ Lassen, De Pentapotamin, p. 65, verse 25. naisaent quo lea jours des iiiois d'aprSs le calcul et 

" Dr. Neubauer has quoted a marginal note from d'apres la tradition ; mais elles ignorent la semaine 

tlie Cusari which is remarkable. It states that the sabbatique. Oes paroles sent cities au nom de 

hebdomadal chronology is fountl nowhere except where Fayoumi.' Journal Asiatique, Dec. 1861, p. 461. 

the .Jews have. introduced it; 'J'ai trouv^ une ide'e ' Zeitschrift der D. M. G. XIII, 160-165. Dr. 

dans le livre de Salem ben Rou'heim ; il fait observer Sprenger'a remarks on page i6i are very important, 

quo nous ne trouvons pas de nations qui connaissent and confirm the view which I have taken of primitive 

le sabbat (c'est-4-dire qui sachent le dAerminer par le lunar astronomy, 

ralcul), k moinsqn'elles n'aientune notion de laTorah ; * Weber, Nakshatras, pp. 326, 330. 

par consequent elles ont empnmt^ ce jour de repos ' Weber, Nakshati^, pp. 363, 400. A difference of 

aux Israflites ; mais celles qui connaissent point la 4 h. 48 m. between the longest and the shortest dayti 

Torah, conime les Indiens et les Pereans, &c., ne con- would really correspond to lat. 35° 24'. 


I am at a loss to understand. Exact observations on such a point are out of 
the question in the absence of any exact time-pieces ; a large margin therefore 
must be left in drawing any conclusions as to the latitude of the place in which 
such an observation could have been made. But the rivers of the Penjd.b are in 
about the same latitude as the rivers of Mesopotamia ; the observation in its 
crudest form could h^,ve been made in the Indian Penjdb quite as well as in the 
Babylonian Do4b ; the whole argument therefore dwindles into nothing at the 
first touch of criticism. In spite of all, however, I am quite prepared to take 
into serious consideration the Babylonian origin of Indian, nay, even of Chinese 
astronomy, whenever the decipherers of the Cuneiform inscriptions shall have 
supplied us with evidence that deserves to be considered. No hypothesis, 
however repugnant to received notions, should on that ground be treated with 
contempt ; but it would certainly be wiser to let certain questions remain in 
abeyance on which no new evidence has been forthcoming since they were last 
handled by sound and sober scholars. 

I have thus, I believe, established what I wished to establish, namely, that 
the Nakshatras owed their origin and their successive growth to the Indian 
inind ; that Nakshatra, meaning originally stars in general, was fixed upon 
as the word to be used, Kar flo^^i', of the twenty-seven equal divisions of tlie 
starry sky, marked out by the periodical course of the moon ; that they always 
retained their original number and character when used for chronological 
purposes ; but that in later times certain stars, twenty-eight in number, and 
vaguely corresponding with the twenty-seven ancient Nakshatras, were selected 
for the purpose chiefly of fixing the movements of the planets, but likewise 
for other astronomical and astrological purposes. How it came to pass that 
some of tliese Tdrds and Yoga-t3.r^ coincided with the Sieu of the Chinese, 
is a problem which will probably be solved when the history of Chinese 
literature has passed through the same critical ordeal which has destroyed go 
many illusions iii Greece, Rome, and India. But, whatever that solution may 
be, it will never affect the springheads of the thought, of the language, and of 
the poetry of India, which rise from depths inaccessible to foreign tributaries, 
and whose earliest course we may follow step by step in the literature of the 
Br^hmans with greater accuracy than is the case in the early history of any 
other nation. 

The two points of which I have here treated at some length, namely, the 
value of the astronomical dates, and the origin of the Nakshatras, are by 
no means the only points on which objections have been raised tending to 


invalidate the views which I expressed in my History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature ; but they are the most important, and they aJone involved con- 
sequences compromising the antiquity and originality of the Eig-veda. If 
the astronomical data on which conclusions as to the age of the Veda have 
been built implied all they were represented to imply, the earliest periods of 
Vedic poetry would have to be rearranged. If it cquld be proved that 
China had exercised an influence on India, previous to the establishment 
of the Nakshatras, one of the principal charms of Vedic literature, its native 
originality, would .be lost. 

As to minor objections that have been started against some of the con- 
clusions arrived at in my History of Sanskrit Literature, they must wait till 
more evidence has been brought forward which may tend either to modify or 
to confirm them. Many of these objections were not new to me, and had been 
carefully weighed before I wrote ; others were groundless, and must have arisen 
either from want of clearness in the writer, or want of attention on the part 
of the reader. Thus when I maintained that, previous to Panini, no terms 
occurred which implied the existence of a written literature, of books, paper, 
pen or ink, I was perfectly aware that k-Xnda was used in ancient works in the 
sense of a division of a literary composition, for instance, in the Taittirtya 
Samhita, and in the (Satapatha Bnthniawa. In fact I had mentioned htndas, 
kawrfik^s, k4n(i4nukrama?iis, &c., very frequently in my History. But how 
these words could prove the existence of books, i. e. of written books made of 
paper, I cannot see. K.knda, means a section, a division, whether of a tree or of 
anything else ; it is almost synonymous with parvan and pariA:^/teda. As 1 had 
shown that even such a word as grantha did not necessarily imply a written 
book, I thought I might safely pass by such terms as k^«da, parvan, or 
parikkheda. KAnc^a never means a book, but always a section of a work, and 
there is no proof ' as yet that books in India were originally made of ' the part 
of the trunk of a tree whence the branches proceed, a stalk or stem.' I had 
myself expressed some doubts whether the word patala, which was said to mean 
oi-iginally the covering or bark of a tree, and which is used in the Rik- 
PrAtis^khya in the sense of chapter, might not point to books made of liber, 
the ba^jk or rind of a tree. After Prof Weber's remarks, however, on this word, 
^ Thia vieV that k&nda meant a book was advanced simile of the M4nava-kalpa-8i!ttra. Some objections 
by Professor Theodore Goldstucker, in a most learned of the same scholar are answered in the next pages ; 
and painstakii7g review of my History of Ancient others would require a fuller examination than was 
Sanskrit Literatii^y. which precedes bis valuable fac- compatible with the limits of this preface. 


as used in the Aitareya Br^hmana* (I. 21, 22 ; Asv. S. IV. 6, 7), these doubts 
are nearly removed, it being most likely that the original meaning of pa^ala was 
likewise section, division. 

Another instance where my meaning has been misapprehended, and where 
I have been refuted ^ for opinions which I never held, occurred with regard to 
the dates of YAska and P4nini. Because I said that on certain points Ydska 
holds more advanced views than KdtyJiyana, it is argued that I muat place 
Y4ska after K4tyAyana and after P^wini. I see how the wording of one 
sentence in my book could have given rise to such a misunderetanding, but no 
attentive reader could have failed to see that I place Yilska before KS,ty^yana, 
before P4mni, nay, even before /Saunaka. T believe I was the first to point out 
that YS,ska, not Vaiy^ska, was actually quoted in the Rik-Pr4tisakhya, and as I 
still hold that this Pr^tisakhya was anterior to Pdwini, I could not have placed 
Y3fika after Pamini. 

It would be impossible to answer all objections of this kind, particularly when 
they are of a personal rather than a scientific character. Why I write uwiVli 
instead of un«Mi would seem to be a matter of very small importance. That. 
[ know the rule of Piimni VIII. 3, 32, I have pi-ovetl, I should thhik, in more 
than a thousand pavssages of my edition of the Rig-veda. But the phonetif 
rules are not applicable in their full strictness to the technical terms used by 
grammarians. Thus 'Sj^ means all vowels; gen. ■^^; (P4m. I. i, 57). Whenevei- 
■^ becomes final, it ought to be changed into a guttural. P^nini does not so 
change it (I. i, 10; 3, 2), nor have J ever met with the form 4|Juf< or ^spHftf, 
which would be analogous to ^TOTf^, but only with ^Jirrflf and ^sravi, in apparent 
violation of P4nini's own rules. The same applies to f?r#7l, which as a com- 
pound is generally spelt with one i:, whereas, if it occurs by itself, followed by 
a vowel, the final "^ is doubled. Thus I have always printed fil^fTf^:, but f?r?W. 
The eighth class of verbs is commonly called «HTf^^ of which there i.s the 
derivation <| | « | in^<n : (Rv. Bh. I. 138, 2), both written with a single n. The fact 
is that in the real Sanskrit there is not a single instance * where in a compound 
the first pada ends in a nasal, which nasal is doubled ; and hence there was 
no analogy to be followed in such artificial words as grsrrf^. Besides there is 

The commentator says, pa/alasabilaAsfiniflhavaK; which Bohtlingk alteiN to flfllf<(- Westergaaid re- 
he also explains it by bhftgaJ. tains TPTTfe. 

' Neither pflrvapaksha nor uttarapataha could be t ^^^ ^^^^ ;^^,^„^.^ „hich has been brousUt foi- 

correctly rendered by 'refutation,' in the sense iu „„d, ^rishanasva, is an exception to the rnle.'exceptio 

» that word is used by En glish wr iters. ^^^^^^ regulam.' 

' The Calcutta edition has THIT^ (P. II. 4, 79), 



a natural reluctance to apply the rules of Sandhi to technical terms, the very 
meaning of which might sometimes be completely changed if the changes of 
Sandhi were observed. Taking all this into account, and being unable by the 
help of MSSL to satisfy myself as to whether P&mni's Sdtraa gave 'ag fT f^ or 
^»g t f^ (the editions vary), I determined to retain the usual form, and I was 
strengthened in my determination by the fact that in metrical works too ^Tirrf|[ 
is used with the first syllable short '. 

With regard to one of the most important questions which have of late 
occupied Sanskrit scholars, namely, the Introduction of Writing, some new 
evidence, which deserves careful attention, has been brought to light by several 
of my critics. Professor Bohtlingk, Benfey, Whitney, Goldstucker '\ and Wester- 

* Svaramii%aii (MS. E. I. H. 98, p. 50', 1. i) : 

'Efrng vitj'^Mifu! Tnirar^ tm'. ^ i 

■^ A few points which can be settled without enter- 
ing into details may here be touched upon in a note : 

1. When I said that writing was not known before 
Panini, I meant to imply that it became known in 
India about his time, >)Ut that the literature known 
to him, which had accumulated before his time, was 
oral only. 1 thus tried to account both for the absence 
of any allusion to ivritten language in his grammatical 
terminology, and for the appearance of grammatical 
terms implying a written language (vindu &c.) in later 

2. Lipikara, which I myself pointed out as occur- 
ring in PSnini, is never used for wiiter, still less for 
author; it means a man who makes lipis, i.e. public 
inscriptions. See Westergaard, Abhandlungen, p. 33. 

3. With regard to the meaning of Yavau&ni lipi, a 
wide field is open to conjecture, because we have no 
means of exact knowledge. The two points, however, 
which I maintained, have never been shaken ; namely, 
I. that if Y&van&ni lipi means the Greek wiiting, it 
does not prove that PSnini was later than Alexander, 
because the Greek alphabet might well have been 
known in India before Alexander's conquest. This 
has been confirmed by Westergaard, Abhandlungen, 
p. 81 ; 2. that YavanSnJ lipi is most likely that variety 
of the Semitic alphabet which, previous to Alexander, 
and previous to I'Snini, became the type of the Indian 
alphabet (Hist, of A. S. L. p. 521). The numerous 
changes of opinion of other scholars on this subject 
may be seen in the ' Indische Studien,* V. p. 8. Pro- 

fessor Weber does not yet seem to be aware that his 
efforts to prove that Yavana may mean Greek were not 
necessary. The important point was to prove that 
Yavaua need not always mean Greek. This point was 
proved by Professor Lassen. But Professor Lassen, 
as well as most Sanskrit scholars, was fully aware that 
Yavana may mean Greek, before Professor Weber in- 
formed us of this fact. To determine where Yav.iua 
moans Greek, and where it means Semitic nations, or 
even nations of black complexion, kSlayavaua, this is, 
and has been for some time, the real problem for 
Sanskrit scholars. 

4. Ever since I have quoted Pa«ini for historical 
purposes, I have tried to distinguish between text and 
commentary, but as I have never hatred historical con- 
cbisions on words occurring in the commentary only, 
I have not distinguished between Pataa^ali, Kdsikft, 
&c. Professor Goldstucker deserves groat credit for 
having pointed out the necessity of such a distinction 
where the intellectual horizon of Patajtsiali has to be 
fixed. When I write ' in Pftnini,' I moan the grammar 
such as we have it ; when I say ' by Pfinini,' I mean 
the man, the author of the SQtras. Professor Gold- 
stiicker is right about Pftn. IV. 3, 108 ; I am glad, 
however, to find that I do not stand alone in my 
opinion of the traditional character of the udftharanas 
and pratyudaharanas. (See Westergaard, Abhand- 
lungen, p. 66 ; and Prof. G.'s very pertinent remarks, 
p. 24, 1. ai.) In other instances where Professor Gold- 
stucker has suspected me of want of accuracy in quot- 
ing Pftnini, he will find that there is a Cf, added to 
my quotations. Wherever this is the case, I wish the 
reader to compare Pftnini, but give him to understand 
that P&nini, the author of the Sfttras, does not himself 



Not one of the facts, however, on which I based my argument, has been 
invalidated ; on the contrary, the evidence has been strengthened, particularly 

use the word in question. Thus, on page 369, the 
only quotation from PSnini with whioh Prof. <5. finds 
fault, is marked with Of. The same applies to p. 361, 
where I refer to Vkn. IV. 3, lot, and IV. 2, 64, in 
confirmation of the name by which Piluiui's own work 
was familiarly known in later times. Here too Cf. is 
added. Thus again, PSn. IV. 3, 108, is marked by Cf. ; 
and the Hame caution is added to Piln. IV. 3, 66 (p. 362), 
lo PS«. IV. 3, 102 (p. 371). The names mentioned on 
page 369 I did not intend to restrict to P&nini. 

fi. The fact that Sfltra in the singular moans a com- 
plete work, confirms the opinion which I expressed, 
that it meant a string of rules, before it meant a single 
rule. The German ' Band' does not mean a book in 
general, but a volume, originally a bound volume. 'ITie 
word was used in that sense since the middle of 
the eighteenth century (see Grimm, s. v.); and gram- 
maiiaus between der Band, die Bande, 
' volume,' and das Band, die Bander, string,' sfltra.' 

6. The >-'Otra which Kaiyya^i marks as not composed 
I'y Panini is IV. 3, 132, not IV. 3, 116. SQtra IV. 3, 
1 16, is merely marked as not explained in the com- 
mentary. See IV. 3, 106, ity.ldini jtaturdasa nfltraui 
liha«hye tn na vyakhyStani. To this fact, that certain 
Sfltras aro not explained in the Muhabh&shya, I attach 
little imporlaueo, and quite agree with Profe.«sor Gold- 
stucker's remarks. To any candid mind this subject 
is disposed of by Professor Aufrccht's remarks, Cata- 
logus Bodl. p. 160. 

7. The passage from the Mahabharata (Sftntip. v. 
11339-11342) can only be understood of the weight of 
ruemoiy. No one would suspect YudhishMira or any- 
body else of being intent on carrying about a book ; 
or if ho felt the weight at all uncomfortable, he might 
easily debarrass himse"''of it. The weight of the Veda 
(vedabhfira) is spoken of in the VasishtAa-smriti 
(History of Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 55), where there can 
be no idea of heavy folios. 

8. If varna means a modified sound, there ought lo 
he, as Prof. G. says, something of which the varnas are 
modifications. This is perfectly true. In the Eik- 
PrltisSkhya, XIII. 4, we read, ' the breath being one, 
assumes in reality, as it becomes varna or letter, many 
sounds.' As far as I understand Prof. G.'s further 
iliscnssions on varna and kftra, they seem to prove to 
me simply this, that Pftnini never uses k4ra, and that 

VOL. IV. 1 

ho uses varna of vowels only. In Sfltra VII. 4, 53, I 
divide yivarnayoA into y (yak4ra) an^ tvarna. 

9. The expressions flrdhva, udaya, &c., apply lo 
memory even better than to books. Books might ho 
turned topsyturvy, but in the memory the beginning 
of a book must always be bottommost. 

10. Though I have never denied that Panini may 
have been one of the first Brahmans acquainted « ith 
the art of writing, I did not think that this could be 
proved by the employment of accents in his Sfltras. 
The Svarita, which was intended to show that a rule 
extended its influence over certain other rules, whs 
actually pronounced, nor could a more convenient 
method have been imagined for distinguishing the 
head-words or head-rules than the prolonged intona- 
tion of the Svarita. It is nowhere said that these Sva- 
ritas were not pronounced, but only that they were not 
part and parcel of the rule (na tu prayogasamavayi, lit. 

they do not enter into the effect produced by the rule ') . 
ir. As I always distinguish between the existence 
of an alphabet and its employment for literary pur- 
poses, I should be quite willing to admit that the shep- 
herds at the time of Panini marked their cattle «ilh 
letters. The Greeks knew the alphabet, and used it 
for conjmercial purposes, for inscriptions, for pul)lic 
registers long before they dreamt of reducing their 
poems to writing. (See thin point well argued by Mr. 
Grote in answer to the late Colonel Mure, Appendix I 
and IT annexed to the tliird edition of Grote's History 
of Greece.) Numerical figures, totems, &c., are known 
to American tribes who have no alphabet. But I must 
confess that Pfin. VI. 3, 1 15, does not seem to pro\e 
to mo convincmgly the custom of using either letters 
or figures for branding cattle. 

13. On the use of dn's in the sense of perceiving in 
general, see Bohtlingk-Roth, s. v. dar». The expression 
' na drisyate' is synonynwms with ' na vidyate,' nftsti." 
In grammar, adarsanam is explained by aprayoga I, 2. 
,55 ; and prayoga, according to Prof. G., would mean 
pronunciation. Fee also the passage quoted fromYayfla- 
valkya III. 191, and Rig-veda-bhashya,vol. i. p. 30. 

and the commentary. 


by Professor Weetergaard. The conclusion which I draw from these facts, 
namely, that writing was never used for literary purposes in India before the 
time of PAnini, is certainly startling, and I have never disguised this. But 
I confess tliflt the explanations which have been proposed by some of my 
critics, in order to save the character of an ancient written literature in India, 
seem to me too artificial, and based on historical theories rather than on 
historical facts. 

I ought perhaps to add a few words on the delay which has occurred in the 
publication of this volume of the Rig-veda. For a time it was doubtful whether 
the funds necessary for the completion of the Hig-veda would be provided. 
This caused uncertainty and delay. When I resumed my work, my time was 
no longer my own, and there were more urgent occupations which left me but 
scant leisure for the prosecution of my Sanskrit studies. Had I been allowed to 
devote, I do not say the whole, but at least one half of my time to the study of 
Sanskrit and the carrying on of my edition of the Rig-veda, the present volume 
no doubt would have been published long ago. Or, if I had been satisfied with 
printing the commentary of S3,ya?ia such as it is given in the MSS. at our 
disposal, without attempting to verify the numerous quotations, to authenticate 
scattered allusions, to correct evident blunders of the copyists, and to supply 
omissions, as far as possible, from other sources, my task would have been 
a very easy one, and would have required far less of my time. But though 
a rapid reprint of a few MSS. has its advantages, and though I by no means 
share in the sweeping condemnation of the maiiner in which the text and 
commentary of another Veda have of late been edited, I feel that I should have 
ill requited the confidence of those who entrusted me with the editio princepn 
of the Rig-veda and of its commentary by Sdyatta, if I had not done my best 
to make it as perfect as it could be made in the present state of Sanskrit 
scholarship, and with the materials now available. How many imperfections 
there remain in spite of my best endeavours, no one can feel more than myself. 
Though greater familiarity with the style of Siyana has enabled me in the later 
books to remove the blunders of the copyists with more readiness and certainty 
than at the beginning, yet the MSS. of the later Ashiakas are much inferior to 
those of the first, and the number of passages hopelessly corrupt and imperfect 
is constantly increasing. The few Various Readings which I have printed give 
a very imperfect idea of the battles which an editor of S4yana has to fight 
against the perversenees and carelessness of the scribes. Where the right 
reading could be restored with perfect certainty, little or nothing has been said 


in the Various Readings ; but there is many a short Hne in these notes which 
represents the results of hours, nay, of days and weeks of hard work. Nor was 
one single passage surrendered as hopeless before everything had been tried to 
render it correct. - , 

I have stated on former occasions how much I owed to the assistance of my 
learned friend Professor Aufrecht, and I am glad to say that in the present 
volume also I have to a considerable extent had the benefit of his co-operation. 
Though I regret his departure from Oxford, nothing could have been more 
beneficial to the interests of sound Sanskrit scholarship in this country than 
liis appointment to th§ Chair of Sanskrit at Edinburgh, lately founded by 
Mr. J. Muir, D. C. L., the munificent patron of Sanskrit philology. Professor 
Aufrecht's transliteration of the text of the Rig-veda in Roman lettei-s, 
now in course of publication, will be welcome to all students of Sanskrit. 
I look forward with confidence to many valuable contributions from his pen 
towards the elucidation of the Vedic language, Vedic mythology, and Vedic 

Another friend whose name I always had to mention in these pages with 
admiration and gi-atitude, H.H.Wilson, has not lived to see the completion of 
a work which owed so much to him. Without his strong recommendation it 
would have been impossible to secure the patronage of the Court of Directors 
of the late East-India Company, and afterwards of the Secretary of State for 
India ; and some of the most valuable MSS. on which this edition is based, were 
procured through his influence. How deep an interest he took in this work he 
proved by undertaking the ungrateful task of preparing an English translation, 
a task which on other occasions ' he intentionally left to younger and more 
enterprising study'.' Wilson had lived through almost the whole history of 
Sanskrit scholarship, and had taken part in nearly every important work that 
marked an epoch in the study of Indian literature, history, and religion. Every 
one of his own works represents a new conquest. He never followed, he was 
always first ; and though he was sometimes blamed for want of accuracy, he 
might well appeal to the rough work which he had to do, while others followed 
in the paths which he had opened and smoothed. Where any useful work was 
to be done, where a dictionary had to be compiled, manuscripts to be catalogued, 
coins and inscriptions to be deciphered, where new texts had to be edited, new 
works to be translated, Wilson was always ready to undertake the task which 
no one else was willing or able to undertake, and he never undertook anything 

' See the Preface to his edition of the Dasa-kum4ra-*8vita, p. 31. 


without finishing it with unflinching perseverance. His was not the scholarship 
of a Colebrooke, a Burnouf, or a Lassen ; but if we look at the works which he 
left behind, we shall see how much we owe to him, and how much we have 
lost in him. , Though the scorn with which he spoke of those who had never 
ventured in translation beyond works that had been previously translated by 
English scholars, and who were not even familiar with the native grammarians', 
provoked at the time angry rejoinders from Continental students, he lived long 
enough to see himself regarded as the revered Nestor by all who belong to the 
small but brave army of bon^ fide students of Sanskrit ; and his memory will 
long be cherished in India as well as in Europe, as that of a real benefactor 
to India and to Indian literature. 

I am glad to be able to announce that the translation of the Rig-veda 
which Wilson had undertaken, will not remain incomplete. He worked at it 
till nearly the last moments of his life, and Professor Ballantyne, his worthy 
successor in the Library of the India Oflice, has undertaken the task of editing 
his MS. What I think of Wilson's translation I have fully stated on various 
occasions, and particularly in the Preface to the third volume of tliis work. 
I consider a literal translation of the Veda, in strict adherence to the explanation 
of SAyana, as highly valuable and interesting, and I hope that that principle 
will be rigorously observed by the editor of the remaining portion of this 
translation. But though I regret that the opinions which I expressed on this 
subject were not approved by Professor Wilson, I cannot but repeat my firm 
conviction that if we may learn from Sayana how, after a lapse of thirty 
centuries, the ancient poems of the Rishis had been misunderstood by Indian 
theologians and philosophers, we nmst proceed in quite a different manner 
in order to learn how these simple hymns were originally understood by 
the Rishis themselves. This point has of late been so frequently discussed, 
that I will not here enter again upon it ; but I hope within a short time 
to be able to lay before the public the first volume of a translation of the 
Rig-veda, based on those principles of interpretation on which nearly all who 
have worked in this new field of Sanskrit scholarship are fully agreed. A 
difference of opinion like this, though it may have caused pain to my departed 
friend and teacher, has never in the least detracted from the esteem and 
admuration which I shall always entertain for him. His loss I, more than 
any other, feel to be irreparable ; but the true way to honour the memory 

' .See his 'Memorandum respecting Sanskrit Literature in England.' 


of otir departed generals is not to halt where they fell, but to advance to 
new conquests. 

The vigour and enthusiasm with which the study both of the modern and 
of the ancient Sanskrit has of late been taken up, the continued activity of 
such veterans as Bopp, Lassen, Benfey, Brockhaus, Stenzler, Westergaard, the 
original investigations of Aufrecht, BaJlantyne, Bohtlingk, Foucaux, Goldstiicker, 
Gorresio, Hall, Kuhn, Muir, Regnier, Roer, Roth, Schiefner, Weber, Whitney, 
the excellent work done in India both by Europeans, such as Cowell, Griffith, 
and Haug, and by a most important class of independent native scholars, such 
as BAdh^k^nta Deva, I^varachandra Vidy^sagara, B3,p(i Deva, Kn'shwamohana 
Banerjea, Nllakantha Gore, Rajendralala Mitra, Bhau Daji ; lastly, the constant 
succession of new students, among whom the names of Breal, Blihler, Fausboll, 
Haas, Kent, Pertsch, Siegfried, deserve to be distinguished — all these hold out a 
hope that the study of Sanskrit will not become stagnant, or lose the position 
which, thanks to the genius and honest industry of Sir W. Jones, Colebrooke, 
and Wilson, it has gained in our Universities by the side of Greek and Latin, of 
Hebrew and Arabic. The work which still remains to be done, however large 
its proportions, will not suffer from lack of labourers. At the present moment 
the most pressing work is, no doubt, the Veda, and new hands are wanted 
l)oth for the edition of texts, not yet published, and for the critical interpre- 
tation of the relics of the ancient poetry of the Rishis. It is impossible for 
one scholar, it will probably be impossible for one generation of scholars, to 
bring the deciphering of the hymns of the Rig-veda to a satisfactory con- 
clusion. My own contributions can for the future be but small, and very in- 
adequate to the great difficulties that have to be overcome. With this volume, 
however, the most important portion of the Rig-veda is before the public. 
The ninth Marw^ala contains nothing but the Soma hymns, the tenth and last 
offei-s a mixture of ancient and motlern fragments. Every scholar is now able 
to take his shaie in the elucidation of the difficult language and the still more 
difficult thoughts of the ancient poets of India. Much has been done already, 
and a most important advance towards a right understanding of the Rig-veda 
will have been made when the Sanskrit Dictionary of Bohtlingk and Roth, 
published undei the auspices of the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, and 
supported by the enlightened liberality of the Emperor of Russia, is finished. 
It is a work of which I feel it a duty to speak with the fullest acknowledg- 
ment of its great merits, because in this country its defects have been criticised 
with extreme rigour. Still further progress will be made when the Sanskrit 


Dictionary at which Professor GoldstUcker has been working for many years 
is completed. But with all the light which the labours of these and other 
scholars have shed on considerable portions of the Rig-veda, the dark and 
unintelligible passages have still a decided preponderance over those that have 
been made out to the satisfaction of impartial critics, .fs^nrae portions of the 
Rig-veda, I confess, I consider as hopeless, and as h the m resist all attempts 
at interpretation. But there is no reason why we should despair. The Rig- 
veda is the most, ancient book of the Aryan world. Every hymn, every verse, 
every word that can be deciphered in it is a gain. The sacred hymns of the 
Brahmans stand unparalleled in the literature of the whole world, and their 
pi-eservation might well be called miraculous. We must be thankful that any 
authentic imago of those primitive periods in the history of mankind which 
can now be studied in the Rig-veda, should have been handed down to us. 
These ancient hymns represent the lowest stratum in the growth of the himian 
mind which can be reached anywhere by means of contemporaneous literature. 
And if in putting together the petrified remains of a primeval world, the 
geologist must often rest satisfied with fragments that tell but half of what 
they might have told, the historian also \n gathering up the threads of the 
most primitive thoughts of man, must learn to make the best of rags and 
tatters that once formed part of the splendid webs of poetry and religion 
woven by the early fathers of the human race. 


Tekby. October 1862. 



I add a letter of Biot's on the Nakshatras, together with some interesting notes on somt 
parts of my essay, which I owe to the kindness of Professor W. F. Donkin, and of the Rev. 
R. Main, RadclifEe Observer. 

Biot's letter was written about two months before his death. It was addressed to Professor 
Benfey at Gottingen, and printed by him in his Journal, ' Orient und Occident,' vol. i. p. 747. 
It completes the evidence, as far as Biot's views are concerned. Although we learn from it that 
the eminent astronomer had slightly modified his opinion as to the exclusively Chinese origin of 
the Indian Nakshatras, it is impossible to accept his explanation of the original character of 
these asterisms, which would nxluce the primitive elements of Indian astronomy and chronology 
to mere astrological contrivances. 

' C'est moi qui me trouvc trSs-honore, et trfe-heureus, de la lettro que vous venez dc 
m'ccrire. J'en suis, on no peut i)lus, reconnaissant. Dans tout le cours dc ma longue carrierc 
scicntifique, je n'ai jamais en en vue que la recherche de la veritc ; et je ne m'en suis cm eii 
possession, qu'aprcs avoir vu Ics resultats de mcs efforts sanctionnes par I'autorite des persomics 
qui en etaient les juges legitimes. Votre lettre me donne cctte assurance pour le precis de 
I'histoire de I'astrouomio chinoise qui m'u occupe toute cette ann^e. C'est ma recompense. 
L'opinion des gens, peu ou mal inform6s, favorable ou defavorable, m'cst eomplettement 
JndifPerento. Mcme, dans le premier cas, je dirais volontiers, eomme Phocion a ses amis, aprcs 
avoir prononce un discours qui avait ete fort applaudi par Ic peuple d'Athenes; est cc que 
jaurais dit quelquc sottisc ! Pour les travaux de I'intcUigence, comme dans les decisions 
]>olitiques, je ne fais aucuu cas du suffrage universe!. 

' Ti'interet bienveillant que vous me temoignez m'enhardit k vous soumettre une idee, qui, 
n die se Irourait judijiee par leg e'preuves que t'ermlUiou pourrait lui fake gulAr, terminerait, il 
I'amiable, toutes les controverses aujourd'hui ^levdes, sur la nature et I'oiigine des Nakshatras 
pr'mHifs des Hindous. 

' Prcnons d'abord le textc repute le plus aneien ou on les voit mentionncs. Dans un passage 
du Rig-veda, VIII. 3, 20, cite par M. Max Muller, il est dit : 

' Soma (la lune) est dam le sein de ce» Nahliatras. 

' Comment ces Nakshatras primitifs etaient-ils constitues ? C'est la premiere question qu'il 
faut se faire. 

' Or je dis que ee n'etaient pas, que ce ne pouvaient pas etre, des divisions du cicl, marquees 
par des etoiles prises sur la route mensuelle de la Lune. En effet, le plan de I'orbe lunaire n'est 
I)as fixe dans le ciel. II tourne continuellement autour de I'axe de Tfoliptique, en conservant, 
sur le plan de ce cercle celeste une inclinaison moyenne d'environ 5°, qui gprouve de tres-petites 
variations pgriodiques. Ainsi dans son mouvement revolutif, qui s'accomplit en 18 ans juliens 
et a, pen pros 7 mois et demi, il contient des etoiles sans cesse differentes, cntre lesquelles, par 
consequent, on ne peut pas etablir des intervalles fixes, qui soient toujours situ^s sur la route 
changeante que la Lune parcourt mensuellement. Les ehinois, qui rapportaient g^nSralement 
les positions m^ridiennes des astres h. 28 Etoiles, toujours les memes, auraient pn, s'ils I'avaient 
voulu, considlrer les intervalles equatoriaux eompris entr'elles, comme autant de Mannonn 


passagSres, appartcnantes specialement A la Lunc. Mais les plus minutieuses rechercUes, faites 
d. ee sUjet, dans les testes originaux et les traditions, par M. Stanislas Julien et mon fils, ne 
leur ont pas decouvert le moindre indice de cette pens^e. Les Chinois considerent leurs 28 
sieou, comme les demeures momenlanhs, du soleil, de la Lune, des PlanStes, des comfetes, en un 
mot, de tous les astres qui se meuvent parmi les ^toiles, sans les attribuer particuli^rement h. 
aucun d'eux. 

' Si les Nakshatras primitifs des Hindous, n'6taient pas des divisiohs stellaires prises sur la 
route mensuelle de la Lune on pent leur concevoir un autre mode de formation, qui aurait i\& 
bien plus simple, et plus naturel. Ce serait, qu'ils eussent design^ dans chaque lunaison, 
certaines 6poques, ou certains intervalles temporaires, auxquels on aurait attribue des 
influences favorables ou d^favorables, comme S. Augustin nous apprend qu'on le faisait, de son 
terns, chez les Romains, et comme bien des gens le font encore de nos jours ; n'osant pas se 
mettre en voyage, ou entreprendre certaines operations agricoles, ou commenccr un traitement 
medical, quand la Lune est en decours. Les Hindous n'auraient-ils pas, trfes-anciennement, sans 
aucunc science, sans aucun dchafaudage astronomique, attache des pronostics de ee genre a 
chacun des 27 ou 28 jours de cha^jue mois, pendant lesquels la Lune nous est visible, ce qui 
aurait produit leurs 27 ou 28 Nakshatras ? Ce ne sont 1ft, sans doute, que des conjectures, 
mais si naturelles, qu'elles semblent m^riter qu'on examine si les aneiens textes Vediques n'en 
offraient pas quelque indication. 

'En supposant qu'elles se trouvassent ainsi justifiees le reste s'expliquerait de soi-mome. 
Quand les Brahmes ont voulu remplacer leur astronomic primitive par une science abstraite et 
math^matique, comme nous la voyons ^tablie dans le Surya-siddhanta, les aS sieou chinois, 
regulierement d6finiB par leurs etoiles determinatrices, leur offraient la matifire, toute preparee, 
d'une substitution savante ft faire aux Nakshatras primitif s : et, ne voulant les employer qu'ft 
des applications astrologiques, ils purent, sans inconvenient, les adopter pour eet usage, con- 
trairement ft leur destination originaire ; de meme qu'ils ont denature I'cmploi des excentriques 
et d^ epicycles grecs, quand ils so les sont appropri^s. 

'Si les choses se sont pass^es comme je viens de le dire, les Nakshatras primitifs des 
Hindous, et ceux du Surya-siddhdnta, seraient des institutions de nature et d'origino enticre- 
ment differentes, I'une indigene, I'autre etrangfere ; et tous les efEorts d'erudition que I'on a faits, 
que Ton voudrait faire, pour dcriver les nouveaux des aneiens, seraient sans fondeinent, comme 
sans resultat. Mais dans tous les cas, ceux qui pretendraient etablir cctte derivation, auraient 
pour obligation premidre, de nous faire connaitre, d'apr&s des documents positifs, en quoi les 
Nakshatras primitifs consistaient. 

' Je m'excuserais de vous avoir entretenu, avec tant de details, d'une simple conjecture, si la 
question qu'elle concerne ne m'avait paru devoir vous int^resser, comme etant un des juges les 
plus competents, et les mieux prepares, poiir la decider. 

' En vous reiterant etc. J. B. Biot. 

'V.S. Si vous pensez qu'il y aurait quelque utilite ft publier cette lettre, ft cause du 
desideratum q'on y signale, disposez en, comme vous le jugerez ft propos '.' 

' ' Fiir die in dieseni geistvollon Brief aiisgespro- Schol. Mahfdhara gewiss mit Recht mit den Nak- 

chene Hypothese lanst sieh vielleicht schoii jetzt gel- sliatra's identificirt (man vergleiche damit Bhigav. 

teud machen : i. VSjas. Samh. IX. 7, wo siobcn und Pur. IV. 29, 21, wo gesagt wird, dass die Gandharva'a 

zwanzig Gandharva's erwahnl werden, welche der die Tage, die Gandharvl's (Femin. von gandharva) die 


Note of Professor Donkin on the Vedic Calendar (page xxvi). 

' The calendar at p. xxvi professes to give the days of the month on which the solsfckos 
would fall during a cycle of five years, and also the moon's place at each solstice. It is supposed 
that the moon is in conjunction with the sun, and the sun in a solstice, at the beginning of the 
(^ycle ; and that the same thing happens at the middle of the cycle. Hence it is easy to find 
the ratios which must have been assumed for the lunar months, both sidereal and synodical, t<> 
the solar year. Five solar years namely have been considered to be equal to 67 sidereal or 62 
synodical months. 

' According to the former of these assumptions the moon would make 6.7 sidereal revolu- 
tions in half a year ; hence at the end of the half year it would be ^^ of a revolution in advance 
of its place at the beginning. Now ~^jj of a revolution is (yVx 27=) 18.9 nakshatras. Hence 
if for every half year we add 18.9 nakshatras to the moon's longitude, and reject multiples of 
37, we get its place as follows: (the names of the nakshatras are taken from the table in 
p. xxxiv.) 

Time Moon's longitude Name of nakshatra in which the 

(in solar years). (in nakshatras). moon's place falls. 

beginning of »Sruviah<Aa. 



in A'itra. 



in Ardra. 



in Piirva-Bhadrapada. 



in Anuradha. 



middle of Aslesha. 



in Asvini. 



in Pui-va-Asharf/w. 



in Uttara-Phalguni. 



in Rohiwi. 


beginning of Srti\kMia,. 

' This agrees exactly with the calendar, and leaves no doubt as to the way in which the 
moon's places were calculated. But it does not settle the ratios of the month or year to the 
solar day. We find it stated, however, in the extract from Garga (pp. liii, liv), that the lustrum 
is said to consist of 1830 solar days; and as this lustnim is evidently the period of five years, 
the year must have been assumed to contain 366 days, the lunar sidereal month 27 J J days, 
and the synodical month 293' days. 

'All this is clear, and agrees with the statement that a yuga (or lustrum) contains 2010 
nakshatra days, that is (•S^J-2 = ) 67 sidereal lunar months. 

' But an apparent difficulty arises when we compare these results with the column in the 

NachtedosJahressind), 2.die bekanntonbeidenHym- als Bezeichnung der " Sonne" (YII. 81, 2. X. 156,4, 

ncn desAtharva-vedaXIX.yundS.von Regnieriiber- und hochst wahrscheinlich auch VI. 67, 6), xind ich 

setzt in den 1859 in Journal des Savants erschieuenen glaube desshalb, dass Max Miller in der von ihm 

Artikeln (im bosonderen Abdruck, p. 86, 87 Anm.). citirten Stelle (Asht. VIII. 3, 20 = M. X. 85, 2), eine 

Uiese Stellen sind jedoeh verhaltmssmassig jung. Im Beziehung auf die Nakshatras im spiitem Sinn mit 

)iig-veda finde ich nakshatra nur in der Bedeulung Unrecht erblickt (History of Ancient Sanskrit Litera- 

" Stern " (M. I. 50, 2. III. 54, 19. X. 68, 11), selbst ture, p. 212 n.).— Anm. d. Red.' 
VOL. IV. 1 


calondar wliicli gives the days of the month on which the solstices would fall. For since inter- 
calations seem to be implied amounting to 60 days, the cycle would consist of i860 days instead 
of 1830. The discrepancy will disappear, however, if we suppose the i860 days to be, not 
solar days, but " tithis," of which 30 make a synodical month ; for five years, being assumed 
to be equal to 62 synodical months, would contain i860 tithis. And this also explains the 
statement (p. Iv) that "in the lustrum of the moon there are said to be i860 days," which is 
unintelligible on the suj)position that solar days arc meant.' (See the extract from Colebrooke, 

P' XX-) 

Calculation of difference of epochs for observed precessional motion 42" 1 2'. 30 of Regulus (from 
1859), given in Archdeacon Pratt's investigation (p. xxviii), by the llev. R. Main, Rad- 
eliffe Observer. 

' The general expression for the processional motion reckoning from the year 1 800, is 
,'",o".240i t + o".oooi 134/I''', when t is the mimber of years, and, reckoning from 1859, it 
is .5o".2.545< + o".oooii34/''', and this is equal to — 42°.l2'.3o"= — 151950". As a 
first approximation neglect t'-. Hence 5o".2545 <= — 151950", or / = — 3024 years. 
Substituting this in f^, we get 50.2545 < = —152987, ax i— —-3044 years, which is 
equivalent to 1 1 86 b. c' 
(Archdeacon Pratt uses for mean annual precession 50", instead of 49". 899.) 

Making a similar calculation for Bentley's investigation (page xxxi &c.), we have for 1 750, 
5o".2298/ + . 0001134 <^ = — 158460", whence, by exactly the same process, / = — 31 77 
years, which is equivalent to 1428 u.c. 


Aptbb, this Preface was printed I received, through the kindness of the Eev. R. Main, the 
RadclifPe Observer, some extremely valuable calculationSj which had been made, at his instance, 
l)y Mr. Hind. Though I never placed much confidence in Bentley's speculations, I certainly 
felt, as I said on page xxxiii of my Preface, that ' the coincidence pointed out by him between 
the modern names of the planets and the ancient astronomical facts to which they owe, or are 
supposed to owe, their origin, required an explanation at the hand of experienced astronomers.' 
Much would depend on the correctness of Bentley's assertion that the occultatious of the 
four planets by the moon took place within the space of about sixteen months, in the years 
1424 and 1425 B.C., and that they took place respectively in those Nakshatms from which 
the names of the planets are derive<l. If Bentley's calculations should prove incorrect, his; 
whole argument in favour of the date 1424 would at once be disposed of. But if they should 
turn out correct, then of two things one : either we should have to allow the reality of the 
observation and the reality of the date implied, or we should have to admit that the Bnlhrnans, 
at the time at least of the Pura»as, possessed sufficient knowledge of astronomy to be able to 
calculate correctly the longitudes and latitudes of the moon and of four of the planets according 
t(i the equinox of the year 1424 B. c. The one result would almost be as interesting as the 
other. I feel convinced, therefore, that all Sanskrit scholars will appreciate the important 
.••ervice rendered by Mr. Hind in undertaking the troublesome calculation, the results of which 
1 am now able to lay before them : 

Nautical Almanac OiEcc, Nov. 21, 1862. 
My dear SiE, 

I send you herewith the places of the moon and planets about the times indicated in your 
letter. Ecliptic conjunctions appear to have occurred in each case, but the differences of latitude 
show that, according to our best tables, Jupiter is the only planet that could have been occulted. 
The astronomical and not the chronological method of reckoning seems to have been adopted by 
Mr. Bentley, as you supposed. 

Yours, &c., 

J. 11. Hind. 

The Rev. R. Main, M.A. 





— M2,S 

Aug. 1 8, o 



? — ([ 



? — € 




+ 28.16 


— 4- 5 

+ 0.2 


+ 4- 7 












3- 8 













+ 2. 7 



2. 7 




— 4.20 

— 1.22 

+ 0.9 

+ i-3> 

Venus tlierefore in Ecliptic (5 with the Moon, about Aug. 20, 3*" 56", but differing from her 
in Latitude, 4" 1° 55'- 

— 1434 

April 16, 







+ I-50 



31- 9 

+ 18.26 

1 ■ 

— 5- 

+ 6.50 











+ 4.22 


I -.39 



34- 9 


- 2-45 













3' -27 

— 17.11 

— 4-»4 

+ 1.21 

+ 5-3.S 

Mercury therefore in Ecliptic d «itli the Moon, about April 17, 7'' 22"', but differing from 
her in Latitude, + 6° 25'. 

— 14 

>4 April 2 2, 



% — <L 



+ 1.17 

ll — d 





+ 13-.19 

— 0.36 


+ 1-53 




+ 6.38 

+ 0. 1 





— 0.20 








+ 0. 3 




14- 7 


— 0.32 




— 30.57 

+ 2.22 

+ 1.17 

— '- S 

Jupiter therefore in Ecliptic <S with the Moon, about April 22, t^ 26", but differing from 
her in Latitude, + 0° 41'. 













Aug. 18, 



+ 6.59 

+ 4.40 

— 2.42 


■ 2 

324. 6 


+ 1.6 



7- 5 




— 442 

4. 4 












336. 9 








— 21.46 

+ 2.51 

— 2.42 

— 5-33 

Mors therefore in Ecliptic d with the Moon, about Aug. 18, 14'' 17", hut differing froto 
her in Latitude, — 7° i'. 



In reply to some further questions, whether such near approaches of the moon and the four 
j)lanets were likely to occur again within the same space of time, and whether, reckoning from 
the equinox of -1424, the longitudes of these conjunctions coincided with the longitudes of 
the Nakshatras from which the names of the planets are derived, I received the following state- 
ments from the Rev. the Radcliffe Observer : — 

' With regard to the first of your questions,— it would require an enormously long period 
to bring the four planets in question into the same relative positions, so as to produce, within 
an equally short space of time, near approaches of all of them to the moon at ecliptic conjunc- 
tion. I think therefore we may consider that this set of conjunctions can belong only to the 
epoch —(1424-5); and there seems to be really some foundation for Bentley's interpretation of 
the legend of Daksha's daughters. • 

' This seems confirmed by a comparison of the longitudes of the planets in (piestion with the 
longitudes of the beginnings of the corresponding Lunar Mansions at this epoch (Mr. Hind's 
equinox being taken for — 1424). 

'Thus from the data at page xxviii, it appears that, for the epoch — 1181, the beginning of 
Asvini, the first Lunar Mansion, is in longitude 23" nearly, and, reckoned from the equinox of 
— 1424, it would be in longitude 20° nearly. 

' Hence, for — 1424, we have the following table for comparison of the planets' places with 
the commencements of the Lunar Mansions from which they are supposed to have derived 
iheir names : — 


Planet's Longitude. 

Longitude of Lunar Mar 



20° Rohiwi. 



100° Mngha. 



233° P. Ashaitta. 



113^ P. Pliilguni. 

' The agreement is certainly remarkable, and probably as close as it could be, considering 
that the Lunar Mansions must occupy e<iual spaces. 

' On the other hand, it is said that the names of the planets are most probably of modern 
origin. If this be true, it would appear that the modern Hindus calculated correctly the con- 
junctions in question, and formed the legends and assignctl the names of the planets afterwards 
from the Lunar Mansions which they occupied.' 

It will thus be ^een that the statement of Bentley as to tlie dates of the four conjunctions 
')f the moon and the planets is fully borne out by Mr. Hind's calculations, and that the 
<'oincidence between the legend quoted by Bentley and the astronomical facets determined by 
Mr. Hind is a real one. Bentley, it is true, does not give his authority, but Prof. Wilson, 
m a note to his translation of the Vishsu-Purawa (p. 225), speaks distinctly of the legend as 
occurring in the Vayu and Linga-Pura«as ; and he mentions that these Purawas appeal to 
tile authority of revelation and tradition in support of the birth of the planets in the Nak- 
shatras Asha(;?/<4, &c. This appeal is, of course, unfounded, for in fbe early Vedic literature, 
and even in the Laws of the Manavas, the very existence of planets is unknown. If, how- 
ever, at a later time the planets were fabled to be daughters of the Nakshatras by Soma, 
the moon, eeliptical conjunctions of moon and planets in each Nakshatra would certainly 


offer the most natural explanation of such a legend. There is only one other explanation 
that might be suggested. The Linga-Purtlwa specifies the position of sun, moon, and planets 
at the so-called Great Equinox, and the Vayu-PurAwa mentions the same position as having 
happened at the end of one of the Manvantaras, the A'ukshusha. At that time the sun is said 
to have been in Vi.^akha, the moon in Kr/ttika, Venus in Pushya (13th Nakshati-a, instead of 
^aghu, 15th), .Jupiter in Piirva-Phalguni, Mars in AshiVMa, Mercury in Dhanish/Z/a (ist Nak- 
shatra, instead of Rohi;/i, 9th), Saturn in Revatt, Ketu in A^lesha, and Riihn in Bharani. This, 
whether a real or a fanciful configuration, might have given rise to the names of two of the 
planets, .Fupiter and Mars, but it would leave the names of Venus (Maghabhu) and Mercury 
(Rauhi;;eya) ut\exp]ained. Now Rauhi?;cya, iis a name of Mereury, occurs in the Amara-kosha 
(I. 1^ 2, 27), and in Ilalayudha; and in the Hema^andra-kosha this planet is called Rohi«isuta,<, 
' the son of Rohi«i,' and Saumyii/^, ' the son of the moon.' (See Indische Studien, II. p. 261.) In 
the .same Kosha, however, Mercury is also called &avish^Mbhi\^, ' born in jSravishif/^a,' i. e. the 
first Nakshatra; and this, as will b(! seen, agrees with the statement quoted above from tlie Vayu 
and Linga-Purru/as. Among the names of Mars, Ilema^andra mentions AshruMAbhiVi ; among 
those of Jupiter, Phalgunibhava//; among those of Venus, Maghabhava/;. Ilema^-andra likewise 
mentions Revatibhava/* as a name of .rui)iter, Rharawibhu/t as a name of Rahu, and A«lesha- 
bhii/i as a n.ame of Ketu, all in conformity with the description of the Great Equinox given 
in the Purawas. Whichever explanation of the names of the four planets we adopt, it is 
certain that the names are of modern date, with the sole exception of RauhiHcya. None of 
them occur in the Surya-siddl)anta (sec Surya-siddhanta, ed. Whitney, p. 378); nay, at the 
time of the Surya-siddlulnta, and with the astronomical views contained in that work, their 
])ositions, as far back as —1424, could not have been ascertained correctly by calculation. 
Whether subsequent astronomers in India possessed the knowledge necessary for such eahfu- 
lations is a question which I feel not competent to answer; but it seems to mc almost as 
incredible as that an observation of the planets which could have been real but once in the 
history of tlie world, namely, in the fifteenth century B. c, should have been preserved for 
thousands of years by mere tradition. 



When in the Preface to tlie fourth volume of my edition of the Rig-veda 
I felt it my duty to state that for the future my contributions to Vedic 
literature could be but small, I hardly imagined that it would still fall to 
my lot to bring out the remaining two vohnnes of this work. 1 consoled 
myself with the thought that T had placed the most important portion of 
the Rig-veda and its commentary in the hands of Sanskrit scholars, and T 
felt certain that no one would blame me if, with the new direction which 
my studies had necessarily to take, first as Professor of Modern European 
' Literature, afterwards as Professor of Comparative Philology in the University 
of Oxford, I could not, as before, devote all my time and strength to tiie 
.^tudy of Sanskrit. For some years I had indeed to allow Sanskrit to becomr 
a mere mpepyov, partly in oi'der to be able to keej) j)ace with the advance of 
Uvo most progressive branches of leai'ning, the history of jnodern Eui'0{)ean 
literature, and the science of language, partly in order to fill those gaps whicli 
an almost exclusive devotion to the study of Sanskrit for the space of fifteen 
years would naturally leave in the general knowledge of any scholar. Lite 
is meant for more, at least I think so, than the mere drudgery of collating 
MSS. and correcting proof-sheets, and those who know what it is to pulilisli 
a Sanskrit text for the first time, particularly such a work as Saya//.a's 
commentary, fuii of extracts from works unpublished, full of .-illusions to 
authorities but little known or lost altogether, will understand that the 
[)rinting of six volumes like the present is enough to occu{)y the l)est part 
of a man's life. 

If now, after the lapse of ten years, I resume the work of my youth, 
intending, if life and health be spared, to complete it without further inter- 
ruption, I do so not without an effort. What I myself wished to learn 
from Sdyana, I have learnt, and the critical restoration and editing of his 
text will involve a sacrifice of time which I can ill afford. My own i)lan 


was to go on with the translation of the Rig-veda, of which the first volume 
appeared in 1870, and to finish some other works which are even nearer to 
my heart. But the extremely kind way in which I have been urged by 
scholars, not only in Europe, but also in India, to complete this edition of 
the text and commentary of the Rig-veda, left me at last no choice, and I 
only hope that I may not disappoint my friends in spite of all I have done 
to comply with their wishes. 

It is but too true that as we advance in the commentary of Sayana, 
the difficulties in restoring a correct text grow greater rather than smaller. 
The MSS. become more and more faulty, the omissions more numerous, 
and the really useful variety of readings, represented before in different 
independent families of MSB., often dwindles away into the most perplexing 
uniformity. This, as I suggested on a former occasion, is probably due to 
the fact that the later portions of this great work were less frequently studied 
in the schools of India, so that the MSS. which we possess, either in the original 
or in copies, did not receive the benefit of those corrections to which as 
editor I owed so much in the earlier portions of the commentary. I have 
spared no trouble and expense in order to find out whether MSS. of S4ya«a 
could still be discovered in India which might help me over desperate passages 
or fill up gaps which occur in all our MSS. My friends in India liave really 
scoured the country, and I have to return to them my most sincere tiianks 
for the trouble they have taken for my sake and for tlie sake of Sayana. 
But the result has not been encouraging. No MSS. have been discovered 
anywhere which do not belong to the three families. A, B, and C, none to 
supply deficiencies that run through all the members of these families. Only 
a few weeks ago I received a letter, dated Tanjore, Dec. 27, 187 1, from Mr. 
Burnell, to whom 1 had sent a number of test passages for the last Manriala. 
His search too lias been in vain, and though of one MS. which the proprietor 
would not let out of his possession, Mr. Burnell has not yet been able himself 
to make a collation, yet he received trustworthy information that it was in pre- 
cisely the same condition as the MSS. in my possession. If, hereafter, new and 
independent MSS. of Sayana's commentary should come to light, I am quite 
pi'e})ared to find that in some places they may convict me of faults, and 
supply lacunas which 1 was unable to fill. But the same fate awaits all 
critical editions. All I can say is that I have done my best to make my 
apparatus criticus as complete as I could make it, and with that apparatus 
1 doubt whether on the whole a more correct text could have been produced 


than the one which I have given. There is not one doubtful or (liffic\ilt 
passage in the whole of this work where I have not .myself carefully weighed 
the evidence of the MSS., not one where I have not myself verified the exact 
readings of the MSS. even in those portions which were copied and collated 
for me by others, except where the originals were out of my reach. 

I am well aware of the opinion more or less openly expressed by certain 
Sanskrit scholars that a work such as SAyajia's commentary did not deserve 
a critical edition, that the time and care bestowed on it were simply wasted, 
that a mere reprint of one MS. would have been sufficient for all purposes, 
and that we, the scliolars of Europe, may dispense altogether with the 
assistance of native scholars and commentators. On these points I decliiu^ 
to be drawn into any argument. I have repeatedly expressed and defended 
my own views on tliese matters during tlie last five and twenty years. My 
own convictions with i-egard to them have never wavered, and though 1 
hope I can surrender a conviction even when I have held it for a quarter 
of a century, I do not think that scholars who simjily repeat old and, I 
think, cx])loded arguments, without even supporting them with such skill 
and learning as were employed in their defence by former scholars, have 
any right to insist on a new reply. The evidence is complete, and I am 
i(uite prepared to await the verdict. 

1 cannot, however, leave this subject, without entering my most earnest 
•)rotest against the language used by a scliolar for whose learning, and I 
ought to add, what is far more important, for whose character I have h)ng 
entertained a sincere respect, I mean Professor Spiegel of Erlangen. In ;i 
discussion lately carried on between him and Professor Koth on the (juestion 
as to what weight we ought to attribute resj)ectively to traditional interpreta- 
tion and to modern criticism in translating the sacred books of the ancient 
world, Professor Spiegel tries to show that my views on this subject differ 
from those of Professor Roth. He says : ' Max Miiller in seiner Ubersetzung 
des Rigveda aussert sich folgendermassen (I. XV) : " The word translation, 
however, has many meanings. I mean by translation, not a mere rendering 
of the hymns of the Rig-veda into English, Fiench, or German, but a full 
account of the reasons which justify the translator in assigning such a powei- 
to such a word, and such a meaning to such a sentence. I mean by trans- 
lation a real deciphering, a work like that which Buinouf performed in his 
first attempts at a translation of the Avesta — a traduction raisonnSe, if such 
an expression may be used. Without such a ])rocess, without a running 
VOL. IV. m 


commentary, a mere translation of the ancient hymns of the Br^hmans will 
never lead to any solid results." ' Professor Spiegel then continues : ' Wollte 
man diese Ansicht in aller Strenge festhalten und nur eine solche Ubersetzung 
als eine wirkliche gelten lassen, welche mit einem fortlaufenden Commentare 
versehen ist, so wiirde man auf die Frage, ob Luther die Bibel ubersetzt 
habe oder Schlegel den Shakspere, eigentlich mit einem herzhaften Nein ! 
antworten mlissen, denn keiner von beiden hat seiner Ubersetzung einen 
Commentar beigegeben.' 

Now this is not a fair way of arguing. I did not say there was only 
one kind <jf translation : I said on the contraiy that the word translation 
has many meanings, and I said this, as will appear from the sentence 
immediately preceding, because, without such a limitation, it would have 
been extremely presumptuous on my part to call my translation the first 
translation of the Kig-veda. The sentence immediately preceding the one 
(juoted by Professor Spiegel runs thus : ' It may sound self-contradictory, if, 
after confessing the help which I derived from these translations, I venture 
to call my own the first translation of the Rig-veda.' If after that I continue, 
' I mean by translation not a mere rendering of the hymns into English, 
French, or German,' every unprejudiced reader will see that these words have 
a very difterent meaning from what they would have if they stood by them- 
selves. They do not mean that there is but one way of translating the Rig- 
veda, but that the translation which I intend to give is meant to be a 
fradnctmi raisounce. 

As therefore I did not say what Professor Spiegel makes me say, I 
cannot admit that my views and those of Professor Roth on the proper 
mode of translating the Rig-veda are opposed to each other. There is ample 
room for such a translation as Professor Roth shadows forth by the side of 
my own, and there is hardly a word in Professor Roth's remarks on the 
subject with which I do not heartily agree. ' Eine richtige Ubersetzung,' he 
says, ' ist der beste Commentar. Ich kann mich darum jixi it w Ansicht 
nicht einverstanden erkliiren, dass eine Ubertragung- If, herftia nur wenig 
Nutzen bringen konne, wenn sie nicht von ein^ come tirlichen Commentar 
begleitet sei, und wurde, weiui ich daran denken \/5.6nnte, ein solches Werk 
zu unternehmen, mich vielmehr bemllhen, nicht in die Noten, sondem in den 
Text den Schwerpunkt der Arbeit zu legen. Die Ubersetzung muss fiir sich 
selbst reden, eines Commentars bedarf sie in der Regel nur da, wo sie nicht 
uumittelbar uberzeugend, wo der Ubersetzer seiner Sache nicht sicher iat. 



Vor denjenigen Lesern, welche nicht nachrechnen konnen, auf welchem Wec>- 
der Ubersetzer zu seineii Combinationen gekommen ist, hat er nicht nothif 
sich im Einzelnen zu rechtfertigen, fiir die andern kann er sich kurz fasson.' 

All I can say is that there is much force in these remarks, that I feel the 
tnith of them probably more than any one else, and that I have myself fre- 
(juently pleaded in exactly the same sense. But I cannot disguise from myseli" 
or from others that there is considerable danger in these principles of translation, 
so boldly enunciated, and that all depends on their application. As applied by 
Langlois and others they have proved most disastrous, in the hands of Pro- 
fessor Roth they might produce the most valuable results. No one would 
rejoice more than myself if Professor Roth would publish a translation of the 
Rig-veda, even without any commentary whatever. The public at large would 
receive such a translation most gratefully, and for many years to come it would 
answer nearly all purposes. But as far as Sanskrit scholars are concerned, I 
doubt whether such a translation, however striking and brilliant, would render 
the more tedious work which I have inidertakon altogether useless. No scholar 
will be satisfied unless be has the complete evidence before him on which 
a translation is founded. If a meaning is assigned to a certain word, and 
we do not know that that meaning proves satisfactory in every passage 
where that word occurs, if we have the slightest misgiving that one single 
passage may have been left out, the requirements of true scholarship are 
not fulfilled, the work is imperfect, and each successive generation will have 
to go through the same process of collecting and collating again and again. 

Besides, the argument which has been urged so strongly by all Sanskrit 
sclioJars against the assumed infallibility of native commentators and trans- 
lators cannot sui-ely be warded off from ourselves. If Saya?ia is infallible, it 
has been said again and again, why does he differ from Ya,ska or Mahidhara ? 
why does he even differ from himself? Does not the same ajjply to ourselves, 
or is there any scholar likely to submit to the ipse, dixit of another? Let 
any one compare, for instance, Professor Roth's translation of the Vedic 
burial-hymns in the eighth volume, with my own in the ninth volume of 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society, and he will find that both 
translations are intelligible, and so far might be said to carry their own 
conviction ; but he will also find that in some very important points they 
differ. Again, in some of the commonest words Professor Roth's interpretation 
as given in his Dictionary differs considerably from the interpretation proposed 
in his earlier essays. To give an instance, we find that in 1846 he translated 

m 2 



apd.s4m apdstama, an epithet of the river Sindhu (X. 75, 7), by 'das wasser- 
veichste der Gevvitsser,' as if apda were derived from ap, water. In the Dic- 
tionary apds is rightly rendered by active, and derived from dpas, opus. Yet in 
his Original Sanskrit Texts (vol. v. p. 345), published in 1870, Dr. Muir reverts 
to the old interpretation, rendering apds&m apiistamS, by 'the most abundant 
of streams.' How are such diflerences to be settled except by proof, i.e. by a 
conii)arison and translation of every passage of the Rig-veda in which the same 
words and the same ideas occur? Even when this has been achieved, many 
passages will still remain where that laborious process does not lead us to satis- 
factory results. But we may honestly say then that all that can be done has 
been done, and that every one is henceforth left to his own resources. If we 
keep our ^Jicccs justificatives to ourselves, no conscientious scholar will accept 
our conclusions without feeling it his duty to collect the same evidence for him- 
self, and to go over all the passages again as we have done ourselves. Even 
though 1 might mistrust my own judgment, the concurrent testimony of the 
best Sanskrit scholars would leave me no room for doubt on this point, and 
will certainly not allow me to deviate in future from the method which I 
liave followed ui the first volume of my translation. 

Having thus, as I hope and trust, made it clear that, if there is any 
diri'erence of opinion between Professor Roth and myself, it is simply with 
reference to what at the present moment is likely to be most practically 
u.seful, but none whatever as to the principles which ought to be followed 
in the translation of the Veda or Avcsta, f next complain of the 
jiianner in which Professor Spiegel contradicts me with regard to Burnouf's 
principles of interpretation, and tries to enlist that eminent scholar as a 
supporter of his own views on the paramount importance of the traditional 
interpretation of the A vesta. Professor Spiegel thinks it becoming to say: 
' Es ist daher " ganz faLsch," wenn Max Muller (Essays I. 1 24, der deutschen 
Ausgabe) den Standpunct Burnoufs als verschieden von dem meinigen darstellt 
imd sich folgendemiasson aussert : " Ein Gelehrter wie Burnouf jedoch, der 
'mm ersten Mai darauf ausging, von jedem Wort des Zendavesta Rechen- 
schaft zu geben, jede grammatische Endung zu erkliiren, jeden Satz in seine 
Bestandtheile aufzulosen und die wahre Bedeutung jedes Ausdrucks durch eine 
etymologische Analyse und Vergleichung verwandter Worter im Sanskrit zu 
ergritnden, vermochte aus diesen uberlieferten tjbersetzungen nur geringen 
Nutzen und Rath zu ziehen." Bekanntlich hat Burnouf gerade das Gegentheil 
gesagt und seine Arbeiten Uber das Avesta sind eine fortgesetzte Widerlegung 


der eben angefiihrten Behauptung. Man schlage Burnoufs Schriften aiif, wd 
man will, wo er ein neues Wort erklilrt, wird man ihn stets von der Tradition 
ausgehend finden, die Billigung der traditionellen Angabe bildet gewohnlicli 
den Schluas seiner Untersuchutig, die Abweichung von der Tradition ist 

Now these are strong words : — but what are the facts ? I shall not appeal 
to those who attended Burnoufs lectures at the Collbye de France, and wlio 
know with what ingenuity and irony Burnouf delighted to dissect the tradi- 
tional interpretations whether of Siiya/ia or of Neriosetigh or of Anquetil, and 
how he enjoyed every opportunity of explaining the Veda by the Zendavesta 
and the Zendavesta by the Veda. I shall appeal to his own printed words 
in order to show that, from the very beginning, Burnouf looked upon the 
traditional interpretation of the Zendavesta as, no doubt, extremely useftil 
in a fii'st attempt to disentangle the words and to guess at their 
meaning, but as of no authority in itself Whether the tradition was 
right or wrong, he hold that under all circumstances it had to be confirmed 
by an independent grammatical and etymological analysis of the original 

In his Comnii'utaire sur le Yapia, p. xxvii, he says : ' Le problcme (]ue 
j'avais h. resoudre ctait celui-ci: etant donnd m\ mot zend auquel les Parses 
attribuent une signification (pie la comj^araison des textes et I'etudo des 
langues qui appartiennent i\ la meme famille ne confirment ni n'expllquent, 
justifier le sens donne par les Parses on en trouver mi autre.' 

Thus he asserts from the very beginning the independence of his criticism. 
Again, p. xxxii, he says : ' Je fais .suivre la version de Ncriosengh de celle 
dAncjuetil, parce (jue c'est une autre expression du sens traditionel ; et, aprus 
avoir mis sous les yeux du lecteur ce double moyen d'interprctation, j'e me 
livre h la discussion de chacun des mots du paragraphe, coraparant entre 
elles les variances des manuscrits, et terminant par un resume (jui con- 
finne ou rcctijie la traduction de Ndriosengh, ou celle d'Aiujuetil, on I'une 
et I'autre h la fois.' . . . ' Car, de trois clioses I'une, ou je pense que la tra- 
duction de Ncriosengh ou celle d'Anquetil, ou I'une et I'autre il la fois, sont 
exactes, et alois la discussion a pour but de prouver cettc opinion ; ou, ce 
qui est beaucoup plus frequent, je rectitie la traduction d'Ancpietil jl I'aide 
de celle de Ncriosengh ou de I'analyse du texte ; ou enfin, je trouve que la 

' Chips from a German Workshop, vol. i. p. 138. 


traduction d'Anquetil et celle de Ndriosengh sont inexactes, mais ni I'une ni 
I'autre ne me donneiit les moyens d'en proposer une nouvelle'.' 

All this was written in 1838, and before Rosen's edition of the first book 
of the Rig-veda had been published. When Burnouf had discovered what 
assistance might be derived from the Veda for a correct interpretation of 
the Zendavesta, he spoke with even greater pi-ecision. In the introduction 
to his Etudes sur la langue et siir les textes Zends, he writes (in 1840): 'La 
plupart de ces termes sont obscurs, et Anquetil en a rarement saisi le veritable 
sens ; souvent mcme la tradition des Parses, qui a servi de base k son travail, 
se tait sur leur signification precise, et I'analyse philologique peut 'seule en 
faire soup^onner I'origine et I'application. Ici, comme dans mon Commentaire 
sur le Ya9na, je ferai amplement usage de ce dernier moyen; mais j'aurai 
I'avantage d'y joindre les secours que fournit la connaissance plus avancde 
aujourd'hui du dialecte vedique. Gr^ce aux travaux d'un savant h, jamais 
regrettable (Fr. Rosen^ nous pouvons maintenant ^tudier une portion assez 
etendue du Rigveda, et mettre a profit, pour I'intelligence des livres zends, 
un texte qui netait pas accessible au moment oh j'ai publie le commence- 
ment de mon Conunentaire sur le Ya^na. Les analogies nombreuses qu'offrent 
les Vcdas avec ce que nous possddons du Zend Avesta, sous le rapport du 
langage et des iddes, ne seront, je le jiense, mcconnues de personne . . . .' 

Still more striking than in the case of grammatical forms is the complete 
independence with which Burnouf treated the Parsi tradition, whether embodied 
in Anquetil's or Neriosengh's translation, when discussing questions of doctrine. 
Thus, to mention but one instance ^ the dogma of the resurrection, which, 
according to Anquetil's translation, would seem to be nientioned again and 
again in the ancient Zend texts, was completely eliminated by Burnouf's 
analysis ^ and though he gives Neriosengh credit for not introducing this 
dogma, yet he adds at once, ' 1' inexactitude manifeste de la version de 

' See on the true character of Burnouf's Bystem all. VisvayuA, too, must frequently he taken in the 

of interpretation the words of Darmcstcter in the Veda as an adverb, meaning ' always.' In paBsages 

Sacred Books of the, vol. iv. Introduction, like I. 27,3; 67,6; 68,5, &o., the sense forbids to take 

pp xxi gg„ viivSyuA aH a nominative, the accent shows that it is 

^ Etudes sur la langue et sur les textcs Zends, not a vocative of visvtiyuB. Professor Beufey rightly 

pp. 1-82. translates it by ' Lebenslang ; ' Professor Roth takes 

■■' Though Burnouf's explanation of visp&i yave, vi«v{(yu everywhere as an adjective in the sense of 

for all time, and of yavag fta yavaCtatae k&, for ever visv4kr.Vh<i, dwelling among all people. This is a 

and ever, seem beyond the reach of criticism, it is case in point whore a translation of all the passages 

curious to observe the expression visvayave in the in which visvayu occurs could alone show whether it 

Veda (X. 23, 14) used in the sense of for ever, once for should be taken as an adjective or as an adverb. 


N^riosengh infirme gravement Targument negatif que je me crois en droit 
de tJrer de son texte.' 

I could add many more passages to show that Burnouf, though never 
neglectful of the assistance which the tradition of the Parsis offers for an 
interpretation of the Avesta, always asserted the supremacy of European 
scholarship, and that he did this the more strongly the more he advanced 
in his study of the Avesta and the Veda. But the extracts I have given 
will suffice to show that what I wrote of Burnouf was written deliberately, 
more deliberately, I trust, than Professor Spiegel imagined. That it would 
have been almost impcssible for Burnouf to decipher the language of the 
Avesta without the assistance of the Parsi tradition is well known to all 
Zend scholars. As a preliminary step that tradition was as indispensable 
to the students of the Avesta, as Sdyana's commentary was to the students 
of the Veda. But when the time came ' to give an account of eveiy word 
in the Zend texts, to explain each granmiatical tern^ation, to parse every 
sentence, and to establish the true meaning of every term,' then, I re})eat 
again, Burnouf found that both Ancpietil and Neriosengh offered him but 
scant assistance. More than this I did not intend to say, and I doubt whethe)- 
on calmer reflection Professor Spiegel would say again that in this I was 'quite 
wrong.' The sincere regard which 1 have always entertained for Professor 
Spiegel made it impossible for me to allow such expressions, as coming from 
him, to pass unnoticed and unchallenged, nor do I stand alone in regretting 
that in their crude, and my friend Professor Spiegel will forgive me for 
adding, in their somewhat rude form, tliey should ever have been allowed to 
appear in the pages of the Journal of the German Oriental Society. 

But allowing even that peo[)le might differ as to the real value of tlie 
Veda and, more particularly, of Saya>ia's commentary, I feel that a work 
which is the oldest literary record of the Aryan, if not of the whole liuman 
race, together v ith that commentary which represents to us the last result 
of native traditional exegesis, deserved to be edited once for all with at 
least the same care as the love-songs of Catullus or of Walthei- von der 
Vogelweide. Nor should I have consented to be the editor imless I had 
been allowed tc follow my own judgment in these mattere, and to apply 
ni editing SAyawa's commentary the same principles of critical scholarship 
which I had learnt to respect in the schools of Hermann and Haupt. 

Some years ago, on receiving two new MSS. from India, I gave a short 
account of their relative position and value in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 


Society (December, 1866). I here subjoin the more important portions of 
that article. 

Having lately received two new MSS. of S4yana's commentary on the 
Rig-veda, I thought that a few lines on the character of these MSS., and on 
the proper use to be made of Sanskrit MSS. in general, might be of some 
interest both in England and in India. I owe these MSS. to the kindness 
and enlightened generosity of Dr. Bhao Daji, who is well known to the 
members of the Royal Asiatic Society, both as an intelligent collector of 
Indian antiquities, inscriptions, and manuscripts, and as a careful and suc- 
cessful inquirer into the history and chronology of India. I had explained 
to him and to other friends of mine in India the great difficulties I have to 
contend with in editing the two final Ash^akas of the Rig-veda. Whenever 
1 heard of the existence of an old or otherwise promising MS. of S4ya?ia, I 
always sent to my correspondents in India a number of test passages, in 
order to find out whether the MS. in question contained any independent 
readings. A collation of three or four passages in which all my MSS. shared 
exactly the same mistake, was generally sufficient to establisli whether or no 
the new MS. represented an independent family, and a conqjarison of some 
other passages in which one of the three families had its peculiar faults or 
omissions, sufficed to show to which of the three the MS. belonged. 

It is well known by this time that a mere collation of MSS. and an 
accumulation of various readings are of little use for critical purposes. MSS. 
are copied one from another, and if we have ten MSS. all copied from the 
same original, the various readings of these MSS. are clearly of no documen- 
tary value whatever. It is quite possible that here and there some of the 
more intelligent copyists may have been struck by the palpable errors of 
the original before them, and the corrections which they introduced may 
carry conviction to every reader. Yet, according to the principles of diplo- 
matic criticism so well laid down by Lachmann, and at present adopted by 
all classical scholars of note, these corrections can claim no more authority 
than the conjectures of any living scholar, unless it can be proved, and this 
is very difficult, that the copyist had before him more than one MS. at the 
time. The object of diplomatic criticism is not to restore the most correct 
or the most plausible text, b\it that text, with all its mistakes and omissions, 
which a comparison of all the MSS. at our disposal places within our reach. 
Hence our first object in examining and collating MSS. must be to establish 
their respective worth and weight as witnesses. We ought to be most careful 


not to allow ourselves to be swayed either by the beautiful writing or by the 
age of any MS. Though the age of a MS. is always a matter of considerable 
importance, it happens not unfrequently that a modern copy posse.sses greater 
documentary value than an older copy, for the simple reason that it was 
copied straight from a MS. of greater age than any which we have access 
to. This is the case, for instance, with regard to the Ca MS. of SAya/ta, 
which, although the oldest, is of far less value critically than the modern 
MS. A Colehrooke. Let it once be established that out of ten MSS., B, C, I), 
are copied from A ; that E, F, G, H, I, can all be traced back to a common 
source; and that J stands by itself: — then the office of an editor is simply 
to establish for each doubtful passage the reading of A, the reading that 
will account for the variations, if any, in E, F, G, H, I, and the reading of J. 
To give one of tliese readings in the printed text and the others in the 
notes, is all that can be required of him. After confronting in numerous 
])laces the evidence of three witnesses, it will, generally, be j)ossible to ari'ive 
at an estimate of their respective value, and it is no doubt the greatest 
triumph of diplomatic criticism if it is possible, by conclusive evidence, to 
establish the paramount authority of one among three or more apparently 
independent traditions. In classical philology, where we have mostly to 
deal with MSS. which directly or indirectly nnist be traced back to the 
oi-iginal MS. of one individual author, the establishment of one supreme 
authority is an object never to be lost sight of In India, where the 
individual author is frequently merged in a school, and where oral teaching 
opens, even in modern times, so wide a door to disturbing influences, we 
nnist be prepared to arrive in the end at several independent authorities, 
generally localised in the princijjal seats of Br3,hmanic learning. Thus, 
although there may have been one original text of the Ritmilyajia, it would 
clearly be in vain to attempt to restore that text by subjecting the two 
traflitional texts, to an eclectic criticism. All that an editor can do, is tct 
give either the one or the other text according to the MSS. and to the 
commentaries, belonging to the one or the other school. The same applies 
to literary works which are ascribed to individual authors, as the play of 
/S'akuntaE, ascribed to Kalidasa. Here, too, the two traditional texts or 
'recensions' must be kept apart, though, in this case, it is less difficult to 
decide which of the two is the original. With regard to the text of the 
Vedas, the Br^hmans themselves recognised the existence of independent 
traditions or branches (stlkhAs) ; they chronicled the various readings of the 
VOL. IV. n 


hymns and even of the Br&hmanas, and this at so early a date that we 
cannot ascribe these variations to the negligence of scribes, but only to the 
influence of oral tradition, kept up in different families and schools. What 
applies to the text of the Vedas, applies with equal, or even greater, force 
to their commentaries. Although the commentary of SAyana was composed 
as late as the fifteenth century of our era, and although I possess one MS., 
written not more than about a hundred years later, yet that MS. (Ca) 
cannot claim the supreme authority, which, for instance, the codex Lauren- 
tianus A claims among the MSS. of Sophocles. The MS. of Colebrooke (A 2), 
although of a much more modern date, about 1761 A.D., represents in innu- 
merable passages a less corrupt and less mangled text ; at all events a text 
which could not possibly have passed through that phase which is exhibited 
in Ca. I have repeatedly, in the Prefaces to my edition of the Rig-veda, 
explained the principles by which I have been guided in restoring the text of 
Sflya^ia. Having to supply a text that should be practically useful, I have 
now and then had to deviate from the strict principles of diplomatic criticism, 
so far as to place manifest blunders, even when they were supported by all 
the MSS., in the notes. I have chiefly done so when none of the readings 
of the MSS. would have yielded any sense whatever, or, when I was enabled, 
by consulting the originals from which SAyana quoted, to support my cor- 
rections by independent authority. I have on two or three occasions allowed 
an explanation, though it appeared in one or two MSS. only, and was clearly 
a marginal note due to the hand of a later student, and not Silyana's own, 
to form part of the printed text, simply because I imagined it would be 
useful, and might be passed over if given only in the notes. Deviations 
like these from the strict rules followed by Lachmann, Haupt, and others, 
have always been noted in the Varietas Lectionis. I do not wish to defend 
them even in the edition of a work like S4yana's commentary, and I have 
tried to avoid them in the later volumes. 

In order to show the position which the two new MSS. of Sdyana, lately 
received from Dr. Bhao Daji, hold in the well-established pedigree of Sdyana's 
MSS., I have chosen a passage where SAyana gives a long extract from a 
Br^hmana. Such extracts are generally full of blunders, and unless they 
can be verified in the original from which they are taken, they are very 
troublesome to an editor. Their usefulness, however, for determining the 
relative position of our MSS. is all the greater, because the scribes, who 
had little difiiculty in coirecting blunders in the uniform and business-like 


style of SAyawa, found it more difficult to deal with the antiquated words 
and grammatical forms of the Br^hmanas, and therefore contented them- 
selves generally with copying letter by letter the original before them. It 
will be seen at one glance, by -comparing the texts of the various MSS. in 
this passage, that of the two MSS. lent to me by Dr. Bhao Daji, the one 
which I mark CB belongs to the B class, the other which I mark AD 
belongs to the A class. The first MS. (CB) is written in a beautiful hand, 
with large and distinct letters, and contains both text and commentary. 
It has no date, at least not in that portion of it which I was able to 
examine. The other MS, (AD) is likewise written in a very distinct hand, 
but the letters are smaller and less carefully formed. In the centre of each 
page, space is left for inserting the text, but it is only in the sixth Ash/aka, 
and in the seventh as far as fol. 51, that the text has been added. In 
tlie eighth Ashiaka the commentary occupies the whole page, no space being 
left for the text. At the end of the eighth Ash^aka a date is given, 181 3, 
as it would seem, of Samvat, i.e. 1757 a.d. The name of the writer is not 
clear, but it may be meant for SadMm, the son of (raganndtha. Whoever 
the writer Avas, he lived, like the writer of Colebrooke's MS., at Benares, 
and this so far confirms my opinion that the A class represents the Benares 
text, in the same manner as the B class represents the scholastic tradition 
of Bombay and Punah, and the class, at least in the earlier Ash^akas, 
that of Calcutta. In order to explain the arrangement of the following extracts, 
I have only to add that the first class of MSS. comprises, besides the MSS. of 
Dr. Bhao Daji and Colebrooke, the two C MSS., which, as I pointed out in the 
Preface to the second volume of my edition (p. viii [see now vol. i. p. xxxii]), are 
in the later Ashitakas derived from an A source'. Taylor's MS. too, which 
in the earlier Ash^akas belonged to the B class, and was therefore marked 
B4, belongs in the eighth Ashteka to the A class. How this came to 
pass is easily explained by the fact that these MSS. were copied from 
different originals lent to Taylor, Mill, and Wilson by persons residing in 
different parts of India. The second, or C class, is now represented by one 
MS. only, the oldest hitherto known in Europe, which I continue to quote 
as Ca. In the third, or B class, B i is the MS. of Stevenson ; B 2 the MS. 
of Burnouf, as copied by me (I hope, correctly) in 1846; B 3 is the new 

* Dr. Mill's MS. (C 2 or C Mill) and Professor occasioually tliey supply independent readings where 
Wilson's MS. (C 4 or C Wilson) were both copied the other A MSS. are either corrupt or imperfect. 
at Calcutta, but not from either A or Ca, so that (Sec Rv. VIII. 91,3; 9i>45 loi, 14, &c.) 

n 2 


copy mentioned by me in the Preface to the second volume, now in the hands 
of Dr. GoldstUcker, and kindly collated by him for me ; BM is a short 
fragment of the last Ashfaka which I received from Dr. Haug ; CB is the 
MS. lent me by Dr. Bhao Daji. The last line givfes the text as it may be 
re-established from an intercomparison of the three families of SAyana's 
MSS. I do not maintain that it represents exactly what S&yana wrote, 
still less that it gives the correct text of the SXtj^ysniaksb. It is simply 
impossible, with the MSS. at our disposal, to restore a text that might claim 
to be identical with Sflyana's own writing. All that can be claimed for 
our text is that it represents Sd,yana's writing as far as it can now be 
restored with the help of our MSS. It gives what is obtainable with a 
strict observance of the rules of diplomatic criticism. It is not only possible, 
but extremely likely, that if to-morrow we obtained Sdyana's own manuscript, 
whether from the ruins of VidyAnagara, where a complete collection of his 
works is said to have been buried, or from the MS. which Dr. Haug saw 
at Ahmadabad, and to which he assigns the date of Samvat 1526, a.d. 1470, 
we should find slight variations between Sdyana's original and the nearest 
approach to it that is within our reach. It is still more likely that if a MS. of 
the (SAtyayanaka were recovered in India, there might be between it and our 
own restored text, considerable discrepancy. The students of SAyana's com- 
mentary know that this is frequently the case when Sdyana quotes from 
Br4hmawa.s and SAtras, of which we possess both MSS. and printed texts ; 
and we have our choice between supposing that Sdyana quoted from memory 
and without caring about minute accuracy, or that he quoted from a sA-kha 
different from that which is before us. It would be easy, no doubt, to improve 
the text of the Brdhma^ia, as here printed, by conjecture. But those who know 
the mischief done by conjectural criticism in classical scholarship, will depre- 
cate, most strongly, any countenance given to it by Sanskrit scholars. It may 
be truly said that the chief business of modern critics is to cleanse the text of 
the classics from the improvements introduced by the ingenious editors of 
i!he last three centuries, and we ought not to neglect this lesson in preparing 
^ur own editiones principes. Let an editor give what there is, and let the 
^mmentator and translator say what might be, or what ought to be. 


AD tH^H^H ^TOifRff 'in^Sn^'^ ^W»»TfiT TT5^Ht# 

^ 2 ^^*|l9«f?T 

04 W^tW#^ 

B4 ^^>RT^^ 

Oa ^^*|Qh 

B2 rTft^J?rT% 

BM rf^l5TI?n^ 

OB H^^IlsTT^ 


' The B MS8. differ from the A and Ca MSS. by 
putting m instead of THI. The repetition of ^- 
'*"*l*f is a slip of the writer of A D. 

All B MSS. have ■^H^TPt right, while the A MSS. 
have the mistake ^HT^^, which reappears in the still 
more corrupt Ca ^3HT%T. 

AH the B MSS. blunder in the third vowel of 
^f^TTft; the A MSS. are right; Ca blunders in 
leaving out the anus vftra. The patronymic name of 
Asamati, which I suppose to be TTTlfW, is corrupt 
in all MSS.; the A MSS. agree in ^TSuWrt except 

B4, which has been corrected, and C4, wliiih has the 
slight variation of ^[T^mftlj ,* while the B MSS. sup- 
port throughout at all events the vri dd h i vowel of tlfe 
third syllable, which also appearc in the faulty readiug 
of Ca : B I and 2 are more closely united, and so are 
B3, BM, and CB; the former giving <|S||^(| or 
•B, the latter il«l|flfl8 or 'jft^ ; see Rv. X. 60, r,- 
On AsamWi see Lassen, ludische Alterthumskunde 
(first edition), vol. i. p. -xiii. note 31 ; Colebrooke, Misc. 
!, I. p. 25. 


^ B3 'Ttin^'TT ^»ii'!m^ ^313% w^^B 'Tim 

BM iTTn^T ^wFn^% w% w^mm wm 

\CB JTtqpTfTT ^WnTO% ^t^ ^^HW Wm 

AD U5Jrat% %^fnf<^ ^J^^^l^ ?f f WT^ 

' BM stands alone in furnishing tlio right reading of R.] li 4 seems to give TWITO%, and this is the 
Jftxj^nn, the correction probably of an individual teadingofCa. The B MSS. add to it a new mistake 

The short vowel in the second 8yllaL)le is equally 

opvist, unsupported even by the nearest MS. CB. 

•^ The A class and Ca have throughout the right 

reading ^IfBRT, followed liy ^TO,' which I think is 

pecu lar ^^ meant for ^IT^J- Bl and 2 have taken WX as one 

'^ The right reading ^R«|'l«j^ is nearly preserved ^^^^^ ^^^^ j^fj ^|^ without the Tf, thus rendering it 

in A. Other MSS. belonging to this class, C2, C4, unintelligible. B3, BM, and CB have all the same 

and AD elide into ^Wiarni^. [This is the reading lacuna. 

BM TT5^mt% r*<vjlril^<^ ^«;J<H*ft^T cTHf ^^TR^ 

Text in 
M. M.'ii 


^ llie patronymic has again puzzled the scribes. 
The A iiud Ca MSS. now agree in '?;T'TW1% or 
^Crsinffe. B4 bnngs in the hmg ^ in TTWnfft, 
which seems to come from B though .■locidentally only. 
B I and 2 have <Ia«I/m% and •%, to wliich they 
inclined before; while B3, BM, and CB apprcjach to 
their former blunder ^.titilnilv;. 

^ The auuHvSra in f^ ia the characteristic mark 
of tlie A clasH. B 1 and 2 are held together by their 
common lacuna; B3, BM, and CB by the anusvara 
'11 the second syllalde. 

^ The spelling of <|^M<j: or ^^t »eenis to ])oint to 
'amtj:. The verb iTO.) *" dwell, may be construed 
nith a locative, in the sense of ' to dwell with.' 

■* ^^41^ «n is probably intended for ^(+j<,*IT4ft. 
The readings of the different MSS. might seem to 
suggest ^Hftlft or'^*|lftlft, but I prefer ^^T^ 
because this word is used in the Tanrfya Brilhmana 
XIII. 12, 5. There we find two MayS's, evidently 
tieatcd as females, but acting a similar part to tliat 
assigned to the two priests in (mr legends. I suljjoin 
the text and SSyana's commentary (MS. Wilson 396, 

p. i6i«): iftin^JITli % ^ - ^*) T ^ »tT 'i !t f^RTTTtJ- 

TfTiii comm. jHmij^ i^ii 'j^(»fr?) q » r r'^T U !t 

ijm I f f^^ ^ vrg: 1 7n»% afttrra^T ^ 

^^*(faw^: I ^^tTTO^^Ti^: T?^rr^T?3'ixrraft- 
TRfj+^JW*!, I ^R^r^ I jmrnrfrfwr'^'JTT- 

'Irt^tin^ II Here then f5|ii;i!lgi*fl't would have to 
be taken in the sense of 'of the race of, or similai 
to Kirfttas,' it would be a feminine, ccjrrespondiiig to 
^f^^JTlM) aud the singular in the feminine wonid 
therefore be ftiTTTfiJ^, (^(.lajSW . In .mr 
passage, on the .ontiary, f^iWHTTJi^ "i"** ho ,i 
masculine in the nom. dual, an<l would therefore lead 
us to suppose that f^^^HT aud ^R^*^ "'^''^ "'^ names 
of the two sorcerers. They occur again as male 
demons in the /Satapatha BiShniana I. i, 4, 14, and 
in the Briliaddevata. SSyana in liis commentary on 
the <S'atapatha Br9hma«a explains f«(l<,|fligt«fl\ by 

f%<,i<i^aijfM^ irf^THTtfffff ^^[53: 1- In 

another passage, the TA(i(?ya (Xill. 7, 12) uses the 
fem. termination of the dual (^^% for *^^) for the 
masc. Here, however, the commentator calls it f^Hl- 
^7K^:. [K reads gf^: *iWTft.] 

' The A MSS. agree on 7T f , i.e. if f , for the M 
of B 4 is from the margin. The B MSS., on the con- 
trary, all point to ITO?. 







Text in 
M. M/» 

B4 f?RT%?T 'V^irt ^ Tri^ »T^T^ ^ ^n^^gr^^: 
f^VT^^^' xi^wts^ Ht^Ti^i^ ^^ ^TMvyich^: 

B4 xiTT^iJ^^: rTH^FITfif TTi^^^ 'Tt^n^?IT'=n'n|?T^ 
j Ca XltT^ij^: rTTT^TTlfH ^^^ m^T^ 'TT |rT ^ 

B I tiTT ^wfH Ti^ifRre JTmr^mi^iTRt 

BM xfu mvif^ iRrifiy jfmr^^mt |ri^ 

CB xrtT ^Trfrt u^rin^ %n^57mt |H^ 


Text in 
M. M.'« 


' f« I Ml«n<* i marks the A and Ca MSS.; fSpilT- ' In *e lacuna after IT^ and iu ^RfJJ we have 

?ft^Tf the B MSS. marked features of the entire B class. B 4 has itM 

'^ The A MSS. agree in Vl^ TTT, instead of own peculiar mistake, M<,(«t^^:, which could only 

*l i4J*« ll which is intended by the B MSS. B 4 has refer to the two Asuras, while it is meant for the Iksh- 

the B reading, and alone of all MSS. supplies the vSkus, i.e. AsamSti and the KathaproshMas, 
reading ^P^. In Ca the two readings are mixed. 



B2 wnm^ ^ MW?5^ fenmf TFt ^jrt 1 *n t^- 
B3 «mrni; ^ ^^tf^ f^RT^rrmfc^ ??n ^ ht 'fitn- 
BM vet^tr; ^ '^■^^ fenmfTft ???t ^ w irtxn- 
CB >^EPTiT>i; #( ^^tf^ Hh t ^M i ^ftft ^ f Tn 'fmr- 

AD lRMHI|ri4l fHHtirftfiT m^^ cTFI H ^R^^ 

C 2 ^57Tr|l*il^H^ ftiRrftfrT iTRrf*Tt WW ^ ^RH^ 

C4 ^TI'TmTlrRt fHffMiftrff rTR^Tt WW ^ ?T^^ 

B4 'RT^TTliT^ RlFm'rflfw TTR^Wt rTW ^ ^IR%^ 

ca ^^n5nHT|w^ ^^T^nftfw wRfwt ww ^ ^rpn??^ 

^ B I i?fn ^rfvRWiftfw WR^Wt WW ^ ^RH^ 

B2 ;q;n ^ HM riiflt ft WRfWt WW ^ ^R^ 

B3 ^5fT ^HMHrdPrt r(m|rti WW ?R^^ 

BM Tirn ^Mrirflfw HM|rir WW ^R^ 

CB T^ ?Sl1*T^rTrftfw WR|Wt WW 5R^ 

Sk ^HM I H I^fi ijt ^sftwxfiftfw " riM^rii WW ^^ WWT' 

The A class is again marked by retaining the ^IJTA^TI and again by ^I^Mofrt instead of ^Vfil- 

correct ^J»liqH»|, though not always clearly written, Tl^f^, and the short vowel in *l\«!|q\. 

whereas the B MSS. have clearly ^IKnnT*l- * The omission of ^ shows the close relationship 

'' The B MSS. again agree in the mistake ^JWraTT. of B 3, BM, and CB. 

[R has 1^ % jfj jftrrf*.] * The original reading was probably ^|(|4)(|; of. Sa- 

The-B class is sharply marked by the lacvina of tapatha BrAhmaua 1. 1,4, 15, TTWt'rfW S^^KKJ. 






AD ^ift ^T ^^ in^f^fiTcni irqi ^R^m^t ^rt 
I c 2 H^ ^an ^ in^ WiTT'T rnn ^ri«Mi<?t ^^ 
c 4 H^ ^7 ^ Tn^f^f^i:!^* H^T ^ifti^rRl 'ran 

BM i^^^ w ^ in^iWwn^ wn ^fk^ ^^j 
CB >^^ ^ ^i Tn^W^u^ inn ^^^ tbit 


( A ^m ^ifHTTxiiftfw m Tsftni g^vtnfm^^^ ^^h: 

AD ^cH ^TfHiTT?jftf?T i^ ^T^ ^^^t^f ^T'R^ ^^m: 

B4 ^T ^TTf>w^fftfH #r ^t?T ^■^'iftn'R^ ^^w: 
B I ^rn II iftfH m f^ ^qifftn^^ ^xm: 

B 2 %T II BtfW m xj^ ^^liftTT^^^ ^^H: 

. B 3 iirT rftfif HT ^t?^ g^jfnTR^^ ^^cnT: 

' The iniKtake 5*lfY in AD, A, C 2, and C4 iudi- ^ f^'TT" is a mistake tl.tit (listiiiKuishcs tlie B 

cates a closer relationship between those three MSS. MSS. from the A aud Ca MS8. ^p^ in 2 is a 

- The laoima after 5%?n in the BMSS.ishnportant; nie,-e lapsus calami, repeated in C 4. So is «JlMl' in 

likewise the coincidences between Bi and B2 on one ^jj jj,j g^^ ^,,,1 again HTT^ in AD. Is '^HyW 

side, and between B3, BM, and CB on the other. [K intended for ^nW^ ? 
has $>7TT0 


AD H^<^|^*j|^.^lri : tTft:Rl ?Jm^^TfTTSITf^ II 

J c 2 Twir^TgT?T|Fnff : xrftfii ^qiRn^rfHsnfc^ ii 

B4 HH^WI^HIgc^Iri: ^ftf^ ^Tll^T^fflHTlf^ II 
Ca HTTi(^TigTni5qTrr: trftfM f^^frfHSTlf^ II 
(B I UHriWI^+il|r<jtrT: trftf^ '^■fllfflKITf^ II 

B 2 im?rwrg^T|«^trT: ^rfrfv ^q^rnftrsnt^ 11 

B3 H*i ri W I^T|f?trT: ^ftfv 'q^HTftlSITf^ II 
BM HT!rTFngTTI|RlTTT: XTftftl ^q^mrfrWlf^ II 

fJB BTnT^ngHTi^trT: irftTv ^nwrftrf^nf^ 11 

Trxt lu 

I publish in this vohime the first portion of the Index n'rhorinii, and 
shall publish the second portion at tlie end of the sixth volume. This index 
was made before I began the publication of the Tiig-veda and Saya/^a's 
commentary, and it was by its help only that I was enabled to make my 
way through the intricacies of that work. I had at first made a se])arate 
index for each Ma)K/aia. These ten indices were afterwards copied for nic. 
and arranged as one continuous index. Lastly, in order to remove an}' 
mistakes that might have happened during this jn'ocess, I secured tlie 
services of a young Sanskrit scholar, who once more carefully verified pvmj 
reference before the MS. was sent to Press. 

So many scholars engaged in the study of the Veda have .seen and 
consulted this Index during the last quarter of a century that I need hardly 
say what it is, and what it is not. It is an hulrx irrhnrnin in the strict 
sense of the word, so much so that in the rare cases where two words 
happen to have the same outward form and the same accent, they have; 
not been separated, although they differ in their meaning and in their gram- 
matical character. The words are given throughout in their Pada form. 

The A MSa. agree in •IJV|"'*II *!(*<• instead of siun of one ?T. B 3 lias <JJVnn', where the long a is 

"ra^. 0« stands alone with f» I M T ll« i n T», while a blunder of the copyist. [R has •»IH«jifl:qfi;fV 

the B MSS. just mies the right reading by the omis- mVIMniWlf^.] 



I had intended to omit all the real Galitas, but I found, after the printing 
had progressed too far, that they had been left in the earlier MamZalas, and 
I was therefore obliged to give up my original intention on that point. 
I believe that all that can be done to secure the correctness of the references 
has been done, but I am not so sanguine as to suppose that all mistakes 
have been avoided. I have myself detected several in the portion now 
])rinted, and if any of my friends will kindly send me such errata as they 
may discover while using the index, I shall not fail to publish them at the 
tind of the sixth volume. 


Parks End, Oxfobd, 



When I had written the last line of the Rig-veda and S4yana's commentary, 
and jmt down my pen, I felt as if I had parted with an old, old friend. For 
thirty years scarcely a day has passed on which my thoughts have not dwelt on 
this work, and for many a day, and many a night, too, the old poets of the 
Veda, and still more their orthodox and painstaking expositor, have been my 
never-failing companions. I am happy, no doubt, that the work is done, and 
after having seen so many called away in the midst of their labours, I feel 
deeply grateful that I have been spared to finish the work of my life. But 
habits established for so long a time, are not broken without a wrench, and 
even now I begin to miss my daily task : I begin to long for some difficult 
and corrupt passages to grapple with, for some abrupt quotation from the 
.Si\fy4yanaka to verify, or for some obscure allusion to PAnini to trace back 
to its original source. 

It was in the year 1845, when attending the lectures of Eugene Burnouf 
at Paris, that for the first time my thoughts became fixed on an edition of 
the Rig-veda and its voluminous commentary. I still see the eager faces of 
a number of young scholars, sitting round the table . where Burnouf was 
lecturing, with a vivacity, a keenness, a flow of knowledge which I have never 
seen surpassed. Most of those who then attended his lectures, have since 


become famous in Oriental literature. I need only mention the late Dr. 
GoldstUcker, the late Abbate Bardelli, and of those who are still among us, 
Gorresio, N5ve, and last, not least, E. Roth. I was the youngest of them all, 
and though I had published my' first book, the translation of the Hitopade^a, 
my ideas of Sanskrit literature did not reach much beyond KdlidAsa's poetry, 
the epic poems, the systems of philosophy, and the Upanishads. Nothing, 1 
thought at that time, could in beauty of thought or expression surpass the 
Upanishads. I had translated some of them for Schelling, while attending his 
lectures at Berlin, had copied some of the commentaries from MSS. of the Royal 
Library there, and was thinking of devoting myself to that branch of literature. 
Well do I remember my surprise when I heard Burnouf speaking of these 
Upanishads as works of small importance, compared with the older portions of 
the Veda, the Mantras and the Br3,hmana.s. Burnouf was lecturing then on the 
first book of the Rig-veda, prepared by F. Rosen, and published after his death, 
in 1838. I still possess some of the notes which I took at his lectures, with 
extracts from S4ya«a's commentary, of which Burnouf possessed a complete 
copy, with passages from the Nirukta and the commentary on the Nirukta, 
works at that time hardly known in Europe. After a time, Burnouf lent me 
some of his MSS., and encouraged me to copy certain portions of them. It 
was hard work at first. I often despaired, and but for his encouragement, 
but for his frank acknowledgment, that he himself, too, could not always 
make out the arguments of S4yawa, I should never had the courage to 

My own ambition had not yet risen beyond an edition of the text of the 
Rig-veda, with extracts only from Sdyana's commentary. No more was really 
wanted, I thought; and I had Colebrooke's authority for holding that opinion. 
' The Vedas,' Colebrooke wrote at the end of his celebrated essay on the Sacred 
Writings of the Hindus, ' are too voluminous for a complete translation of the 
whole ; and what they contain would hardly reward the labour of their reader, 
much less that of the translator. The ancient dialect in which they are com- 
posed, and especially that of the three first Vedas, is extremely difficult and 
obscure : and, though curious, as the parent of a more polished and refined 
language (the classical Sanskrit), its difficulties must long continue to prevent 
such an examination of the whole Vedas, as would be requisite for extracting all 
that is remarkable and important in those voluminous works. But they well 
deserve to be occasionally consulted by the Oriental scholar.' 

But here I met with the strongest remonstrances from Burnouf. Not only 


the text, but the commentary, too, he maintained, if they were to be published 
at all, should be published in their entirety, and after a careful collation of all 
the MSS. then accessible in Europe. Extracts could never be depended upon, 
for the most difficult passages would, as usual, be left out, and after a time the 
work would have to be done again. 

At that time, I confess, I was hardly able to grapple with Sayawa's com- 
mentary, at least with the most difficult portions of it, nor was there any 
prospect of my being able to collate the most important MSS. of SayaJia, 
which were in England. Burnouf therefore advised me to try the Yar/ur-veda. 
1 copied the whole of Mahidhara's commentary from a MS. which I owed to 
Burnouf's liberality '. But in the end I arrived at the same result, viz. that 
without a collation of other MSS. it would be impossible to carry out a really 
scholarlike edition of that work. 

My disapj)ointment was great, but I determined not to be beaten. I saw 
that it was absolutely necessary for me to spend some time in England ; and 
1 secured the necessary funds by working bard for other Sanskrit scholars, 
copying, among other things, the coinplete text of the Aitaroya Bi4hma?ia hi 
Boman letters for the late Baron Eckstein. When once settled in the library 
of the old East-India House, surrounded by the MSS., not only of the Rig-veda 
;ind Saya/ia, hut of the numerous works constantly referred to by Sayajia, T saw 
that the plan, first sketched out for me by Burnouf, and I ought to add, by 
tlie late Dr. Goldstiicker, was the right one, and that it could be realised. 
1 worked on till a portion of the work was finished ; and after obtaining the 
patronage of the old East-India (Jompany, I was able to puVjlisli the first 
volume in 1849. 

We are now in 1874 ; and in writing the Preface to this, my last volume, 
the words used by another scholar retiu'n to my memory, and seem best to 
expi-ess what I wish to say : ' Adolescens mamim admovi, scnex, dum perjicerem, 
/actus sum, ut videtur.' And again : ' Hahes hoc opus ahsolutum serins quam. 
pnyniiseraTn, et expectabam.. Nosti conditionem rermn humanarwm. Multa 
saepe accidunt quae 7ioh sluuM nos ad amussim co<jltata pcrjkerc! Twenty- 
five years are certainly a long time, and when I saw how some of my kind 
friends clamoured against the delay that had occurred in the publication of 
S4ya«a, though I could not but feel gratified at their impatience, I began to 
fear that I might really be to blame. I therefore tried to make out an account 

' ['ITiis copy I lent to Professor AVcber for his edition of the Yajur-veda, and it is now deposited in the 
Hoyal Library of Bovliu.] 



of my stewardship, and the result was as follows. In looking through my notes, 
I found that since 1849, there were only three years during which I was pre- 
vented from going on with my work ; one year, when I was out of healtli ; 
another, when I had to wait for the renewal of the grant at the time of tl it- 
extinction of the East-India Company ; and a third, when expecting a MS. 
which had been discovered in India, and promised to be, if not the original, 
at least much more ancient than any of those on whicli I had based the 
critical restoration of SAyana's connnontary. I cannot deny that during tlie 
last twenty-five years, I have also done some other work, in the science of 
language, mythology, and religion, and that I have not thouglit, that a man 
can live, or ought to live, by Sanskrit alone. But after deducting the three 
years, when it was impossible for me to print, I found, to my own 
1 confess, that I had pul)lished in my two editions of the llig-veda, the larye 
one with, and the small one without the commentary of SAya/ia, what would 
amount to an ainiual volume of nearly 600 pages octavo, during twenty-tive 
C()n.secutivo years. If my friends in Brahma will- kindly take into account, 
that (luring that time I also published two editions of my History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature ; twf) editions of my Sanskrit Granunar ; the Frati.sVikhya, 
lielonging to the liig-veda, text, translation, and notes ; and the first volunif 
of my translation of tlie Rig-veda, 1 think they will admit, that I have not 
l)een altogether faitJiless to my first love. 

But though on the score of mere quantity jny conscience does not smite 
me, it is far otherwise with reference to the ipiality of my work. During 
the last twenty-five years Sanskrit scholarshi]), particularly with regard to 
Vedic literature, has advanced so lupidly, that I myself feel most deei)l\', 
how much more perfect an edition of Sdyana migiit have been, if begun now, 
mstcad of in 1850. I believe, hov\^ever, that I did all that could be done at 
the tmie, and I fear, or rather, 1 hope, that an edition begun in 1875, I )y '"i« 
ot our young S.xnskrit scholars, would probably share the sam(^ fate in the 
year 1900. What I did was this. I tested all the JVISS. which 1 could get 
access to in Europe, in order, first of all, to find out their true genealogical 
relationship. After I had discovered that out of the thi-ee clearly marked 
lamihes, none cculd claim to represent the original text of S4ya«a, I determined 
on the only course that, under the circumstances, seemed possible : I selected 
m every doubtful case that reading towards which the three families pointed, 
01- from which their divergence might best be explained. In following this 
course, however, I met with two difficulties. In the first Ashiaka, more 


particularly, but also in the beginning of some of the other Ashtokas, and 

again in the commentary on certain very popular hymns, many of the MSS. 

had been so much used for private study, that they were not only full of 

marginal notes, containing corrections and additions, but that some of these 

had actually found their way into the body of the MSS. themselves. While 

this facilitated the process of restoring a correct, or at all events, a plausible 

and readable text, it disturbed, for a time at least, the exact genealogical 

position of the principal MSS., and thus rendered a strict adherence to the 

only true principles of criticism impossible. In the first Ashiaka, therefore, 

I contented myself with giving S^awa's text, chiefly from the A and C 

classes ; and I feel it my duty to warn future editors of SAyana, if there 

ever be such, that with the new MSS. that have come to hand since my first 

volume was published, there will probably be ample room for critical gleanings : 

partly by a more strict adherence to the principles of diplomatic criticism, partly 

by a more careful examination of the originals from which the numerous 

quotations in the commentary are derived. Some passages which seem to 

require emendation in the firat Ashteka, have been pointed out by Professor 

Weber, Mr. Muir, and others ; and I gladly avail myself of the opportunity 

of examining these more carefully, partly in order to avow frankly, where I 

have erred ; partly in order to show, that in many cases I was not unprepared 

for the objections that have been made, and that I chose such readings as 

I have chosen with a full appreciation of all the difficulties by which they 

seem to be surrounded. 

Professor Weber dwells chiefly on five passages in the Introduction to 
S4yana's commentary where, as he thinks, emendations are necessary. The 
quotation on p. 12, 1. 8 [now p. 7, 1. 2], can now be verified from the Taittirlya 
Brahmana II. i, 2, 12. It ought to be, ^rerrfTm^ ^'Tf^ 'g^^TPin^^rTraTTr^ ftf?» 
wr^^ ?Rl., ' to sacrifice after the sun has risen, is as if one brouglit food to 
an empty dwelling for a departed guest.' Here I see that the A class, then 
represented by the old MS. at Paris, collated for me by Dr. Goldstucker, 
gives xrjjt Trar; the C class, represented by C i, equally at Paris, gives vi^ 
MWy^Hyt X H ; while B i has the right reading, JjfirraTTEraT'I. This is also 
confirmed by my own MS. Ca, which at that time I did not possess. How 
little the other MSS. in India would have helped, may be seen from the 
reading, adopted by Dr. Roer hx the Bibliotheca Indica, vol. i. p. 13, 1. 8, 

On the same page, line 29 [now 1. 18], mrrg^ is no doubt what S^yana 


ought to have written, and I see that Dr. Eoer has adopted it. If I retaiiKHl 
jjjiraTlft, it was partly because the best MSS. give that reading, partly because 
I did not know then the meaning of pram4yuka. It is one of the words which 
Wilson's Dictionary did not supl)ly. In the course of my reading it occurred 
to me for the first time in the Nirukta III, 5, a passage not mentioned in 
the Dictionary of Bohtlingk and Eoth, From its frequent occurrence in the 
Brfdimawas, we are now all familiar with the meaning and the origin of the 
word. That it was not easily intelligible, however, even to Indian readers, 
may be gathered from my own MS. Ca. Here the passage is given «w 
margine, and correctly; but after writing IWT^:, the writer himself adds a 
new marginal gloss, f^*)iy»:. 

On page 21, line 23 [now p. 11, last line], I should have separated ufRlfn, 
if I had known the passage in the Taittirlya SanihitS, VII. 4, 19 ; but in tliat 
case, I should most likely have corrected ^ ^^T% ^If^ to ■^ ^sj^^f^, 
which is the correct reading there (see Taitt, Prilti.s. XL 17), whereas tlic 
reading of the MSS. of Sayana, as adopted in my edition, is suppoi'tcd hy 
the Ipsifisima verha of Panini, VL i, if8; Siddhanta-kaumudi, vol. ii. 


In tlie other passages, where the reading which I adopted has been 
oliallenged, it will be seen that I was right, and that my critics were wrong. 
Thus with regard to ^t, on page 34, line 15 [now p, 18, 1, 33], Professor 
AVeber has no doubt discovered, since he pointed out the various reading of 
fH as one of his five necessary emendations, that in writing ^ I liad adoj)ted 
the right reading, the passage being an extract from the Pduiniyc^ *S'iksIia, 
]julilished by himself in the Indische Studlen, vol, I/, p. 271. Why are not 
.such technical terms as gltin, sira/^kampin, etc., given In tlie Petersburg 
Dictionary ? 

There remains the fifth passage, p. 35, 1. 6 [now p. 19, 1. 6 seq.], where 
it was thought, that I ought to have written JraifT^ instead of Trm iv^- 
However, here, too, Professor Weber will have since discovered that I was 
right; for the Taittlrtya Ararayaka II. 16, from which the quotation is taken, 
has fK^, not 'ii i R,^^ , fV^ means, he is left behind, he fails, or, as the 
commentator explains it, he Is deprived of glory, a meaning which does not 
Ijolong to ' Ji i MTl . 

So much with regard to the five necessary corrections, for such asuddha's 
i^ p. 31, 1. 28 [now p. 17, 1. 18], ^w^: for nmx^}, and p. 41. 1- 6 [now p. 22, 1. 5], 
^ ft for 71^ f, need not be noticed. 

VOL, IV, p 

ex IV 


Mr. Muir also had suggested a correction in the Introduction \ viz. the 
addition of «i on p. 4, 1. 3 [now p. 2, 1. 28], after i;fn %?(.. In a later edition, 
however, he withdraws his objection, having been informed, as he says, by- 
Professor Ooldstucker that ^ is often omitted, though understood after i[fn 
%<^. I need hardly say, that it was on the very ground adduced by Professor 
Goldstucker that, much against my own wish, I decided not to insert the ff, 
which was wanting in the best MSS. then accessible to me. But I must 
state at the same time, that seeing the T in Roer's edition, and likewise in 
my own carefully-revised MS. Ca, I should certainly insert the ^ in a new 
edition, and likewise put a stop after T^'s^ttTWrBt.- 

These doubts and difficulties carry me back many years, and though I well 
remember how I did my best with such a knowledge as I then possessed to 
overcome them, yet I am perfectly aware and ready to confess that on many 
points I ought to have decided difi'erently. All I can say is, that those Avere 
the days when other scholars wrote of Etendhras^, or could not distinguish 
between tnfg i ji*)t ^< lT< d and ^sirefiT^ 'J^T^^TfT^ ^ so that here, too, the Indian 
maxim might be taken to heart : 

Many of the difficulties I had to contend with at first and single-handed, 
have disappeared during the progress of this work. The MS. Ca, which I owe 
to the kindness of Professor Wilson, was of considerable assistance throughout. 
The Index verhorum, once made, enabled me, in many a difficult passage, to 
confront the numerous explanations of the same or similar words in different 
parts of Siiyaiia's commentary, and thus to discover the drift of his arguments. 
Many of the books, too, refen-ed to by Sayarta, and which, when I began my 
edition, I possessed in MS. only, such as the Nirukta, the Aitareya Brahmana, 
Asvaklyana, the Taittiriyaka, and other works, have since been published in 
more or less critical editions ; and last, not least, PA^ani's Grammar, which in 
1847 was still a book with seven seals, has been rendered more and more 
intelligible by the combined labours of native and European scholars. 

But, on the other hand, the MSS. of Sdyawa in the progress of my Avork 
became worse and worse, so much so that a scholar who was best acquainted 
with the MSS. at my disposal, declared that a critical restitution of the last 
books of SAyawa would be altogether impossible. Nor Avere the editions of the 

^ Sanskrit Texts, vol. iii. p. 61. * See Preface to the first volume of the first edition, 

^ Itoth, Zur Litteratur und Geschichte dos Weda, vol. i. p. xxiv. note i. 
P- 133- 


works to which S3,yana referred, always a help. Before they were published, 
I felt obliged to restore the text of each passage, as well as I could, partly 
from the MSS. of Silyana, partly from the MSS. of the works themselves. After 
their publication, I had often the additional difficulty of finding out whether 
the textus reccptus was to be accepted or to be rejected. 

This is a point which will require some elucidation, and I shall therefore 
give a few instances to show how dangerous it would have been, if I had in 
every case surrendered the readings of Sa,yana's MSS. for the published text 
of the works to which he refers. 

I begin with Pacini, the text of whose Sdtras might seem to be the least 
exposed to critical doubts. Yet it will be seen that I have in several cases 
adopted a reading different from that of Bohtlingk's edition, and that I liave 
done so for some good reason. In the commentary to I. 9, 2, 1 adopted at first 
the reading of B.'s edition, f|[7ft^n^:^: (Piln. 11. 4, 34), but in doing so I was 
wrong. I ought to have followed the MSS. of Sayana, which consistently give 
r^<l\*(lit:#'T:, a form which is not correct grammatically, but supjiorted by an 
iri-esistible weiglit of evidence. I therefore restored that I'eading in I. 105, 19; 
III. 9, 5 ; X. 125, 8. The Mahilbhashya (p. 402^^) has the same reading. [In the 
second edition, 1887, Bohtlingk reads fl[«fNT^#^:.] 

When speaking of the two possible forms yiUTf^ and ^^if^ (Preface to vol. iv, 
see above, p. Ixxi seq.) I explained the rules which Pilnini and most grammatical 
writers seem to have followed with regard to the final letters of technical terms. 
If what I stated there, is true, and I know of no one who has controverted it, 
then I could not in X. 68, 7 adopt the reading of Pan. II. 4, 79, as given by 
Bohtlingk, but had to write instead rRTf|[«raiTret:. The same rule aj)plies to 
PiTO. III. I, 79, as quoted by Sayana, I. 19, 8; I. 30, 14, etc. ; to Fiui. III. 2, 168, 
as quoted I. 25, 14 ; to P4ra.V. 4, 1 1 ; to PAn. VF. 4, 156, as quoted I. 36, 6 ; to 
Pibi. VII. I, 2, as quoted I. 6, 4. I was wrong also in I. 3, i, in adojjting at first 
the text of Boiitlingk, Paw. III. i, 32, ^rWT?im VTfT^:, and I afterwai-ds followed 
the authority of the MSS., in writing s?tT?f?n 'MTTT?:, Kv. I. 8, 4, etc. [In the 
new edition, Bohtlingk has adopted the spelling THTt^' etc.] 

With regard to Pd.ra. III. i, 80, I was doubtful for some time whether I 
ought to follow Bohtlingk's text, fil f^a<t «fftT '^, or the reading of tiie best MSS. 
f^t«i9U,«*l\^;^. I saw there was no support for S4yaria's reading either in the 
Calcutta edition, or in the Siddh^nta-kaumudt, or in the Mahabh^shya (p. 45a), 
yet the MSS. of Silyawa were so consistent that I MTote fllf^a<l=*n<^ in I. 6, 3 ; 
I- 10, 7; I. 92, i; I. 117, 25; III. II, 4; IX. 91, 5; X. lOl, 2; X. 128, 5. 



It may seem to some critics that I went too far in altering the text of 
Pamni IV". 2, 43, by inserting ^T^. Tliis word, no doubt, falls under the same 
rule, but it forms the subject of a Vdrttika. SAyana, however, may have mixed 
up the Sutra and the Varttika, and if he did so, it would have gone beyond the 
duty of an editor to correct him in such matters. [See Varietas Lectionis to 
Ev. Bh. HI. 60, I.] 

In Pau. IV, 4, 117, Biihtlingk writes ^^ ^ instead of ^'s^ ^. The ^, how- 
evei', is here not merely euphonic, but marks the accent of x(, as we see from 
Ilv. I. 13, lo, V4xir^7e||^(it<^lT)<!^ . I therefore had to follow the authority of the 
MSS. in writing w^, Rv. I. 13, 10; X. 120, 8. [It is corrected in Bohtlingk's 
new edition.] 

I was misled twice, Rv, I. 93, 8, and III. 41, i, by an emendation introduced 
by Bohtlingk, to write Pa«ini's Sutra VI. 3, 92, f<iq^^<i)<ftia ETSf^wt '^Trai^. It 
<jught to be fqun^q^ft-g %x^^7rT^ntai%, and I adopted this afterwards, in accord- 
ance with SilyaTia's MSS. The Calcutta edition of Pa/iini and the Siddhiinta- 
kaumudi (vol. i, p. 179) give f^^i^^?^^ rightly, and Bohtlingk also in liis Notes 
inclines towards it. It is the only possible reading, liecause there is no such 
word as f%^^. [Biihtlingk has now corrected it.] The reading of ■^'^ttt^tiM^ is 
more doubtful, because the Calcutta edition of Pa/ani and the Siddhanta-kauraudi 
give ^(ft 'TO(ii%, and exj)lain the S<\tra accordingly. Sayawa, however, prefen-ed, 
as far as it is possible to judge, the reading ^fTr^^ai^, which I therefore adopted 
in IX. 93, 4. [See Varietas Lectionis to Rv, Bh. I. 93, 8 ; III. 41, i ; IX. 93, 4.] 

More serious mischief has happened in the case of P;u/. VII. i, 47. Ilert^ 
the text of the Sutra is quite right, but in the commentary, both the Calcutta 
edition and Bohtlingk's give i^t<( |%( instead of <^Tmit. This ungrammatical form, 
I am grieved to say, has found its way, by an extraordinary accident, into my 
large edition, for though I corrected it in the Pada-text and in the commentary 
(X. 85, 33), it has remained unaltered in the Samhit^-text. The result has been 
that it crept into my small edition of the two texts, and likewise into the 
Index verborum. I know, of course, that it could be defended as a license 
allowed in writing (see Bohtlingk, Notes to PAnini VIII. 4, 47), but I should 
be sorry to avail myself of such an excuse. 

In Pan. VII. 3, 57, 1 believe the right reading would be ^^fH^:, or ^nif^ral^:, 
as in tlie Calcutta edition and the Siddhi\nta-kaumudi. I adopted at first the 
reading adopted by Bohtlingk, ^rf'TZt:, but changed it afterwards for ^rfffzllf:- 
See Rv. IX. 65, 9, seq. [It has now been printed ^n^' throughout. So also 
Bohtlingk's new edition.] 



In PAn. VIII. 3, 66, Bohtlingk gives ^f^TH%:. The Calcutta edition has tlie 
same, likewise the Siddhdnta-kaumudi, vol. ii. p. 37. There may he some 
reason why PArtini wrote flf^x^;, and Tdrundtha distinctly explains it, Hf^ft^ 
mw ^^ TBUm^f 3rR% «^f?;fn.' Sayana, however, was evidently not aware of 
any sufficient reason for so ungrammatical a proceeding, and as I had to edit 
Sdyana, and not P4wini, I wrote throughout ^t^u%:. See Rv. Bh. I. 5, i ; I. 22, 
8; III. 14. 2, etc. [See Varietas Lectionis to Rv. Bh. 1. 5, i.] 

I hold by no means that we are justified in altering the received text of 
V-Xn'mi, or even of his commentator, according to the authority of the MSS. of 
Silyawa. Sdya?<a is not even consistent in his own inanner of (pioting PA//ini. 
Thus instead of frjT^frif, VI. i, 185, he sometimes writes fnr^ftfT: ; instead of 
^^ISIT^, the dual, in Pa/i. VI. i, 173, he sometimes writes ii^i^tTf^: ; instead of 
TT'ft^, Pii'H. VI. 4, 76, he allows himself occasionally to quote the other reading. 
?t:^>:, Rv. Bh. X. 130, 5. 

Frecpiently, too, Sayana expresses liimself with a briefness which one feels 
at first inclined to correct, but which one becomes accustomed to in the course 
oi' his work. At first I always corrected '^rf^gjin'^ into ^^jft^JTR^isf , which is 
(lie only correct form. But as Saya»,a knew this perfectly well, it became clear 
to me after a time, that he considered ^f%?mT«T«# sufficient for all practical 
purposes. See Rv. Bh. X. 116, 7. In the same manner he sometimes says i^-?^: 
tor TRffTj^T;:. So again in X. 136, 7, Saya/a explains the genitive of f^^^ as an 
accusative, but having done the same again and again, he does It sometimes 
more briefly, and says f^m^fijf g5^3if»?f?T ^i^jsj: ^m^TTmwg^W ^ft■ This, at all 
•nents, is clearly the reading of the MSS. In this and in other places (VI. 49, 
12), and I saw no reason why I should alter it. What was in his mind was 
evidently to appeal to the Varttika, I. 4, 32, i, for giving to the Sampradilna 
the .neaning of that which can be reached by the action of the verb, and then 
to (|uote P4re. II. 3, 62, for showing that the sixth case can stand in place of 
the fourth. He might have said, in'Jfiiiii^n lfTOWT?En?«[T«T^ '^'ff; cf I. 4, 10; 
Vin. 96, 17; IX. 74, 8; IX. 97, 15; and then have continued, ^^^ ^r^ 

Such ,2)assages in which an editor abstains from treating his author magis- 
terially are, as I know from jjainful experience, the very passages for which tht^ 
editor himself is afterwards treated magisterially by perfunctory critics. 

In P^/iini's Grammar the text is generally as firmly estalillshed as in the 
hymns of the Rig-veda, and therefore there could be but few jmssages in which 
I felt doubtful between the authority of the MSS. and the printed text. This 


was more frequently the case with the VArttikas, and it will be seen that these 
glosses, as quoted by SAyana, differ frequently from that form in which they 
appear in our editions of P4nini. 

When, however, we come to other works, such as the Unadi or Phi(-sAtras, 
the difficulties increase immensely. At first I had only Dr. Bohtlingk's edition 
of the Uiiddi-sAtras to consult, and with the help of Ujrf/valadatta's excellent 
commentary, I could generally arrive at some conclusion as to what was, if not 
the original reading, at least that which SAyana intended to follow. Afterwards 
Dr. Aufrecht gave us an edition of this very commentary, and thereby reduced 
very considerably the labour of determining the right reading. Still in many of 
these Stitras, SAya«a constantly either adds or omits a verb, which does or does 
not suit him, and an editor of S3,yana is bound to be guided, in each case, by 
the respective weight of the MSS. Thus in SAtra I. 3, Sdyana inserts ^cff after 
^fz, see I. 10, 2 ; III. 52, 5, etc., while in the editions xjf: is treated as a 
bahulaka derivative under SAtra I. i. [See Varietas Lectionis to E.v. Bh. I. 
10, 2.] 

Siltra I. 23 Bo. (24 Aufr.), Sayana adds ffTJ«r: at the end, Rv. Bh. T. 5, 2 ; 
I. 1 1, 4, etc. It also occurs in the MS. of U^r^valadatta, but T doubt whether it 
sliould liave been added in an edition of the SAtras. U^^j/valadatta himself does 
not explain it in his commentary, the I'eason being that he gives it in Siitra 
I. 27 Bii. (28 Aufr.), where he derives pasu from it. At all events ff^i ought 
not to be in both SAtras. In I. 51, 5, Silyana brings ftrg: under the same Stitra, 
I. 23 (24). 

Statra I. 30 *, Sayawa reads j^, in order to ex2)lain x^:. See Rv. Bh. T. 52, 5. 

Sdtra I. 40, Siyana reads gj%: 4JH4JKqi \ii: i^ , and when he explains f^gr* i" 
I, 87, I, he particularly adds d)3{(iJi<|Tm^(<ii ^ H^f?i 1. The MS. of U^-f/valadatta 
has the same reading, sq^: ^jntm.t!| ^ ^(^ \ , and at the end ft^pr#TT^J . i- f . 

SAtra I. 74 is sometimes quoted by SAyana ^r^: wt "Sf, see Rv. Bh. III. 61, 3. 
As the same reading occurs in U(///valadatta, and as in III. it, also, S&yana, 
III. 34, 3, reads ^ t ^ instead of ^ x^, I did not think it right to make any 
alteration. [That the spurious passage, mentioned in the Varietas Lectionis to 
Rv. Bh. I. 27, II, has ■^\^', fti:, only confirms its spuriousness.] 

In SAtra I. 139, Sdyana changes the last ^t»#t to i^\»^, Rv. Bh. I, 5, i. This 
seems right, though the ordinary reading ^fti^t can be defended. 

^ Aufrecht's edition is to be understood henceforward, except where special reference to Bohtlingk's 
edition iu made. 



SAtra 1. 151 appears generally as '^rfif^^Tt^ instead of ^o, I.9, i ; 11,4; 
III. 9, 6. Another peculiarity in Sdyana's quotations of this SiUra is that he 
inserts TfW after mft, in order, as it would seem, to explain x;i!3. Yet, Avhere 
that word occurs, he explains its -etymology differently, I. 65, 5 ; I. 66, 3. [See 
Varietas Lectionis to Rv. Bh. I, 9, i ; 14, 2 ; III. 9, 6. The xlw is very 

S^yajza is not always guided by the exact wording of the SiUras. Thus he 
quotes SMra I. 153, in order to explain the formation of '^ig:, and, as that 
Siitra explains not ^sr:, but fjTs(:, he simply changes f^r^ into ^^, and 
substitutes ^ for ^, Rv. I, 64, 2 ; III. 32, 7. 

SAyawa quotes ^cpgRirf g^^ as a SAtra (cf. U^/i^valadatta on Un. I. 156), in 
order to explain ^, but as in III. 7, i, he assigns to ^ the meaning of ^xin^in^, 
he allows by bahulakatva the substitution of wi for ^, and remarks on the 
in-egularity of the accent which, if the suffix be kanin, ought to have been on 
the first syllable. 

He likewise quotes a Sutra for the formation of ^lr^\ and ^J[^, viz. III. 9, g, 
1^^^'^ (this is tlie reading of Ca too), adding afterwards jjjjt^, which api)lies 
to g, while ^ would teach the substitution of ^ for sfij, which Ui/f/valadatta 
accounts for by wrt:- Soon after, however, HI. 23, 3, SAyajia again (]uotes 
this SCitra, but in a slightly different form, viz. g?[ifr^Jrrg (thus also in Ca). 
which is better with regard to «i^, but not with regard to ^t^. [See Varietas 
uectionis to Rv. Bh. III. 9, 9; 23, 3.] 

SAya/ia does not consider that when a number of ready-uiade words are 
given after suffixes which differ in accent only, as, for instance, '^ and ■^, they 
are all to follow the accent of the suffix mentioned ia the S<\tra immediately 
preceding. U(/(/valadatta, no doubt, puts this interpretation on the Siitras, but 
not Sdyawa, nor, if we may judge from I. 23, i, the Manoramil. [Spurious 
passage, see Var. Leot. 1. c] Thus in IL 28, he quotes the adyuddttas, like 
ti'., as formed by XTl., I. 2, 6 ; I. 3, 5 ; III. 10, 9 ; but the antodilttas, such as 
'^^' ^> Hs^, fa, ^, also fftw, he quotes as formed by x^^ ; cf. I. i, 6 ; I. 23, i. 
[The latter passage spurious, see Varietas Lectionis.] In III. 26, 5, several MSS. 
"^^e ^^yi^Rr fiimfl*(i5^H«|«i;, or fTTBTO: (C!a), and I believe XTi^ttf'. is what 
Sayana really intended. 

SAtra II. 60, Sdyawa quotes either as y^: '^'m, L 12, 6 ; I. 58, 4, or as ff^^ 
^^, in III 31, 3. 

According to Sdyana I had always (pioted Sdtra II. 90, as ^f gt ^fV ^^i: ftw 
instead of gftjgf>if^f|pji; f^pg. [Btihtlingk, II. 87]. Sitya^a explains ^^v^•. by it in 


III. 43, 6 ; III. 57, 4. I see that Dr. Aufrecht has -^n:, but not gf%r, and In 
this he is supported by U^f/valadatta. [See Varietas Lectionis to III. 5 7, 4 ; 

IV. 2, 3-] 

In II. 97 (92 Bohtlingk), too, I am glad to see that Dr. Aufrecht has 
ado^Dted tlie reading 5fp^%^»(. instead of ^^h ; |^ ; SAyana's MSS. are unanimous 
in T. 71, i; and U^/^valadatta's reading, twice repeated, viz. %^«t., is of course 

In II. 105 (100 BohtHngk), I see that Dr. Aufrecht has changed Bt^TT^^ ^: 
into aiM<i^ia ^', which is, no doubt, in accordance with Uj/f/valadatta's view. 
Haya>ta, however, differs, and refers to the SAtra in explanation of ^^iff^. See 
III. 37, 4. [Also I. 17, 2, see Varietas Lectionis.] 

In Sutra III. 2, SAyana omits fgr, while U^yvaladatta admits it, a fact not 
without significance, as I pointed out in my History of Ancient Sanskrit Litera- 
ture (1859), p. 249. I also pointed out in the same Avork, that the Sfttra III. 
140, which explains the formation of so modern a word as dinAra, i.e. denarius, 
was distinctly mentioned by U^'f/valadatta as not explained in two of the 
earlier conunentaries, and that the etymology of tlvl^a, as given In IV. 184, 
is left out, according to Ur/r;valadatta, in the, and, as I showed, in the 
Mahilbliilshya also. Dr. Aufi-echt has added to these spurious words which I 
had obelized, one moi-e, viz. mihira, the Persian mihr, in Sdtra I. 52, but much 
more remains to be done before we can hope to obtain a really critical edition of 
the Arsha-text ^ of these ancient SAtras. 

It Is quite clear from Rv. Bh. I. 4, i ; I. 25, 2 ; I, 92, 10, that Sdyana read 
Sfttra HI. 30, as Bi^t%«rf W.. I do not say, that this was the right reading ; 
all I maintain is, that I should not have been justified in altering it. 

Sometimes Saya^ia's commentary gives Stitras which are wanting in our 
editions of the Unadi-slitras. Thus the word dharuna is not explained, but 
SAya?ia brings it under SAtra III. 49, by adding VHfiif ^gR?, see I. 121, 2. In 
order to explain ?iWr, he adds. III. 38, 8, 'ggf^ after qift in S<\tra III. 62 ; in order 
to explain ■%m, he adds, I. 66, 9, ^if% before ffir in SAtra III. 86. [See Varietas 
Lectionis to Rv. Bh. I. 5, 10. Also I. 18, 3 ; 25, 9 ; 100, 15 ; III. 35, 10 ; V. 9, i.] 

In Sutra III. 96 seq. I had altered •?!JIQi: into w^' on the authority of 
S4ya>ia's MSS. This has been accepted by Dr. Aufrecht also ; but on the 
authority of U^'^aladatta he retains »[ff, which I had printed in I. 27, 8, and 
afterwards altered to ^rff, L 91, 3, on account of Vin. VI. i, 16, and similar 

^ See L%valadatta on U«, III. 91. 



SAtra III. 99 was given by Bohtlingk (III. 98) as ^: q^nn:^^, in support 
of ^^. It was clear that this had to be altered into ^: ^Z!r':$?[f%, in order to 
explain theVedic form ^^:. But U(75'valadatta, and Avith him Dr. Aufrecht, read 
the Sutra as ^: ^sz>ri:^^, in order to explain the word ^m:. That there is 
such a word as ^^: in Vedic literature, has not been shown ; it certainly does 
not occur in the Rig-veda. But there occurs in the Eig-veda X. 120, 6, the 
word sg^: as applied to Purandara, and Sayana quotes our SAtra in support of it. 
We must therefore partly return to Bohtlingk's text, and read ^: q^r«JT^^', 
the reading which I adopted as at all events the one approved by SAyana. 

Sayana I. 66, 5, obtains the words jflm by modifying SAtra IV. 17; ig^ 
IX. 72, I, by changing SAtra IV. 73 [see also Rv. Bh. I. 14, 12 ; 71, i ; 72, 10; 
and Varietas Lectionis to I. 71, i]; sj^ in I. 31, 1 1, by changing SAtra IV. 75 ; 
j?^ in I. 31, II, by enlarging the same SAtra; ^^^ in I. 62, 3, by adding to 
IV. 84 ; VT^ft I. 105, 6, by changing IV. 107; ?R^I. 100, i, by changing IV. n6. 
Thus he gains ?p(kn: HI. 29, 11, from IV. 147; ffpjs^ I. 50, 11, from IV. 148 ; 
im: III. 34, 2, from V. 23, etc. 

In order to obtain^ in the sense of tji^R!, Rv. Bh. IX. 74, 4, S4yana changes 
Siitra IV. 10 1, fM^wrt ^5: into ^rnfrfx^ 'S'l,, supposing that |[^, which is a conjec- 
tural reading, is right. 

I had ventured to alter SAtra IV. 141, by changing ^rf% to ^, Rv. Bh. I. 
i8, 6 ; and afterwards ^if% also to '«rf^, I. 85, 3 ; I. 1 16, 12. I am glad to see 
both emendations adopted by Dr. Aufrecht, though Ui/i/valadatta reads '^. 

Strange mistakes have arisen froni SAtra IV. 207 (Bo. 209). Dr. Bohtlingk 
separated the SAtra and placed part of it in the commentary. Yet he was 
right in the main, and all that wa.s necessary was to suppress one qi 4 l<aiiti and 
lead '^iTi^: ^^^i^fr^ 5^ »R ^ 'TT. This was the reading I adopted where ^i^: had 
to be explained, I. 1 1 2, 24 ; I. 1 1 3, 20. S4yawa does not always quote the SAtra 
at full length, and often leaves out the ?n, where it is not wanted for his 
immediate purpose, as X. no, 8, compared with X. 132, 7. But whether it is 
to explain v^: or ^rt: , there is always the proviso j^ gz ^ ^. Strange to say, 
Us'i^rvaladatta, at least the only MS. of U^r^Traladatta which I know, takes an 
'ndependent line and writes J^g^ ^ ^. The Sandhi here leaves no doubt that 
g^ IS meant, though in the commentary the ?j in ij^i: might be taken for an % 
iJr. Aufrecht adopts the reading of g^ instead of g^, and what has been the 
result? A word ^:, which nowhere occurs, has found its way, first as a 

Some MSS. have %^ instead of jfesf. [See Varielas Lectionis to X. uo, 6.] 
VOL. IV. a 


various reading into the Petersburg Dictionary, then as a real and independent 
word into other Dictionaries, and while the UnMi-sdtras are made to lend 
their authority to this sky-lotus, the old Vedic word ^m: disappears from their 
list. Only one Dictionary, which is not infected by the ordinary sequacity 
of Dictionary-makers, the VA^aspatya of TAdtndtha, does not recognise the 
word ^JH*. but refera to our S6tra as the warranty for ■%nf'-- 

With regard to the text of the Nirukta, I shall confine my remarks to the 
first six books of YAska's commentary, which Professor Both, though not quite 
correctly, calls the Naigamakd,nci?a. How much I appreciated the edition of 
that work by Professor Roth, how much my own labour in restoring the 
numerous quotations which SAyaria gives from the Nirukta was simplified by 
it, I have already declared on several occasions. Yet what applies to PArainl 
and the UnMi-sAtras, applies also to the Nirukta. I could not trust myself 
to quote from the edited text, I could not correct S^yana's quotations, even 
when they seemed less trustworthy than the printed text, and I had in each 
case to satisfy myself from the evidence supplied by the three families of 
SAyana's MSS., whether he meant to quote the text, such as we now have it 
in our edition of the Nirukta, or whether he did not, 

I. 94, 7, Sa,yana quotes from the Nu-ukta III. 1 1, He writes ^^ft mifrm X^ 
Wjm"^, and this seems better than ^f^ in Roth's edition, 

1. 115, 4, Sflyana in quoting Nir. IV. 1 1, writes ^ret instead of^^, the read- 
ing of the MSS. adopted by the commentators and by Roth. I have little doubt 
thaf^^ is the right reading in the NiruktaS but judging from what precedes 
the quotation, I feel equally certain that S%a?ia wrote TTOt- C!a also reads ^rwt' 

Quoting from Nirukta IV. 15, Sayawa IX. 75, 5, writes TfqiTq^: instead of 
^'^^rtTT: , which is the reading of the MSS. of the Nirukta, of the commentary, 
and therefore rightly adopted by Professor Roth. ^^^^Ti:, however, is men- 
tioned by him as the reading of another recension of Y^ska (p. 108). 

The same remark ajiplies to Nir. IV. 25, where S4ya«a IX. 64, 30, reads 
TOn n^ <a iqnq ^« t , instead of the simple vm^ which was used by Ydska. In 
quoting, however, from Nir. V. 2, S^yana VI. 70, 2, is right, I think, in writing 

1 Devardja, p. l8», says, V^ f^^'^I«"Jl4««>5T- m^ f^RfffTWrf ^TfTRTR^W^TWT I^HW^T" 

ftw ^njfti wmfn rq«n«i?i*n<« ) 4 ; i ^rorrftr TnprrHrt ft^wrwrt TfWr«!n»^ |^*(|j(ii'fit 

>WHHIltK:tl Then follows a more curious explana- '^fiff^ II 



;eiT ^^^wft instead of ^r^^^jft, as printed in Eoth's edition. I am quite aware 
that Durga reads ^^i^i^sft, but S4yana does not, and to judge from the meaning 
of 53^, he is right. 

In I. 54, 5, S4yana quotes Nir. V. 16, and it seems quite clear that he meant 
to read ^nrnftfil TT VWT'ftfiT ^. The MSS. admit of no doubt on that point, and 
Silyana himself refers once more to VTlt^, when he adds vpTpftfif t|% %^^ V^ipftft 
JUI^. Professor Roth, however, edits ^»rT»ftf?r m iiv|%fn 'BfT, and, as far as the 
authority of the MSS. of the Nirukta is concerned, he is perfectly justified in 
doing so. Durga also refers as distinctly to n(^ as Sdyana to vnifn, for he 
says ^f^ T|% ifUfitfn M^ Kfw^ i^f^ u^ %tni?|^ ^ttff'. I ^T^^np^ 7Tf^P*t 

There are numerous differences between the printed text of the Nirukta 
and S4yana's quotations which in themselves are of small importance, but 
which, nevertheless, required In every case very careful consideration. When 
Sayawa I. 190, i, quotes Nir.VI. 23, he puts ^m^vsi for '?mif; when I. 39, 10, 
he quotes the same passage again, he puts t%^ for f^?T; when X. 5, 6, he quotes 
Nir. VI. 27, he puts ^wt^f for ffjft^ [A 2 reads P i d^jfl t^j, which may stand for 
5» or ^»]; when I. 51, 14, he quotes Nir.VI. 31, he jDuts tl ^ *(i r« tW <} : for ^TfHTf^- 
?!IT(^:, this being likewise the reading adopted by Durga. 

Several deviations from the printed text of Ydska have been observed in 
the passage Nir. VI. 32, quoted by Sayana III. 53, 14. Sa.yana reads t^V ^ 
instead of 1n^ ^. Here itig^ is decidedly the better reading, and if spelt 
according to the old fashion Hmm i, it would easily account for the reading 
which is now found in the MSS. of Y^ska. Durga explains flj fliraTfirftiW- 
^'^li^ mftrarr:. [The MS. B also has ^tgr ^, which has been accepted in the 
new edition, sjfn^r^:, not x^ Jf^, as printed in Roth's edition, means the same 

Sa,ya«a reads xfXM instead of ip^. Here ^^ is no doubt the most likely 
reading, but it was for that very reason that I did not like to reject ^r^ili. a 
purely etymological equivalent of ^jf , such as YAska not unfrequently gives in 
his glosses. 

What is the exact meaning of the next passage, sij^j i qu o ^ f^ i(\TV!f7f TfB^, 
I confess I do not see, nor do I wish to question the reading of Ydska's MS., sup- 
ported as it is by Durga's commentary, and by the use of Jl'J^ifJI in Nir. V. 16. 
let with all this, I cannot doubt that Sayana wrote ttt^, and again jflSt, and 
that he understood these words, as they are understood by Durga, viz. ^l^rtT- 



I need hardly say much about the text of the AsvaUyana-sAtras. It 
was not published till nearly the whole of my edition of the Rig-veda was 
finished ; and though I do not wish to say anything hard of its editor, RAma- 
n^r^yana Vidyaratna, particularly as he died before his work was finished ; yet 
it will easily be seen, that even in so simple a matter as the restoring of a 
correct wording of the Vedic hymns, proper care has not been taken, and that 
in quoting from this edition, no more weight could be assigned to it than 
to a good MS. I cannot deny that the quotations from the S6tras of Asvali 
yana have often been a great trouble to me. At first, where S^yana gives 
some indication as to the book and chapter from which each rule is taken, 
to find the exact passage was easy enough ; but in the progress of the work, 
the finding of the references became sometimes a matter of great difficulty. 
Take, for instance, the rules quoted in X. 131, i. The first and second cases 
were easy, because the verse ^ni TTT^: is actually given ; but in the third 
case, where the initial words of the hymn are not quoted, nothing but a know- 
ledge of the system followed by Asval^yana and a good deal of patience were 
of any avail. 

It is different with the G?'ihya-s<itras of Asvaldyana, of which we now possess 
a really critical edition by Professor Stenzler. In some places, where I thought 
I should have to deviate from his text, I always found in the end that he was 
right. Thus in quoting from the Gt- ihya-sfltras I. 7, 1 7, I thought at first that 
Sayana gave the right reading, by adding iTOT^rr '^VtR f^^?C, but there is no 
authority for it in any of the MSS., and I cannot but think that, for once, 
Siiyaria must have referred to another GHhya-sdtra. [He refers, Rv. Bh. X. 85, 
24, to Asv. »S'raut. I. 11.] 

Again, when Saya/ia X. 103, quotes from Asvalayana III. 12, 13, the Slatra 
^^M*t«n^dlHr<KVjlni*nnM^:, I was surprised to find in Professor Stenzler's edition 
■»l^^* < «41^ t1T^rf7IT^ ^rra ^"V^^:. I see, however, from a note to his translation, 
that the mistake had not escaped the careful editor, and that he himself proposes 
to read ^nrf^<,'*l3J R^l'^^t • But if that is so, then why is the tr-anslation retained, 
' while he recites the hymn of Apratiratha, the hymn " A killer," and the 
Sauparna hymn?' whereas the correct text can only be translated, 'while he 
recites the hymns of Apratiratha, Bv. X. 103; of Sksa, Rv. X. 152; and of 
SuparHa.' That this is the right translation becomes quite clear by the next 
S6tra, where it is said that the hymn of Suparna, which is here intended, 
is that which begins u V[\TJ V^, a remark which, as the commentator adds, 
was necessary, because Suparna is the author of several hymns. 



So much for the method which I followed m the treatment of puhllshed 
texts, when quoted by Sdyana. There are other works, however, which Sayana 
quotes, and which have hitherto not been published ; and these again are divided 
into two classes, works of which I- possessed MSS., and works of which no MSS. 
exist, or at least of which none could be obtained in Europe, 

When SAyana quotes from works of which I possessed other MSS., I had 
in every case to determine first, whether Sayana quoted freely, without binding 
himself to the exact words of the author; secondly, whether he followed a 
different recension of the author ; or, lastly, whether the difference between his 
quotations and the originals from which they were taken, was due to the care- 
lessness of the copyists. 

To take a case of the first class. Having not only the text of the SarvAnu- 
krama in different MSS., but likewise an excellent commentary by Shac/guru- 
sishya, and another by (Jagannatha, I had no difficulty in determining the 
original reading of that ancient Index, but I was by no means enabled thereby 
to correct all the quotations occurring in Sdyana. For instance, Ev. IV. 3, some 
of the MSS. of the Sarvanukrama have imn f^^ ; in others, these words are 
inserted at least in the margin. The commentator Shac7guru,s'ishya distinctly 
calls the first verse 1^^, but in doing so he contradicts himself, and forgets that 
he is explaining, not the Ya^/ur-veda, but the hymns of the BahvriZ-as '. In the 
Ya^rur-veda (see Taittiriya Sawdiita I. 3, 14, i ; Taittiriya Br4hma?ia II. 8, 6, 9), the 
fie vat A may be Agni, qualified as Rudra; but if the Rahvr/ytas recognise as 
the devatA of our verse Agnujmr at simple, then the first verse of our hymn 
cannot be called "t^^, and it would be wrong to alter the introductory remarks 
which Sayawa makes to our hymn. I am not able therefore to ado])t Professor 
Aufrecht's correction, who assigns the first verse to Rudra. [In the second 
edition, Aufrecht gives Agni alone as the devatii] 

In assigning the deities to the first hymn of the fourth Manr/ala, Professor 
Aufrecht and m] self are both wrong. I had put AgniA, 2-4 Agni/i or Vai'u//aA ; 
Professor Aufrecht puts Agni (i. 6-20), Agni aiid Varuna (2-5). The text, 
however, gives ^^rn^rr^fl'St ^^wg m, and that means that verses 2-5 are either 
addressed to Agni, or to Agni and Varuna. Sha(igurusishya says, ■«lF^<i<iti|^<tg|T: 
^ITt^l^TOT ^ar4: 1 ^Ti^rrw ir^m ^llll gnf^^^sn T{^ 11 A similar mistake, arising 


from the neglect of the \i, occurs V. 31. Here I had given the deities for 
verse 8, as S"-^ IndraA or KutsaA. and Usaxi^h, 9 IndraA and KutsaA ; Professor 
Aufrecht as Indra, Kutsa or Usanas (S"''), Indra and Kutsa (9). [Altered by 
Aufrecht in the new edition.] The Anukramani says, ^?Tf*Tfn "fttrtStsi*)*?! ^ VJ^ 
t Hs^ l MH cMY, and Sdyana explains this rule by ^q«*jTn ?r f '5ratTt*rf^ ^T^^: 'R^ 
giT^ipi^ f%«IRcH t^WT, i.e. for Pt\da 'a^nwm, the devatd, is either Indra or 
Kutsa ; for Pada ^ ^ ^t, Indra or Usanas. Sha<:/gunKsishya says, "aRm^JTH- 

Again, the v4 has not been properly explained in VI. 28, 2 and 8^. J had 
put GauA or IndraA, Professor Aufrecht puts and Indra. [Corrected by 
Aufrecht in the new edition to Giiva/t or Indra.] That I was right is shown by 
S4ya»ia's remarks, and likewise by Sha(?guru.s'ishya, who says, tl!<ft^'^ 'T^n ^. 

In IX. 67, a proper attention to the use of vtt will show that verses 25 and 
26 do not belong to AgniA and Savitii, or 27 to Agni/t and the Visve Deva^, as 
Professor Aufrecht stated, but that verses 23-27 are either all assigned to Agni/i,, 
or 25 to Agni/i or SavitA, 26 to Agni/i or AgniA and Savita, 27 to AgniA or the 
Viive Devd/i. [Corrected in Aufrecht's second edition.] 

There is another divergence between the Anukrama?ii and Sayaria In VI. 48, 
22. The Anukramani says, Jn^<g^i<?n «II«II^«n^T ^^T, which shows that its 
autlior assigned three (20, 21, 22), not two (20, 21), verses at the end of the 
hymn to the Marutas, while the last verse would be assigned either to the 
Marutas or to DyavabhAmi or to l^risnih. The style of the Anukramani Is 
liere peculiar, and possibly the two vtl's may have been intended to show that 
In the first Pada the Dydvabhtiml are optional ; in the second Pada, P/-is'nI/t. 
However tliat may be, it is quite clear that Sd,yaJia takes an Independent 
view, for he says at the end, fr^J^if^^: yf^^»ftf*l«|fll<S l-iWni wmx gftf^nr I ^^^- 
^'l I 591 ^Tftl ^ f^iJ 4<<rt l l ^IT^ijtw^^arr TT ; I- e. because it has been said that the 
whole hymn Is addressed to P^-isnlA, therefore the 20th and 21st verses belong 
to her, and the 21st to her or Dyavabhftmi. The writer of one of the MSS. of 
Shac/guru.sishya's commentary has evidently been struck by this divergence, 
for he first of all puts a marginal note to -^f^rj^ fn^xeh, viz. ^(^\ ^rnrr^wnRfd 
flffrrWT^ VT3' I, thus admitting a various reading of Sayana's for the Anukra- 
ma/d, and then continues, quoting the very words of SAya»ia, f^csfrolr: ^HM^Jft- 
f»r^«^T<t, !RW TTm gftf^'rm Xfif W^ ?HT^^ 11 The state of the case therefore 
is this: we may either follow the Anukrama»il, and In that case 20-22 are 
assigned to the Marutas or to Dy^vMjhiimt or to Prisnih (in succession); or 
we may follow S^yana, and in that case 20 and 21 belong to Frimih, wlule 22 


belongs to Pmni^ or DydvdbhAml. [See, however, Varietas Lectionis to Rv. 
Bh. VI. 48, and Anukramawl, ed. Macdonell, p. 23.] 

In VII. 104, 23, the Anukramajil says, m ^ T^ Tf'^TTapr Tfflfhmti^: 
^f^NTTft'^rt^- The commsntator explains this, »n »ft r«ft ^BfH «rW?l ^^tot: 
tpfi^ ^antt ^f«8^iJn:uT^ 1 ^fiX' ^^ 1: mfJ'rrf^ ar^^ ^ R,^^ yir:. This, 
at least, is the reading of MS. W. 379. But MS. E. I. H. 1823 reads iu the 
text of the Anukramaru ^3^<1riy^: ^f«n^fx:^^1fi:f7rt^: , and in the com- 
mentary ^fTT: ^f^ t: trrM^rf^ ^gf^flfT^ ^"^tfCfTf^:. Dyau/t, however, is 
not invoked in this verse, and cannot therefore be its devatd, nor does Silya»i.a 
support that view. The mistake must have arisen from the occurrence of the 
word divy&t, but this is not sufficient to admit I)yau/i as the real devatA 
of that verse, as, I see, Professor Aufrecht has done. [Corrected in Aufrecht's 
second edition.] 

It is, however, not always so easy to determine whether Silyawa is riglit, 
or Shao^guruA'ishya, or the author of the Anukrama?ii. In X. 59, for instance, 
the question arises, whether the first Pada of verse 10 should be assigned to 
Dya,vap*-tthivyau or IndraA, or to Dy^vaprithivyau and IndraA. Sayana takes 
the latter view, for he reads the end of the Anukrama?ii as ?rf*i^ff¥^ ^T>5^, and 
in his commentary assigns that Ardhar^-a to Indra/i, after having first assigned 
8-10 to Dydvaprithivyau. But the MS. of Shaf/guru.sishya (E. 1. 11. 1823) reads 
once at least m instead of ^, while MS. W. 379 had originally ^ in both places 
where it occurs, but altered it twice to ^t. In cases of this kind I generally 
follow Silyaiia, while I see tiiat Professor Aufrecht reads ^j, and therefore 
translates rightly I)y4v4p?Y"thivyau or IndraA. 

In X. 167, Sityajia takes no account of the vd. in his introductory remarks, 
hut he fully explains it afterwards, by saying g^ftrrr f^ni^^m %f?T I TW t? If^ 
^TT^ g fWTWnt T^ Tnp^^^m?:. I have, therefore, left the devatii of tlie 
last verse optional, while Professor Aufrecht assigns it definitely to the 

No doubt, this conflict of evidence between the text of Stiyaxa and the text 
of the works quoted by him is frequently very perplexing, yet it is better than 
when we have to deal with Sdyawa's quotations from works of wliich we have 
no MSS. at all. Here it became frequently impossible to restore a readable 
text, and all that could be done was to apply most strictly the rales of 
diplomatic criticism. Sdya?ia's quotations from the ^TUydyanaka have become 
almost proverbial among Sanskrit scholars, and those who wish to know the 
straits to which I was sometimes driven by them, may consult the Preface to 


the fifth volume. It is curious that of this (Siltyayanaka which S4yana quotes 
so frequently, no MSS. should have been obtainable. Another Brdhmana 
quoted by Sdyana of which I had no complete MS. is the Kaushitaki Brdhmawa 
VI. 46, 3; while others, such as the Aitareya {asmad-brahmana I. 164, 31), 
Taittiriya, Td?icZya, and *Satapatha Brdhmana, though not accessible at first, 
have all been published during the last twenty-five years. 

Of his own works Sayana quotes the DhtUuvrttti, I. 42, 7 ; I. 51, 8 (asmsl- 
bhir dhdtuvrittAv uktam) [see also I. 82, i], and the NyayamWavistara. 
The latter work is quoted frequently in the Preface, as Saiigrahailokas (pp. 6, 
10, II, etc.). The commentator speaks of it in the third person, pp. 11, 12; 
and in one passage, X. 125, 2, he speaks of its author as Bhagavtln Bh^shya- 
k3,ra, a title which he could hardly have applied to himself When speaking 
of himself, he uses the name St\yanilZ;3,rya, 5'risilya>iaHrya, Sayandrya, Sdyawd- 
mAtya, /Srimatsilya? (IV. 58) ; once he calls himself the son of 
iSrlmatl, VIII. 46, init. ; once the son of Srimilyana, VIII. 68, init., and the 
pupil of Vidyatlrthaguru ^ (IV. 58). In one place, of which I had to speak 
ah-eady, the commentary is ascribed to Sangama, IX. 13, init. [See Varietas 
Lectionls.] Another curious passage in which Si\yana adopts an explanation 
dift'erent from that of MMhavabhaWa, has been discussed by me in the Academy '■'. 

* The predecessor of \ itly!iranyii at .^ringOri is, as veda, edited by A. C. Burnoll. Manjjalore, 1873) Mr. 

the author of the I'uniadasi, called Bharatitirtha- BiimcU has tried to solve a problem which has puzzled 

vidyaranya-nmiiisvara. A picture of him is given in Sanskrit scholais for many years, viz. the mutual rela- 

tho edition of the AdhikajanainfilS, a work which is tions of the three commentators on the Ifig-veda, 

called Srimad-bharatitirtha-munipranitft, though the VidySranya, Madhava, and Sayana. I had myself, 

author in the introduction expresses his reverence for twenty years ago, corresponded with some of the 

the Paramatma siividyatiitharQpi. Both these woiks Pandits at Benares on the subject ; but though, after 

are also ascribed to Madhava. what they wrote, I was satisfied that VidyilraMya was 

^ I subjoin two letters on the subject from the only another name for MSdhava, I never could under- 

Academy, without euteruig hero more fully into the stand the connection between Madhava and Sftyarea, 

disputed questiun whether Sayana is but another name and therefore abstained from expressing any opinion 

of Madhava VidySranya, or whether ISftyana was the on the subject. Now Mr. BurnoU has solved the 

brother of Mddhava VidySranya. Without denying problem, or at all events proposed a solution which 

the weight of Mr. Burnell's aigumcnts, I still hold to would remove many difficulties. Ho maintains that 

the opinion that Sflyana was the brother of Madhava, not only Madhava and Vidy&ranya, but MSdhava and 

the latter living retired from the world, the former Sayana, too, are all one and the same person, that 

being his literary representative. Bnt as more evi- SSyana was the ordinaiy, Madhava the more sacred 

deuce on this question is expected from India, it would name of the Guru of Sringeri, and that the peculiar 

be premature to say anything definite at present. nomenclature which allowed Sliyana to speak of him- 
self as the younger brother of Madhava, though being 

ParTts End, Oxford, Jan. 26, 1874. one and the same person, has to be explained by a 

In the edition of the Vamsabrfihmana (The Vamsa- reference to Vedanta theories, 

brahmana, being the eighth Brahmana of the S&ma- I confess that this explanation would remove many 



It appears likewise from S4yana's preface, that before he attempted the expla- 

diffloulties, yet it does not remove all. What shall we 
say when Sftyana, after having given his own intoipre- 

tation of a Vedic verse, quotes a different one of 
5iadhavabha«a ? In the hymn X. 86 there is eon- 
.siderable uncertainty as to the persons to whom each 
verse is to be assigned. The first verse is explained 
liy Suyawa as being spoken by Indm. But after having 
done so, he adds, Madhavabha^Ss tu vi hi sotor itye- 
sharg indrSnya vfikj'am iti matiyante ; tasmin pakshe 
tv asyk rtVroiyam arthaA, 'llie Madhavabha«as think 
that this verse is the speech of Indrani, and according 
to this view the meaning of the verse would be as 
follows, etc' — Who can this (or these) MSdhava- 
liha«a's be? 

In his commentary on the Baudh&yana-sfltras, Sdyana 
calls himself S3yanai3ryapadai)hishikta, and Srisifiga- 
nSiSiyasutftgraganyaA, i. e. the best of the sons of the 
AiSrya of Sihgana, while in the Yaj/natantrasudhfi- 
nidUi, when he is no longer the family Guru of Bukka, 
but of Harihara, the son (tanOya) of Bukka, ho calls 
himself the son of Mftyana, and speaks of MSdhava as 
his real brother, saying, Upendrasyeva yasySsid indraA 
kumanasa*priya/(, mahakratflnam ahartA MadhavaryaA 
sahodarai, ' He whose brother was Madhavarya, the 
iifferer of groat sacrifices, beloved by the gods, an 
Indra, as it were, to an Upendra (i. e. to myself).' I 
'Ii> not mean to say that even those passages would 
resist a Vodantist explanation, but I should like to 
know how, according to the Vedantists of Sringeri, it 
IS to be applied. The question is one of great import- 
ance, and Mr. Burnell, living so near the monastery 
of which Sayana wiu* the head, is probably the only 
porsoh who could clear up (mr doubts. 

There is little more to be said about Mr. Burnell's 
valuable Introduction. As Mr. Burnell is engaged in 
searching for MSS. off immentaries on the Eig-veda, 
anterior to Sayana's, I may mention that, besides 
tlioso which I referred to in my History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, and in the Prefaces to ray edition 
of Sayana, I possess a considerable portion of Gaya- 
tirthahhikshu's gloss on Anandatirtha's Rig-bhashya, 
and Atminanda's commentary on the V8miya-sflkta. 
[See Academy, June 5 and 12, 1880.] I should also 
like to call Mr. Burnell's attention to a statement 
made in 1846 by the Pandits of Benares, that MB- 
•Ihava wrote a commentary on the Atharva-veda-sam- 
Wta, and that it consisted of 80,000 Mnes. Although 

VOL. IV. r 

there is little hope of recovering it, yet when the exact 
extent of the work is given, we can hardly doubt that 
it once existed. (See my Introduction to the Science 
of Eeligion, p. 109.) 

Parks End, Oxford, April 6, 1874. 
In answer to my letter of .lanuary 26, printed in 
the Academy of .January 31, Mr. Burnell writes to me 
from Mangalore, Marcli 10, telling me that he has been 
unable, as yet, to visit the College of i'ring^ri, of which 
sayana, the author of the great commentary on the 
Eig-veda, was once the Warden, and where the tradi- 
tion of his teaching is still kept up. 

I hoped,' he says, to bo able to show you how 
highly I valued your kindness, by getting some more 
information from Sringcri, hut in this I have unfortu- 
nately not succeeded, owing to the prolonged absence 
of the Guru on a begging tour. 

The passage you quote about Madhava Bha»a is 
very interesting. I have no doubt (as Bhaf/a is used) 
that this man was perhaps the rival of Sayanna, for in 
South India this title is by no means complimentary. 
I hope to find some traces of him, but must wiite t" 
you again on the subject. Madhava is so common a 
name in South India that it is impossible to suppose 
any Vedaiitist allegory in this case ; nor, if Sayanwi 
had a real brother called Madhava, would ho have 
spoken of him in this way. 

Gayatirthabhikshu's gloss is not uncomm(m ; the 
author was a monk of Anandatirtha's (i. e. Madhva's) 
sect, and lived /S. 1190-1254. He was the fifth in 
succession to Madhvaiarya or Anandatirtha. There 
are six MSS. of the whole (?) or parts at Tanjoro, 
but I did not mention it, as it seemed to me purely 

It is very uncertain how much of the Eig-veda 
Anandatirtha commented on. I have only seen a 
small tract containing the beginning, and it is always 
spoken of by the Brahmans of that sect as a small 
work. One, however, at Conjevcram, some six years 
ago, told me that he had seen a MS. which was as big 
as two volumes of your edition of Sayanna, but I doubt 
this much, as he never could produce it. 

For the same reason I doubt the report of the 
Benares Brahmans to Dr. Muir about an Atharva- 
veda commentary. I have so often bad tales told me 
quite as precise which I have ascertained afterwards 


nation of the Rig-veda, he had explained the Taittirlya Sa?nhit£l, the Taittiriya 
Brdhmawa, and the Taittiriya Arawyaka >. 

Sdyana refers but seldom to former commentators on the Rig-veda. Those 
whom he does mention do no longer exist, or, at all events, no MSS. of 
them have ever yet reached Europe. It is more than doubtful, even, whether 
any of them were real commentaries on the Rig-veda. S^yana mentions 
Bha«a-Bhdskara Misra. In I. 63, 4, he quotes him for his explanation of 
incr%:; in I. 71, 4, he refers to his etymology of ^ph: by means of an aun^dika 
suffix; in I. 84, 15, he gives his explanation of '<rft^: ; and in VII. i, 7, he 
appeals to him for the meaning of ^Trfn. These quotations ^ however, need not 
refer to a commentary on the Rig-veda. It is different with the quotation 
which occurs in VI. i, 13. Here he contrasts BhaMa-Bhflskara Misra and 
Bharatasv^min, both explaining the word vasutd, the latter as having the 
termination of the locative, the former as one word, used in the vocative case. 
Still even this does not prove that Bha«a-Bh^kara Misra wrote a commentary 
on the Rig-veda. There is a commentary by BhaWa Kausika Bhslskara Misra » 
on the Taittiriyaka still in existence, and Sdyana, who used it largely in his 
commentaries on the Taittiriyaka, may likewise have quoted from it here. 
Devar%a, who mentions Bhdskara Misra, ascribes to him a Vedabhdshya, 
without, however, restricting it to any Veda in particular. 

Bharatasvamin is known as the author of a commentary on the PArvMika 
of the Sdma-veda*, written, it is supposed, at the end of the thirteenth or the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. He also is quoted by Devar^a, but again 
only as the author of a Vedabhashya in general, so that he, too, need not be 
considered as having written a commentary on the Rig-veda. 

to be untrue, that I am very little inclined to believe like Madhavabha«a, that one can hardly suppose they 

mere assertions. were, at the time, not compliineutary. The great 

'The best Pandits all accept my view of the Madhava Bha«a, Knm&rila, is perhaps more correctly called 

Sayanna question. There are no Pandits, I hear, at Bha«a Kumarilasvamin, but in AnantabhaMa, Arya- 

.Sringfiri, and very few Brahmans there who know any bhatte, and other names, bhaHa always stands at the 

Sanskrit at all. end. In the Bohtlingk and Hoth Dictionary Bha«» 

' When the Guru returns I shall visit the place, and is mentioned as commonly meant for great scholars, 

do my best to get you a transcript of some of the Big- and as distinct from bha«a, a mixed caste, chiefly 

veda commentary there, at all events.' occupied with composing panegyrics. 
I have only one remark to make. When Pdyana ^ See Burnell, Vamsabrahmana, Preface, p. xviii. 

speaks of Madhava, he calls him generally Madhava, * See also note to I. 189, 3. 

Madhavarya or MadhavakSrya, not MadhavabhaMa. ' Burnell, I. c. p. xxvii, and Catalogue of Sanskrit 

But if Bha«a or Bhaf^ds (plural) is now in South MSS. p. i». 

India a title by no means complimentary, was it so at * Burnell, 1. c. p. xxviii. 

the time of Sayana ? There are so many names formed 


Another commentator mentioned by S3.ya?!a Is Skandasvdmin. In I. 88, 5, 
S4yana quotes his etymology of var^hu ; in V. 12, 3, his view of the origin of 
navedas. Neither passage would enable us to assert that SkandasvAmin wrote 
a commentary on the Rig-veda, particularly as both these words would most 
likely be treated by him in his Niruktartkl To judge from other passages, 
however, it is not impossible that the Vedabhashya, assigned to him by 
Devar%a, may have been a commentary to the Rig-veda \ 

Udgitha, too, who is quoted by S^yana X. 46, 5, is most likely the author 
of a commentary, and spoken of as such by AtmAnanda ^. 

There is, lastly, a work by Kapardin, quoted I. 60, i. Kapardisv4min is 
chiefly known by his commentary on the Apastamba-sAtras ^, and though it is 
not certain that this is the book referred to by Stlyawa *, yet we see from other 
passages that Silyawa, living in the South of India, where 'even the house- 
cats know the Ya^-ur-veda",' was most familiar with the ceremonial of the 
Taittiriya-schools. Thus when in I. 97, init. he quotes Bh4radvili/a, we can 
hardly doubt that he refers to the -SVauta-sAtras of BhS,radv%a, belonging to 
the Taittiriyas". He quotes Apastamba's SAtras, IV. 9, 5 ; IV. 58, 3 ; V. 56, 9' ; 
the Haridriivika, a Brahmana belonging to the Maitrdyaniyas ', V. 40, 8. We 
saw already that he quotes the Taittiriya-pratis4khya, and in X. 50, 5, he 
nlearly refers to the Pada-text of the Taittiriyas, and to Yaska's Nigha«<u III. 1 2. 
The passage given in MS. C (III. 20, 3) has already been discussed. 

Instead of quoting his predecessors by name, Sityana more frequently refers 
to them in a general way. Thus I. 161, 6, he quotes %^iT, without saying who 
they are, and expresses his dissent from them». In III. 20, 3, one MS. at least 
quotes ^ Hl«|9<i:. The remark is intended for the various reading VHT in tlie 
Taittiriya Sa«thit4 III. i, 11,6, instead of »rR as in the Rig-veda. The refei'ence 
to the ^^9>i( might be to Apastamba, whose commentary by Ka[)ardin was 
mentioned before. Sometimes Sayana introduces various opinions by WH ^!JTf , 
^»^ "m, ^rfW?. etc. For instance, VI. 42, 2 ; VII. 87, 4 ; VII. 57, 3. SAya?ta 
also quotes ^'M^Klf^i^:. In III. 55, 12, he cites their authority in sui)i)ort of 

See History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 240, ^ Bui-nell, Viimsabraliinana, p. viii. 

""'^ '• * History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 199, 

See History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 240, ' [See also the long quotation from Apttwt.-Griliy. 9, 

""** '• 5-8, giving tlie Viniyoga for Itv. X. 145.] 

History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 380, * History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 370. 
note ; Burnell, Catalogue, p. 21. ° Sometimes corrections made liy the copyists on 

[He refers to Knpardin's commentary on the Apa- the margin are introduced hy vastutas tu, ' but in 

stamhiya-Grihya-sfltra 12, 24.] reality.' Some of these find their way into the text. 

r 2 



the meaning of h^: ; in VI. 9, i, he quotes two of their slokas in answet to 
the questions asked in the hymn, and contrasts theii- view with that of the 
Atmavida/i. In I. 88, i, we find him, though at second hand, appealing to the 
Vnddhanusdsanam ', in opposition to the Paura.mkas (see also ¥.52, 17); and 
in VIII. 33, 6, he says t*T^ ^j^fiifJ i fin n^. In the same manner he appeals 
frequently to the Nairuktas and Aitihdsikas, 1. 64, 8 ; to the Mbdikas, IV. 58, 3 ; 
and to others, Apare. 

There are still a few books quoted by S4yana, which may here be mentioned. 
He quotes the Mahdbh^shya by name, VI. 66, 9, but not for the purpose of 
grammatical analysis. For that he quotes P4nini and the V^rttikas. 

It is interesting to see that, once at least, S4yana quotes the K4sikd, 
X. 115, 7. There is a verse mentioned in the >Sabdakaustubha and the 
Manorama, stating that MMhava re-established the reputation of V&mana, 
the author of the Ka,sikd,, a reputation which for a time had been eclipsed by 
Vopadeva. ! q\n^qn^mii{i)<;ft ^^TTf^rara: 1 ^f^n ira^f 'TTO^M ftwtf^: 11 \^ 

* This means the teaching of the old people, for 
V^ is only used of persons, not of things. I mention 
this, because in the Zeitacbrift dor Deutschen Mor- 
genlaudischen Gosellschaft, vol. vii. p. S99, I find the 
following ' Correction ■ (Berichtigung) addressed to me 
by Professor Weber: 'I have seen with great interest 
the beautiful communication of our M. Miiller with 
reference to an edition of the Mah^bhSshya, prepared 

at Calcutta It is all the more painful to meet in 

this communication with a piissage, which, being mis- 
understood, as it seems to me, by our friend, might 
serve to lower our opinion of the value of the gram- 
matical speculations of the Hindus. On p. 168 we 
read, "The language of society (bhSsha) is explained 
by Nage«a as that which is used in the transactions 
of grown-up people, receiving or giving orders." The 

Sanskrit text is WT«JT TnjWnfT^atifs^wfK: I 

TT^ K<J3l444|<||«lir«mv{: II In this passage, how- 
ever, prayuj means to use, then to name. Therefore 
we ought to translate literally, " Bhlshft is old custom 
of him who uses what is to be used in those which are 
there used" (hhiisha ist alter Gebrauch des das zu 
Gebrauchende Brauchenden in den darin gebraucht 
werdenden); or more clearly, "Old custom of him who 
expresses what is to be expressed in those which are 

expressed in it (scil.bhftsha)," (alter Gebrauch des das 
Auszudriickondo Ausdriickenden in den in ihr (uiini- 
lich in der bhasha) ausgedriickt werdendeu) ; or simply, 
"The common language is that in which, for that 
which one wishes to say, such words only are used 
as by traditional practice are fixed as exjjressions for 
the objects which they are to signify" (die gewohu- 
liche Sprache ist diojenige, in welchor fiir das. was 
man sagen will, nur solcho Worter gebraucht werdeii, 
welcho durch hergebrachte Praxis als Ausdriicke fiir 
die Gegenstande, wolche sie bezeichnen sollen, fixirt 
sind).' If Professor Weber will consvUt the MahS- 
bhashya, and the translation of this passage by Bal- 
lantyne, he will see that I was right, and his correction 
wrong. It was known, surely, even in i8o3t that 
vriddhavyavahara cannot mean old custom (alter Ge- 
brauch), but only the usage, the conversation, the 
practice of old, and therefore authoritative people. 
See the article on Indian Law-books by Professor 
Stenzler, published in the Indische Studien, 1849, 
where the titles Vr»ddha-Ya<;aavalkya etc. are dis- 
cussed. In the Petersburg Dictionary this is ren- 
dered by Ya^navalkya senior.' 

* See Baia»astri'8 Preface to the KfijikA, Pandit, 
vol. viii. no. 94. 


It is of importance, therefore, to observe that Stlyana, though never quoting 
Vopadeva, does quote the KisikA, and likewise two of the most famous com- 
mentaries on the Klsikl I see no reason to doubt that Haradatta, whom 
S5.ya«a quotes, is the author of the Padamawj/ari. He is quoted in a passage 
I. I, 5. which, it is true, rests on the authority of Ci only, and is absent in 
A I. 2, B I. 2, also in Ca, and which by itself would carry little weight. But 
it is known from Westergaard's Preface to his Radices Sanscritae, 1841 (p. iii. 
1. 18), that the author of the DhS,tuv»'ttti, whether SAyawa or Md.dhava, quotes 
Haradatta Misra, the author of the Padamaw^ari, which is an exposition of 
the Klsik^ Vntti. And I am still further confirmed in my opinion that the 
Haradatta, quoted by S^yawa, is the expositor of the Kasik4, by the fact that 
he is again quoted by S5.yana (I. 82, i) in company with the Ny^sakdra, i.e. 
6'inendra, the author of the NyAsa, or Klsik^-vWtti-pawf/ikd, another exposition 
of the Kisik^ Vntti '. If Vopadeva, who lived in the twelfth century, is the 
author also of the commentary, the K4vyak4madhenu ^, the fact that he quotes 
both the Kis-ika, and the Ny4sa, would place (xinendra at least before th« 
twelfth century ; while with regard to Haradatta, the author of the other 
commentary on the KAiika, we may at all events place him before Sdyana, 
i. e. before 1350. 

There is one very startling quotation in SAyana's commentary I. 62, 3 '. 
In explflining the formation of 'sftrar he says '3'5rni^T7'^T«f g^t^XTTf^^ vrawt 
^ f*I^2*nxg. That passage occurs in all the three families, and yet the quo- 
tation is in intention identical with what we read in Devardjjra's commentary 
on the Nighawiuka (MS. E. I. H. 11 34, p. 70^'): ^<!< i at'»< l fM ' rt^< l f<<^< » gi^ w. I 
^: gjS^. It is well known, however, that Devard^a in the preface to his 
commentary quotes MMhava, and quotes not only other works of his, such 
as the N^mdnukramawi, the AkhydtAnukramant *, the NipatAnukramawi, the 
Nirvaiand,nukramani ^ but also his Vedabhtlshya. He calls MMhava, the son 
of /Sri-Venka«4/Jrya, or in the MS. E. I. H. 11 34, of ,Srt-Ven<akdZ;drya, and it 
is just possible he may distinguish this M4dhava from Mddhavadeva, as he 
calls him afterwards. What the Anukramanis are we do not know; to judge 
from quotations in the body of the book (p. 5"), the NirvaAan4nukraraaMl 

Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, p. ix. cult to distinguish, we expect tlkhyata, verb, by ths 

Westergaard, I.e. p. v ; Aufrecht, Catalogue, side of nftma, noun, and nip&ta, paiticle. 

P-176. * On the Auukramanis, see History of Ancient 

[See also Varietas Lectionis on Ev. Bh. 1. 30, i.] Sanski it Literature, p. 216. With legard t j an Anu- 

I write akhy&ta, for although < and n are diffl- kramani in slokan, see Rv. Bh. I. ico, I ; X. ft, 7. 


seems to have been a kind of Nirukta. Certain it is, that they have never 
been met with among the works ascribed to Mddhava or S^yana of Vidya,nagara. 
If this distinction, however, between two MMhavas should seem inadmissible, 
nothing would remain but to admit, that Devardf/a knew the commentary of 
MMhava, but not in that form in which it was edited by SAyana. We might 
quote some passages in support of this view. On p. 6, Devai'd,f7a quotes MS,- 
dhava as giving an etymology of PAshan, while explaining Rv. I. 23, 13. That 
explanation, however, does not occur there. Again, Devar%a quotes MMhava's 
comment on Rv.VII. 87, 4, but the words do not agree. The case is different, 
however, in other passages. Thus on p. 20", where DovarAj/a quotes MMhava's 
interpretation of ^HTT, in Rv. X. 68, 8, he says, ^SRrrftnnf 1^ MiJMJaf^ffl %^9^ f*r»rR: | 
« lT V^M<l'Birq*<q tj^Ti^^ ; and in SayaJia we read, ^rSTfTiTTr ^\\\H\ fl[^RTf^nrj- With 
regard to "^ a nnu ; Devar^a says, %^ xfH fw^S^^W^^ ^(W^ fit: I tt^ <«l^lMU!^n!!*l«i 

^^STTCT: I *l««jT<4«a ^ I ■'Q.^f^ W[z: 1 ^iis^^ %«iwt^: n This would supply the 
lacuna in SayaJiaVIII. 66, 10. 

With regard to metrical matters, S4ya?ia follows the excellent treatise at 
the beginning of the Sarvtlnukrama. He oiice or twice, however, refers to 
other works. Thus X. 130, 5, he quotes the it/iandoviZ;iti, i.e. the Sdtras of 
Piiigala, with reference to the deities with which certain metres are supposed 
to be specially connected, the extract being taken from III. 63; and in I. 169, i, 
he quotes Piiigalanaga by name, quoting his SAtra, f«m^ f^:, HI- 5 '• 

Sayana quotes from both MimaTOsAs, and most largely from the PArva- 
mimdwisa in his introduction, and elsewhere. Here, too, the text gives rise to 
critical difficulties, r.' , was it always easy to find the SAtra to which S4yana 
referred. To qu)te but one passage. In X. 129, 7, none of SAyana's MSS. 
except ♦CB give;; the correct text of the PAramtlrsha^ S{itra I. 4, 23 ; yet after 
finding the origmal, I cotild have no hesitation in giving the words such as 
they stand in the Vediinta S6tras. 

Apart from these passages, however, in which the authority of the MSS. 
of Sdyana is moBe or less checked by the independent authority of the texts 
quoted by Sflyana, I have throughout followed those principles of criticism 
which I had laid down for myself from the first. I did not undertake with 

' ITio readings fi<^ i q<(t | ^ and f«r% ^T ^fTTT are confirmed by MS. ^ ; see Pan-Zita Vitvanfltha 
ifftstri'H edition, p. 37, note. See also Rig-veda-prfttisakhya 957; Indische Studien, VIII. S57~*59- 
^ Cf. Rig-voda-bhashya I. 115, I. 



the MSS. at my disposal to restore in every case tlie original wording of Sdyaxa; 
I only promised to give in every doubtful passage that reading which seemed 
to me presupposed by the various readings of the three families. This is 
what I should have done, if it had fallen to my lot to carry out the edltio 
pinceps of a Greek or Latin author, and what would have satisfied the claims 
of classical criticism. I do not deny that I was somewhat disturbed, when I 
was informed, on what seemed to be good authority, that a MS. of Stlyana 
had been discovered in India, far more ancient than any which I possessed, 
nay, almost contemporaneous with Siiyawa. I naturally waited for a time 
with my edition, hoping to receive more exact information, but in that respect 
my hopes were disappointed. It is not impossible, of course, that such a MS. 
may still come to light, but, as far as I am concerned, I should hardly regret 
it. I feel certain that the critical method which I have followed, will stand 
even that severest of all tests ; and though I may not in every case have 
i-estored the original wording of Sijma, I believe it will appear, that I have 
given that text from which the three streams of our MSS. started '. I have 
myself pointed out again and again, that accidents have happened to the 
text of S4yana before it reached that stratum, if I may say so, which contains 
the three sources of our MSS. Whole sentences have been lost, whicli must 
have existed in S4ya/ia's original work; nay, the very fact that they were 
lost, has sometimes been marked in our MSS. In X. 123, 2, for instance, a 
lacuna is actually mentioned in the MSS. belonging to the A class (trfiii^ 
BmTf%) ; in the B class there are dots to mark the accident ; while in the 

class only, the commentary goes on as if nothing had happened. 

Wishing to know whether the present Guru of Sringeri, the successor of 
MAdhava, Sri Nnsimha Bha,ratl, was in possession of materials to supply such 
lacunas, I asked Mr. Burnell to use his influence with the head of the wealthy 
College of /SringSri, in order to obtain an answer to some of my questions. 

1 cannot thank Mr. Burnell suflSciently for his great kindness in assisting me 
in my inquiries ; and the result, though far from satisfactory, will certainly 
be interesting, and, I hope, encourage other efforts. Writing from Mangalore 
on the 29th of December, 1873, Mr. Burnell says: 

i have lately sent to >Sringeri, and the passage on the opposite page is 
said to be the commentary on one of the test passages you sent me. It 
appears almost impossible to get information; the Guru is on a pilgrimage, 

[All the cases in which my conjectural readings have been confirmed by later MSS. are mentioned 
'B the Varietas Lectionis.] 


and everybody there is too rich to care for money, nor is there any way to 

influence these people Sringeri is at present very unhealthy, and every 

person from the low country who visits it, gets a bad form of malarious fever. 
I must, however, try to visit the place, and I am going to send again.' 

The verse of which I had asked to have the commentary, was X. 27, 9. 
The commentary is left out in all my MSS., and in B there is even a note 
'rffrati'^r ^B^: I. 

The authorities at ^Sringeri supplied the following commentary : ^ ufhfh 

^rawT^ ^TTRt 'S'jTi^ ^^ra ««jji-hiO irrf^^trn^f^iTn ^3^ f^«fllW 'i'Tti ^^tt^ 

f^d^jl l f -tri ^TTT^ *j«nf4VI«*<*ai-HlO ♦{^«IVl«!!I<lf*SflI ^RTf^plEraTT'R^ USHiJ^Tft ^^- 

This may, of course, be the original of SS,yana, but we must not be too rash 
in our conclusions. The comment, as given above, was not copied from a MS., 
but dictated by the agent of the /Sring6ri-ma<Aa, Subrahmanya Somay%igal. 
Supposing the same lacuna to exist in the old MSS. at ,Sringeri, nothing would 
be easier than to supply a comment, like the one given above. Nor would 
there be the least Tnala fides in the matter. A scbolai- at /Sringeri, being told 
that an explanation of llv. X. 27, 9, was wanted, and finding the lacuna in his 
own MS., would at once supply the required article. Or, suppose the MS. 
at /Sringdri had been used for educational purjwses, then again the teacher, 
on discovering the omission, might long ago have supplied it on the margin, 
and the marginal gloss might long ago have been incorporated in the body 
of a new MS. I do not wish to be over-sceptical, but I am as yet far from 
satisfied that /Sringeri possesses MSS. of Sdyana, independent of the three 
families known to us. It may be, or it may not be, but till I hear more from 
Mr. Burnell, I should wish to remain entirely neutral on that point. Mr. Bumeli 
says, ' I am going to try again, and you may rest assured that whatever infor- 
mation I get, I shall at once communicate to you.' The last I heard on March 
10, 1874, is that 'the Guru is still absent on a begging tour. When the Guru 
returns,' Mr. Burnell writes, 'I shall visit this place, and do my best to get you 
a transcript of some of the Rig-veda commentary there, at all events.' 

By dwelling so much on the difficulties in preparing a critical edition of 
S&yana, I do not wish to produce the impression that the text was corrupt 
from beginning to end. It is with SS-yana as with other Sanskrit authors : 
there are long passages which, if we are once familiar with the style of S4ya«a, 


present no difficulties whatever ; passages where I knew beforehand almost every 
word that was coming, and where no regard for the authority of the MSS. would 
have kept me from restoring the text, such as I knew it ought to be, and 
such as Sayana could alone have'written it. Any one accustomed to Sanskrit 
MSS. knows the accidents that may happen in copying. Instead of ^ we find 
ipi; instead of ^if, ^■, instead of '^, ^; g instead of^; ^ histead of ^; 
^if instead of ^. Owing to the more ancient system of writing the diphthongs, 
rrnn appears for (Pfr, <n% for cT%, TTTTt for ?TTt, fit i'or ;r%'. Again, there arc 
many passages where »4||^<(It1^ was intended, but ^rft^Trm written ; where the 
Siitra to be quoted fr-om Piuani could oidy bcs '?Rj>5tifq f^, but where all the 
MSS. write JW\- There are hundreds of accidents of that kind which, in so 
large a work as SAyawa's commentary, occur again and again, and which F cor- 
rected without a moment's hesitation. Such corrections I have not even marked 
in the various readings, except when they seemed to throw light on the mutual 
relationshi]) of the various MSS. I should not wonder if to a casual )'ead(>r 
some of these mere routine corrections might seem too bold ; but after c()i)ving, 
collating, and correcting Siiyana's commentary for thirty years, I have not the 
slightest misgivhigs about them. 

And here I may be allowed to make a personal remark. I believe I have 
acknowleilged, Mlihout stint, whatever assistance I have received from other 
scholars during the progi-ess of my woi-k. Tliey themselves have assured me, 
that I had said more than they deserved or expected. I have never likefl 
the rule, followed by nearly all scholars, of not acknowledging services for which 
payment has been accepted. But as it has been broadly hinted, that for certain 
portions of SAyawa's commentary, t had parted with my editorial rcsj)onsibility, 
1 take this opportunity of stating, once for all, that there is no page, no line, no 
word, no letter, no accent, in the whole of the conunentary, for which f am not 
personally responsible. Nothing was ordered for press that T had not myself 
carefully examined and revised; and though for certain portions of my edition, 
as I stated in the Preface to each volume, I was relieved of nuich preliminary 
labour, the decision in fill critical passages, whether for good or (wil, always 
rested with me. In an (^lition of Slya/^a, as in an edition of Cicero, there are 
whole pages which require little or no editorial labour; but the real character 
"f an editioi^ depends on the treatment of critical passages, the more or less 
h'equent occurrence of which constitutes the diificulty of an editor's work. 

It should not be suj^posed from what I have said of the state of the 

' Nee also Buinell, Vamsabi'Shmana, p xxwiii. 

cxxxviii PREFACE TO THE 

apparatus criticus for an edition of SAyana, that everything could be settled 
by diplomatic evidence. I have already spoken of those regular corrections 
which, though to an outsider they might seem conjectural, are really self- 
evident to an editor familiar with his work. But thei-e are other passages, 
and they are not few in number, where notliing but conjectural criticism 
would avail, though founded always on the evidence supj)lied by a proper 
arrangement of the various readings. Sometimes the mere question of an 
Anusvara required the most careful consideration, and the MSS. on such points 
are naturally of little use. Whether Silyana, for instance, wrote i|^ or if^ 
cannot be settled by diplomatic evidence only, but rather by a close attention 
to his general style of interpretation. The word ^!l^ntrf% is derived by Saya/^a 
sometimes from the I'oot ijg f?€T^ (Dhiitu-pa^Aa 17, 78), sometimes from the 
root Tji^ ^fft' (T)hiltu-p;V/i.a 17, 79). Unfortunately Tj*g is not written in S3,yana's 
MSS., as it ought to be, witli ^, but with Anusvara, urg, tlius making the 
distinction more difficult, particularly as some authorities assign to the root 
Tpg, too, the meaning of ffwrat. 

The word ^l^ljf^, though derived from ij^^ ^<ft'. has the meaning of impre- 
cation, and lends itself therefore to the interpretation of ifn? as well as of ff^. 
Thus we find, Rv. VIII. 19, 26, ■*|fii9jf% explained by ■^irfHlj^IT, and this woixl itself 
rendered by finzn^^T^ or ff^fn. This being the case, it is all tl>e more curious 
that 8aya«a, in explaining ^f»nrf^, should quote once only the root ip?^ ^j^ 
(I. 91, 15). This would, in fact, lead us to su])i)ose, that we ought to read ^fwTI^I 
and 'Sifflij^^, were it not quite clear on the other side, by the employment of 
such words as firszTRTI^, f«i^ (V. 3, 1 2), t^T (VIII. 66, 1 4), that SAyana admitted 
both derivations, that from ^ipg igrff as well as that from ug f?^^ (I. 76, 3 ; 
VIII. 89, 2). Taking all the twenty-one passages, in which -^fiTlrf^ is explained, 
together, we find there is none in which, either by the character of the expla- 
nation adopted by Sayawa, or by the authoi'ity of the MSS., we are obliged to 
admit the use of '^ifHlj^iT or '^fini^r^ as ecpiivalcnt to ^!rf*nrf%- The mere fact 
that Tj^, to kill, is not in ordinary Sanskrit joined with the preposition ^rfw, 
would not have sufficed to sh(;w that, for etymological purposes, such forms 
as ^rfinr^T or ^rfwu^rai could not have been introduced; but I doubt whether 
there is any but etymological or grarmnatical authority for the admission of 
such woi-ds as '^rfwiI^R and ^l^nr^^ into our dictionaries. 

Sometimes, however, the changes required for a restoration of S4yana's 
commentary are of a much bolder character. I shall mention a few, in order 
to justify my critical proceedings. In Rv. X, 121, 4, the passage occurs, ^#«t: 



jifjriit ?rer '^TW- S4yawa's first idea was evidently to take uf^: in the sense of 
firjj:, the principal regions or four points of the compass; but he saw that he 
had to explain jf^ ^jt^ independently, and wishing to assign to the arms of 
Praj/4pati the place of the principal regions, he recollects himself, and assigns to 
Tlflrjf: the meaning of f«ff^Tr: or sJttTJlf^Ti: , the intermediate points of the compass. 
I do not say anything here about the correctness of sucli an ex])laiiation, I only 
try to explain to myself what was passing in S4ya?ia's mind. Now the state 
of the MSS. is as follows : A gives mtHi: ^%stT?rT: ^twf^: tftlw^iT: ; B 4 agrees 
with this on the whole. The B class gives jnt»TT '^iT^^^rT: <4f) ti!T | t t^TfT^T:- The 
independent authority of Ca is missing, except the last word j^hrn^rr:. As the 
MS8. are simply unintelligible, I had to ask myself, what Siiyana could have 
wi'itten, and the mention of ^iJlf^: made it clear, that he liad attempted a 
distinction between irf^: and f^lj:. The jjoints of the compass in Sanskrit 
arc ten, and tliey are given in the following order: i. ^, 2. '?n^^J^, 3. ^f^ifr, 
4- ^^fft, 5. vf^m, 6. ^T^, 7. ^tRT, 8. \W^, 9- ^^, 10. •^v:. As tlie Eastern 
])oint is called not only ^, but also ViV^, I sup])0sed tliat tlie first explanution 
given by Saya?ia must have been ^^l ^'n: nt^: H|^ l <* n:, i.e. to whom tliese 
principal regions, beginniTig with the Eastern, belong. Then, seeing that in his 
exj)]anation of ?i^ ^t^, he had distinctly assigned to tlie arms the position of 
+ !ie princi])a] regions, ^^^TR^niJ^wr: nf^lig ^'SJ WS<n:, it seemed to me to follow 
that he must have allowed another rendering foruf^:, by identifying these with 
the fatf^: or ^ijf^^j:, the intermediate jwints. The first of these being the 
W%^, and the last the VMl^, 1 now ventured to restore the text l)y reading 
"»llv*«(i5rT: Wtff^ isiJinim:. I should have preferi'ed xnrNflT: , but ^^flpisiT: would 
hardly support so violent a connection. Lastly, I was driven to add a wi at the 
tnid, ill Older to get a jiroper construction, though I confess that the absence of any 
trace of such a particle makes me doubt, whether, after all, my correction is quite 
I'lght. [Professor Peterson considered these conjectural emendations too bold, and 
died to defend thi; reading of the MSS., unsuccessfully, it seems to me. He retains 
'TTTTT: and ^^Rjtjsit:. His own friends, the Editors of the Bombay edition, however, 
nave adopted my conjecture to a grea,t extent, unless they actually found the 
reading in some of their M8S. They read in^ntHT H jii ^ iqi^i; cfTwf^w: t^IT'^WT: l] 
In X. 106, 1 1, the MSS. stand as follows : 

A jftsft: 'ft^ireni* 

B li^tcj^: 4F\<^M*^A° 

Ca aftCTT^ ^ 'Tt^^: ^^"* 
leave out the minor difteiences of the individual MSS. belonging to each 

s 2 


class, which may be seen in the various readings. The A and B classes still 
have traces of what must have been the original reading, viz. 'it^cTiff^'feHil^f^rf! ; 
but suppose we had only MSS. connected with Ca, how would it have been 
possible to restore the text ? 

In X. 178, I, tlie MSB. give the following readings : 

m^ f^ f^w 'gg^ ?nri5 f ^^ -q^T t^fif^^ A. 

rrr^ f^ f^^ '^H^ g^ f 'sj tr^T "nlTf^^^ C 2. 

irr^ f^ f ^ q^ ^xn§ f 'g ^ir i^if^^^T^ Ca. 

m'^ g^^ gi^xt v^ T^Tf^^^ B I. 

irrm ^f^^^ jj^ g^ ^^j aiHTf^is^^i^ CB. 

m^ f^i guf ^TiT iJhf^^^ B 4. 
It is clear that this passage has been misunderstood by all this copyists. The 
conniption must have begun at a very early date, for we see that the com- 
mentary to the 8ama-ve(l;i, too, shows signs of it. At first sight that 
connnentary seems quite right. It reads (p. 672) : 

m^ g^g^ gq^ g^g^t ^ijif^: ^^% I 
But is there any authority for calling Carga and others the son of Tr/ksha ? 
The only thitiff which Garca shares in common with Tr/ksha is that their 
patronymics, according to Ptijani IV. i, 105, are formed by the same suffix, 
viz. ?!»[• I therefore have little doubt that we must restore the original reafling, 
as I have done, r[i^ g^H^ ^^^4 1 g'^T^^ I t^f«[: or ijahf^^Tti:. 

I have not thought it necessary to give all the extraordinary corruptions 
that have cre])t into Saya;ta's text, particularly when they occuired in passages, 
the wording of which admitted of easy restoration. Thus, even without SAyawa, 
we could easily suj)ply ourselves what he says at the beginning of each hynm 
with regard to the deities, jv'shis, and metres. But in order to give an idea ol' 
what is possible in Saya/ta's j\ISS., 1 shall give at least one specimen. In X. 132, 
uiitio, this is the state of the MSS. : 

M. M. siigwTfwt f?^t?i^^?i^^B3ii'Tfft I fl[«ftm- 
Ca w^ M^*n«4»f t irerRTtwt fdi^i<ai«ftgis^B^?ft 

' [R has •^^^afi', tke rest agreeing with M. M.] 


Ca fiiCT ffp^ 1%Tr^ ^iot: T?^»T^flni^^ s^%fTT ^Riir^rf^m: n 

M.M. fliBTfwt frrrf^T Ti^^^TT^^iS^ffT ^T^Tn^rPjm: i 

Let any one read this passage carefully and compare it with the original text, 

of the Anukrama/;!, and he will see that my alterations, liowever violent in 

ajipearance, were inevitable. 

In many cases, of course, a familiarity with the style of H;iya*/a is the only 
means of restoring his text. In X. 177, i, we have : 
A ^1% 7RTT fl^ ^ ^t I 

B I i^ ?f^HT T^jTwi I m ^^ I 

CB 1?% ([([•( xj rf^TTT^^ 
Ca f ^T ?%I 7{JW\ •^ ^^t 

I liave altered tliis without any misgivings to f^ f?#1 I ffT^^uznTTT ^s^ , hut 
I cotdd only do so l)ecause I knew that Saya//a is accustomed to use the 
expression TI'n^WPfTT'^ o^r , as, for instance, in IX. 74, 7. 

The same remark a,j)p]ies, of course, to thousands of ([notations iroin Pa/tini. 
Thoy are almost always inaccurate, but with such exceptions as I mentioned 
before \ tliey could almost always be restored either from Pa/iini or from 
iiiialogous passages in Saya^ta. In X. 116, 7, 1 must confess tliat I did not for 
sc'uc time recollect the Sutra by which lYuani fixes tlie accent of gwf, tliouj. 
the Sutra had been quoted often before, cf I. 23, 15; I. 135, i ; III. 21 
But any one who will look at tlie various readings will see, that they did not 
render much help. 

In X. 121, 8, SAyana writes ^VT^tft W'l^- What does ^cft mean here:! 
Bdhtlingk does not give it in his Index to lYuani, where he gives the other 
passages in which %?[: occurs ; yet there can lie no doubt, that it refers to 
IVu!. in. 2, 126, where it is said, that participles in Tjg and ^sf^ arc used to 
express either a quality or a reason, ^^irjl^: IJTT^- Thus ^^rPTT ^^ ij<(*li: 
means, the Yavanas ' (Greeks) eat while lying down; and ^?i;^?ff7i means, 
■>e dwells there for the sake of gaining a livelihood. Fn this sense, therefore, 
Silyana wishes ^yrrTt: to be understood ; and he does the same in other places, 
for instance, VIII. 7, i6; X. 122, 2; X. 135, 3. 

I trust that these remarks, though they touch on a few scattered passages 
only, will serve to give to present and future students of the Veda some idea 

' Pages c.xv seqq. 

) J' 


of the way in which I have tried to discharge the trust which was committed 
to me, of editing the text of the Rig-veda and of the commentary of S&ya»a. 
Mr. Bumell ', when speaking of S^yana, says, ' SAyana's position is almost 
precisely simUar to that of the Alexandrian Neo-Platonists, and especially 
Proclus. Like him, he was a theosophist, and hoped for the restoration by his 
mysteries of what was fast passing away. He was also, like Proclus, the 
representative of all the older science of his race, a philosopher, astronomer, 
philologist, and mystic. Like him, too, he was a laborious, painful compiler, 
whose industry supplied to some extent his lack of originality. The works 
of both, therefore, possess only an historical value, and are the best records 
of the last efforts of an old but decaying form of faith. As such, they call for 
editions which will preserve them for future enquirers into the history and 
philosophy of religions ; Init the work can he done only once for all, and editors 
must therefore neglect no 2> recant ion to j^uhlish these dijficult works in as thorough 
a way as they can with the materials availahle.' 

I feel the weight of these concluding remarks as strongly as any one. All 
I can say is, that I have devoted to this work the best j'art of my life, and the 
best energies of my mind. It was often a most tedious work, but feeling, like 
Mr. Burnell, that so large a work would not be likely to be published again 
(though who can tell what direction the studies of future generations will 
take ?), I have edited it as if I had to edit Plato or Aristotle. I do not think 
that the editio jmneeps of Saya^ia will altogether escape that fate which has 
overtaken the editions of the Scholia to Homer, though entrusted to such 
scholars as Villoison and Bekker ^ ; yet I trust, that future generations of 
students will not forget the state of Sanskrit scholarship at the time when I 
began to prepare my edition, and I may add, the age of the editor, when he 
first resolved on this work. Were I to depend on the judgment of my con- 
temporaries, even of those who have been most opposed to me, I might indeed 
be satisfied ; but my own mind tells me that, in the early volumes, in pai'ticular, 
future gleaners will find that the edge of my critical sickle has not always 
been so sharp as it ought to have been, and that it would have been better 
if the editor of the last volume had been the editor of the first. All I can say 
is, SeiXol fipoTol ttoXvitovolI and let those who may hereafter discover single 
mistakes in my edition of S4yana, bear in mind, that in cai*rying through 
the press so extensive a work, it is simply impossible to attain to the same 

* Vamsabrahmana, p. xxxv. * See Academy, July i8, 1874. 


degree of exactness as in publishing an edition of Horace or Catullus, of 
Kalid<1sa or BhavabhAti. 

One foretaste of what future editors of Sa.yawa may say of me, I have 
had, and I am glad of it, because it enables me, while I can reply, to show 
that I might possibly have something to say in self-defence, when I shall 
no longer be able to do so. The first volume of my edition, in particular, 
which has been most frequently studied, has been already subjected to a 
searching criticism, and in such a way as to test, once for all, the soundness 
of the critical method which I have adopted. Knowing that I had not been 
able to collate a valuable old MS. of the first Ash^aka, now at Berlin, Professor 
Weber has published a careful collation of that MS., and we may trust him, 
tliat he omitted nothing in order to detect flaws in my text. Hei-e, therefore, 
is the desired test of my critical principles, and I may say at once, that 1 
l)elicve that, even if the original autograph MS. of Saya^a were hereafter 
to be discovered, the test would not be either more severe or more damacrin<r 
J proceed, therefore, to an examination of the passages in which Professor 
Weber has thought it right to mark the various readings of the Berlin MS., 
and I shall endeavour to show, how little they affect the text as constituted 
by me twenty-five years ago. 

P. 48. 11. 7-1 1 [see nowVarietas Lectionis to p. 25. 1. 31]. Professor Weber' 
says that the passage from ^5rfq to f%^: is wanting. It is wanting, not only 
ii. the Berlin MSS., but in all MSS. except A 2. I retained it on account of 
its intrinsic value. The MSS. used by Dr. Boer must have contained the 
same paragraph, but he failed to restore it, because he could not trace the 
extract back to the Prilti-sAkhya. 

P. 48. 1. 19 [now p. 25. 1. 39]. x:i^Tf«r ^ymtfTf. This is a mere blunder in tlie 
Berlin MS. ; it can only be i^^rf^ ?r':rr7f^, as I had printed. 

P. 48. 1. 21 [now p. 25. 1. 40]. The Berlin MS. reads ^fx;7TTr^. Ai and B 2 
g've TTf^, C I hMY. B I has Trf^, but w^tft in mairjine. The only MS., 
therefore, which supports the Berlin MS. is A 2. Hence irf^ must be retained. 

P- 48. 1. 27 [now p. 26, 1. 3]. The Berlin MS. leaves out ^: and ^'.. 
added the words in both cases from B 2, not as necessary, but as useful. In Ca, 
whjch I did not possess at the time, they are likewise added in margine. 

P- 49- 1. 2 [now p. 26. 1. 5, where read ^ vA ^, see also liv. Bh. I. 19, 7]. 
ll>e Berlin MS. reads ^ instead of »f#. ^i( was well known to me, for it is the 

See Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenliiudischen Gesellschaft, IV. 365 ; aud, more lately, Indische 
^t'cifen, vol. ii. p. 9. 18(59. 


reading of the MSS. ; but the passage is a quotation from the 'Dhktu-ipkthsb, and 
in it no root ^ is recognised in the sense of g^% ; hence »t^ must be retained. 

P. 49. 1. 7 [now p. 26. 1. 9]. From ?ra^ to ^rf^T is wanting in the Berlin MS., 
but added in margine. This is exactly what I expected. The original reading 
was probably 'iq^T^^ ^ f.«ll^at<d^'H«l*l<a TfT^f^ ftrffTi:. Then the question 
arose, what was meant by this MahA.vdrttika, the general title of K^tyAyana's 
V4rttikas? I can find nothing like it in the Mah4bh3^hya (p. 77^). It was 
probably for this very reason that another commentator added the usual 
explanation, viz. «rg^ f; (^HTw^"g ^^ mf^^T. That explanation is wanting 
not only in the Berlin codex, but likewise in A i. 2, B i. 2, and Ca. Professor 
Weber is wrong in thinking that Sdyana requires 7ni«t^ and by referring to 
other passages, e.g. Rv. Bh. III. 32, 13, he would find, that Sd,yawa forms ^pN:, 
though AdyudAtta, by "^w^. In foot, I know no authority for the existence of 
a Taddiiita «T»nt, except the so-called Mah^vrlrttika, here quoted by Sdyana. 
[The correct reading of the Varttika is (HH*1MI^, and the suffix in question is 
neither (Tfl., nor 7Tt«t^, but ttt ; see Varietas Lectionis to Rv. Bh. III. 32, 13.] 

P. 49. 1. 13 [now p. 26. 1. 13], '3^TTt^^, and 1. 19 [1. 18], fiftwiT^, are both 
the right readings, and ought to have been inserted in the list of Corrigenda. 

P. 49. 1. ^1 [now p. 26. 1. 19]. ^Traiii<» is the reading, not only of the Berlin 
MS., but likewise of B i. 2. A 2 has 7i^, C i t^; the right reading is jjroliably 
that of A I rl^ ^TR^m". 

P. 50. 1. 3 [now p. 26. 1. 26]. The reading of the Berlin codex ^^R<j[q^<<*4TTJ 
is not sufficiently supported against ^^Tf^fil WtfTPJi A 2. B i. Ca. 

P. 50. 1. 9 [now p. 26. 1. 30]. I purposely rejected the reading TiqTf^?Tr^?ft«[T», 
which occurs not only in the Berlin MS., but also in C r. A 2. Ca, in favour of the 
fuller text of the B class. 

P. 50. 11. 15, 16 [now p. 26. 11. 35, 36]. The passage from 5^ to Trfrftvi: is 
wanting, not only in the Berlin MS., but likewise in A i. 2, B i. 2, and Ca. It 
may have been originally a marginal note, as it still is in A 2, but being a useful 
one, I retained it on the authority of C i. The same applies to p. 51. 1. 4 [now 
p. 27. 1. 9], which is absent in C i, but supported by B i. 2. Ca, and partly by 
A 2, which reads wlig'^ fsraimm^ ^r^gs^TrqWR^. 

P. 51. 11. 13, 14 [now p. 27. 1. 17]. The passage ^r^ ^rrg: to f»mif?cd : rests on 
the authority of C i ; it is not in A i. 2, B i. 2, nor in Ca. It is most probably a 
later addition, but it does not belong to the same category as the passage from the 
Manoram4. When I allowed a passage from the Manoramtl to remain in the com- 
mentary, I felt it my duty to give notice of it in the Preface (vol. i. p. xxiii. note i). 


Professor Weber asks : 'Is Haradatta really a predecessor of S4yana, or does this 
addition belong to the same category as that from the ManoramS,?' Unless 
Professor Weber has some very weighty reason to suppose that the Haradatta 
here mentioned cannot be the same as Haradatta, the commentator of the 
Kdsikd, I do not know what to reply '. 

P. 51. 1. 15 [now p. 27. 1. 18]. The omission of ^^: after ?f^ in the Berlin 
MS. is not supported by the other MSS. The same applies to ^ before jtrto on 
p. 52. 1. 5 [now p. 27. 1. 30], and to ^nc^ UT^ on p. 57. 1. 23 [now p. 30. 1. 34]. 
The only various reading of importance is in A i, which writes T^fTmx- l-TOff!- 
y<,HI}fi etc. 

P. 60. 1. 2 [now p. 32. 1. 4]. ^^nfTT is right, and supported by A 2. B i. 

P. 60. 1. 14 [now p. 32. 1. 12]. On ^t^i^jf^i I have spoken on p. cxvii. 

P. 61. I. 24 [now p. 33. 1. 4]. The reading of the Berlin MS. wi for ^ is pro- 
perly marked by Professor Weber with his own sign of exclamation. If^Sayana 
fsays TTO VTU 'Hflrrt, he quotes the Su class, and he can therefore speak of «t 
only. The only various reading is ^, instead of ^, in A 2. 

P. 62. 1. II [now p. 2:^. 1. 14]. The same wrong quotation from P4jtini, which 
Dr. Weber quotes from his Berlin MS., occurs also in B i. 2. It was impossible, 
however, to admit it into the text, because the root ^f^ does not occur in the 
Sutra. If Dr. Weber appeals to a passage in Mahidhara's commentary on the 
Vayasaneyi-samhita, where he finds ff^ written instead of gft, this is a state- 
ment I cannot allow to pass without considerable qualification. Dr. Weber 
(luotes as the authority for this reading, M.M., i.e. a copy which I made at 
Fans, and which I gave him on the distinct understanding, that it should never 
l)e quoted as an authority. All scholars will understand why I did this. I had 
copied the MS. as carefully as I could, but I never collated it with the original, 
and therefore should never have ventured myself to appeal to it as an authority, 
i^ut besides this, my copy does not give pa«rT« but |7MW», which is, of course, 
meant for fiftan*. The whole quotation, in fact, is as much out of place in the 
v"%. Sawihita, XII, yy, as in our passage, ^t^ cannot be explained by Pdw. VI. 
3. 115, but should be accounted for by Pin. VII. 3, 53. The explanation of the 
mistake in our passage is probably this, that what happened in Ca, happened 
also to an earlier MS. In Ca we only find |?J: ftF^i g^fri^ 5(H:. Then some 
one added on the margin * i r^g^«|lfi^* »l, to be inserted after 1m.; and, lastly, a 
•"ore careful reader added »rff?f7i^ l ^<til!mi<H)m4<qi m ^ ^n Tfllf^ ^- 

T'mjt « 

' See Preface, above, p. cxjcuiiL 
VOL. ir. t 


P. 63. 1. I [now p. 33. 1. 27]. ^WTTf^lf?! was the reading of C i, A$ A 1, how- 
ever, gave the correct reading ^ Md t fvi i fqfJ l, I naturally accepted it. 

P. 63. 1. 3 [now p. 33. 1. 29]. There is no authority for the ^ of the Berlin MS., 
not even in Ca. 

P. 63. 1. 5 [now p. 33. 1. 30]. The reading of the Berlin MS. f«mifl|*i|<Uf(, was 
well known to me from C i . I preferred, however, lrf*r^rnrm[., because it rests on 
the authority of A and B ; likewise of Ca. 

P. 63. 1. 20 [now p. 34. 1. i]. gr » T «i T? l. is the reading of all the MSS. ; iBt was a 
slip of the pen, as well as fSr«| for 4t^ on p. 64. 1. 5 [now p. 34. 1. 10]. 

P. 65. 1. 7 [now p. 34. 1. 32]. The mistake in the Berlin MS. '^K'tf^ral^ was 
well known to nie from Ci. The reading flt<jn < <H<l'H has the authority of 
B and Ca. 

P. 65. 1. 9 [now p. 34. 1. ^2]- V^ after ftj: has the authority of A and B ; C i 
has ijssff. Ca has i[^. 

P. 65. 1. 28 [now p. 35. 1. 9]. The Berlin reading ipn "V^iJ^^ ^3^* was known 
to me from C i and A. I preferred the reading of B as clearer in itself, and, at 
the same time, as accounting more naturally for the mistake which had hap- 
pened. In Ca also, the omission had taken place, but the right reading was 

P. 66. 1. 21 [now p. 35. 1. 25]. ^rf^w^ft has the authority of A. C. B. ^ra^^ 
is a mistake; but I should now prefer to write ^TTO^^, which is supported 
by Ca. 

P. 66. 1. 24 [now p. 35. 1. 27 seq.]. I changed ft% to f^ according to the 
Balivri/i-a system of spelling, and retained ^!i^ on the authority of the B class, 
which is supported by Ca. [But ^ and iirf^ have now been restored in 
accordance with the text of the Taittiriya Sawhiti, from which the passage 
is quoted.] 

P. 67. 1. 25 [now p. 36. 1. ii]- The reading of the Berlin codex, whether ^ranr 
or ^nnir> is impossible. Between ^(fTus and ^rm the choice is sometimes difficult ; 
in our passage, however, the authority of the MSS. is decidedly on the side 

of ^T^rvT' 

p. 68. 1. I [now p. 36. 1. 14]. m^ l R^a ^l O l Mmwi^ii l l . is again supported by B, 
but '<lf» i M l fl T 8t. might have been preferable, as it has the support of A and Ca. 

P. 68. 1. 14 [now p. 36. 1. 24]. The reading j^^Tftfn m rests on the authority 
of the Nirukta, X. 8 ; and though there are other various readings there, there 
is none with regard to j^^nftfiT- The MSS. of SAyawa are, no doubt, in favour ot 
j^^ or jppf , but in passages like the one in question, where the copyists hardly 


understand what they are writing, they are of very small value. I corrected 1R> 
in the same passage, in Professor Roth's edition, to Ijt, because it is well to 
distinguish the third from the first person, but I saw no reason for changing 
ijg^trt into ^lt%?»it, which has no ^authority except the Berlin MS. The same 
applies to fli^ for mSm, p. 68. 1. 21 [now p. 36. 1. 29]; to ^K<wemiii% for 'wx:'®*%, 
p. 69. 1. 6 [now p. 36. 1. 39] ; to fjm after g^^, p. 69. 1. 7 [now p. 37. 1. 2 ; ii^ 
is also in G, and has now been adopted] ; and to ^4<R|^ t instead of the only 
possible form ^^<,n»?iT. For ^rf^m in the same hne there is indeed the 
authority of Ci, but the other MSS. have again the reading, which I have 
given, viz. «i^<|f. 

P. 70. 1. 26 [now p. 37. 1. 34]. m^tHrri instead of ^^reUT^ would be wrong. 
No MSS. support it, nor do they support ?wnc: for ni^-., p. 71. 1. 2 [now 
]>• 37- 1- 36]. 

P. 71. 1. 28 [now p. 38. 1. 15]. On the possibility of omitting ^ after ff?f %;t^ 
see p. cxiv. In our case, as C and A give, and B inserts it, there would have 
been no excuse for omitting it. 

P. 72. 1. t [now p. 38. 1. 16]. "^^ is the right form, and although C and A 
have the u, the B MSS. have^, as well as the Berlin MS. 

W 72. 1. 8 [now p. 38. I. 21]. The mistake ^JrrTrfVWTW instead of ^*<Hirtl4<<!a 
was known to me from C i, but I corrected it on the authority of A and B, also 
on account of the words immediately following. The same applies to the omission 
<'f %(^on p. 72. 1. 13 [now p. 38. 1. 25]. 

P. 74. 1. 5 [now p. 39. 1. 21]. The reading of the Berlin MS. ^jr^ for ^jjif ^ 
would be impossible. It is a quotation from the Dhitu--pithii,; ^im^ would mean 
the very contrary of bt%, and no MS. supports it. 

Professor Kuhn, in quoting a passage from S^yana I. 65, 1, ^ns^ '^ \ ^!rf^"^%>^ 
tWRH I Wt ^ wwr, says (Zeitschrift, I. p. 451), 'Instead of ^rat ^ BRTT we 
must read either wj or ^re^.' I thought so too, but as the MSS. agreed on 
"V^, and as I could not find the passage, I retained ^pgt. Even now I have not 
heen able to find the passage, but from such passages as Taitt. Samh.VI. 2, 4, 2, 
'nft ^»9t firernm ft^ ^ awr, or Taitt. Brahm. I. 2, i, 5, ^f^ ^ brtt, I have 
little doubt that my text is right. 

Though the process of examining in detaU the value of the various readings 
culled by Professor Weber from the Berlin MS. was rather tedious, yet I hope 
•t will serve one important purpose. It will show that if we follow carefully 
the principles of diplomatic criticism, so long recognised by the best classical 
scholars, it is hardly possible that we should go very far wrong in restoring 

t 2 


the text of an ancient author, however illegible or corrupt. The work itself 
of copying and collating MSS., and eliciting from them the original readings 
which they presuppose by their agreement as well as by their divergence, 
requires, no doubt, considerable time and labour; and as I have sometimes 
been assured that by adopting a less laborious process, I could have finished 
the edition of S&yana in a much shorter time, I think it right to show, by 
a few instances, what the result of this more expeditious proceeding would 
have been, or, at all events, might have been. Professor Weber, who has on 
several occasions shown a truly motherly solicitude with regard to my edition 
of the Rig-veda, has again and again complained of the delay in the publication 
of S^yana. His complaints seem to me, and not to me only, unfounded, his 
language not quite worthy of him. He has himself edited the Ya^/ur-veda, and 
he has done so on principles of criticism which he, no doubt, conscientiously 
prefers, but which I could not bring myself to follow, even if they had enabled 
him to get through his work much more rapidly. But even this seems to me 
not quite certain, as the following facts will show. 

The first volume of his edition of the Yayur-veda appeared in 1849, the 
third and last in 1859. One volume only of the three professes to give a 
complete commentary, the other two contain extracts only, and these so 
incomplete that Professor Kuhn and others, when they wished to make use 
of certain passages in the <Satapatha Br^hmawa, had to write to India for new 
extracts. Some scholars think that the time has already come for a new 
edition of the (S'atapatha Brdhmana with the complete commentary of Sd-yawa ; 
and if we may accept Professor Weber's candid account of the nature of the 
extracts from the commentaries on the SAtras, that work also will sooner or 
later have to be done again. ^Far be it from me to say anything unkind of 
so laborious and so learned a scholar, but as he has so often contrasted his 
own velocity with my slowness, may I just say in self-defence, that if he will, 
according to the rules of Adam Riese, to whom he appeals, divide the number 
of sheets contained in his three volumes, by ten years, and the number of 
sheets contained in my large and small editions of the Rig-veda by twenty-two 
years, he will be surprised to find, that the difference between his speed and 
my slower progress is not so very gi-eat after all. 

But this, in itself, is of little consequence, nor should I have said one word 
about it, had I not been so fiercely challenged. The only thing that is of real 
importance to scholars is, whether it is possible to carry out a critical edition 
of Sanskrit texts on different principles from those which are followed by Greek 


and Latin scholars. I say nothing of the texts of the hymns and BrAhmanas. 
They are settled, and require little editing, in the proper sense of the word. 
With commentaries, however, the case is different, and I still hold that they 
do require the same amount of critical editing as any classical author. 

In order to substantiate this assertion, I shall beg leave to follow Pro- 
fessor Weber's example, and to examine a small portion of his edition of 
Mahtdhara's commentary, by comparing it, not with a MS. which he has not 
collated, but with one which he himself professes to have collated. This 
is the- old MS. belonging to Mill's collection, and marked by Professor Weber 
as M. The first fifty-two pages of this MS. ought to have been invaluable 
to any editor. They ought to have been collated with the minutest care, for 
old MSS. of Mahldhara were then, and are still, scarce. What is Professor 
Weber's apparatus criticus ? As far as I can see, he has copied one MS. (A) 
only, and this is not quite complete ; and I believe I am correct in stating, that 
the only other complete MS. which he possessed for the purpose of his edition, 
was the copy I had made at Paris of Burnouf's MS., and which I gladly lent 
to hitn, and eventually, at his request, presented to the Royal Libraiy at Berlin. 
This copy, however, can in no sense claim the authority of a MS., because, 
though I copied it as well as it was possible in the time given, I never collated 
it with the original. I therefore, as I said just now, lent my copy to Pro- 
fessor Weber on the distinct understanding that it should never be quoted by 
liim as an authority. Instead of this, it is in most places, if not the only, at 
least the most important independent authority for the critical restitution of 
lus text. I do not think, that I can be mistaken in this statement. If I am, 
it is not my fault, for Professor Weber clearly says that he collated the third 
MS. (0) for the defects of the last twenty-five Adhydyas only, while the fourth 
MS. at Paris (P), of which the beginning, from I. 8. to II. 4, was copied by myself, 
was collated by him no further than the end of the fourth Adhy4ya. 

There remains, therefore, only the MS., formerly belonging to Dr. Mill, 
and now in the Bodleian Library, which contains the first twenty Adhy^yas, 
and has in the beginning those fifty-two old leaves which Professor Weber pro- 
cesses to have collated. By them I shall now try to test the critical state of his 
edition. I do so simply to test two systems of editorial criticism. Professor- 
Weber knows these various readings, for I showed them to him as soon 
<■»« his first fasciculus had been pubhshed. So many years have since elapsed, 
'at I feel I can now speak with perfect freedom, without fearmg to give 
ottence by my remarks. The question itself seems to me one, the importance 


of which cannot he exaggerated. The whole future of Sanskrit scholarship 
will depend on the decision which our leading Sanskrit scholars shall take 
between the principles of eclectic and diplomatic criticism. In India the same 
question is now being agitated, and the scholars of Bombay and Punah, under 
the auspices of Professors Biihler and Kielhorn, have made their choice. No 
personal considerations should be mixed up with such a controversy, and the 
editor of the Ya^fur-veda will feel, I hope, that, even if judgment should be 
given against him, whicli it is not for me to anticipate, he has by his Herculean 
labours, during the last twenty-five years, raised to himself a pedestal, that 
would not be shaken by such a decision. 

Before 1 begin my critical examination, t must say a few words on the 
oljservance, or rather, non-observance of the rules of Sandhi in Professor Weber's 
editions. Any one at all familiar with Sanskrit MSS., and particularly with 
such as are written by scholars, svflrtham, not pardrtham, must know, that 
there is a certain system in the manner in which words are either joined or 
not joined. Diiferent authors vary, and even the same authors are by no 
means consistent in tlieir use of Sandhi, as little as we are in our interpmic- 
tion. They are guided, in fact, b^ vivaksha, i.e. by what they wish to say. 
In my edition of SHyaria, I have, as much as possible, followed the Sandhi of 
the best MSS., and I may at least mention a few cases, which might give ris*^ 
to misapprehensions. After a vocative, Sandhi is optional ; it is mostly omitted, 
except in cases where the writer perceived a certain continuity between the 
vocative and what follows immediately after. Between a question and the 
answer, there is always a break of Sandhi. Verbs of which the one explains 
the other are without Sandhi, e. g. fqi^nt ^rftr^ 'Sl^nJ'Sf^tn ^TT'RT;- But if the verb 
occurs in the first part of a relative sentence, the Sandhi is generally observed, 
e. g. ?t gfssKifJT^JsJ^iwig^tifl % . 

Again, we find frequently in commentaries, where it is desirable to keep 
the words of the text distinct from the explanations, that Sandhi is avoided. 
For instance, in relative sentences where, as we saw, the verbs are generall}' 
joined, they are still kept asunder, when it can be done, by employing the 
Virilma. We read, ^^^rwi, ^I'l^^ H1»}<<«V . Here the use of the Vir^ma is very 
convenient, for it acts as a stop in such cases also where the absence of Sandhi 
could not otherwise be marked. Frequently we find the VirAma where we 
should use a small stop, e. g. farr; ^ff^ ^?ft#r, ' the voices, the poets, or their 
songs.' Rv. X. no, i, ■g^rflnT: ^: gwWTt ^, 'thou, the worshipper, or thou wor- 
shipped by them.' Rv. X. 113, 10, 1 XTir«?C W^' «? ^li^: ^'IHT TW % 'frOTT". 


'0 war-maker, maker of fights with enemies, and therefore thou of real strengtli !' 
If the Vir4ma is used, the last letter is not modified. I can hardly remember 
writers of Sanskrit MSS. putting, e.g. ^jsjir^ufti g, but generally, either ?r«Rfq g, 
or ^RJPli ^rf*r g. Nor is it right, Lthink, to write ««rf^^nnfif, but ^nJ^l fwfil. 
Yig. Samh. p. 25, 1. 19. After a participle, which in itself represents a sentence, 
the Virdma is very common, e.g. iT'grr^: ^n. ntiW?i ^, 'being endowed with 
wisdom, give to us ; ' ^^m^ ^^fC etc. In all such cases, I have, as a rule, followi^d 
the writing of the best MSS., but I have never allowed a hiatus to remain wherr 
it would have destroyed the structure of a sentence. Thus in X. 165, i, I writti 
^nfRTt ^lSrra«rf»raPl 'irfHWqfe^^T^^ JJ<!«INi|r«T m^ n§ etc., 'columba ipiod 
malum cupiens, desiderans, banc nostrum domiim venit, assecuta est, huic uialo ' 
etc. Rv. X. 166, I, »(^q5T*t^^T T?^ 'Tt: tlfn ^ffft g ^fr^Tf*»Wm 1«rrf*rtn, ' wishing to 
say, not only lord of one cow, but of all cows, he adds gavilni.' Rv. X. 191, 3, 
gffi^W: 'TTW^nr: ^'tTT: irarasm:, 'the former half-verse is in the third, the latter 
in the first person.' 

In Professor Weber's editions I have in vain looked for any definite system. 
If he had disregarded the rules of Sandhi altogether, that would have been 
intelligible. But as he sometimes observes them, and then, without any 
a)]parent cause, neglects them, the etiect is not only bewildering, but actually 
'Misleading. What reason can there be for writing, ]). 2. 1. 22, ^ fi|<ftK i <{t ^<«<I T- 
VT^»; p. 4. 1. 21, ?r^ tj^; p. 4. 1. 25, ^: ^fraKnT: ( rf^»- a ;»< ; wn^w. '3^ttot:; 
»rsrt H\^*n (p. 44. 1. 10); and the same hi umumex'able passages? I ho])e Pro- 
fessor Weber will not think, that I doubt his knowledge of the rules of Sandlii. 
What I do not understand is, why he should disregard them in his editions. 

I shall not attempt to give all the various readings of Dr. Mill's MS., 
but only those which serve to determine the relation of this MS. to otiier 
MSS., or such as really furnish a correction of a mistake. Professor Webei 
sometimes gives the various readings of M, sometimes he does not. This 
:igain is misleading. If we are told p. ii. 1. 9, that B reads q^T^', and P l^T^m- 
•llitis^M<fl, we conclude that M agi-ees with the printed text ; but it agrees 
with B. The various reading, under No. 17, which Professor Weber ascribes 
to B, belongs to B and M; No. 18 is 8upi)orted not only by P, but also by M ; 
No. 33 by B and M ; No. 36 by B and M. In No. 37, M has not ^f%it%^^«r, 
l»ut ^fviim^, and so on. 

P- iii. 1. 25. 1 H | 4^ | H<B^ < HimM*l«<* l Xj^ W. Not only B has irram^, as Professor 
Weber says, but M also, to say nothing of and P. Besides, M reads ^rrar^H^- 
"^'^^[^rntni'Rni i Xj^, which is right. 


P. iv. 1. 21. ^raw W. sflTfTi M (twice), i.e, ^orfST- 

P. V. 1. 6. ^mr^^- ^fy^g^ M. 

P. V. 1. 13. TiiT«rf?rtlt:W. irT^im»iT: M. 

P. V. 1. 21, |;^H»^ W. T^'PP^'.M. which is right, 

P. V. 1. 22. ^^^m: W. ift?[m: M, which is right. 

P. vi. I. 6. ^ ^^nrn!fratT^TTf7aR.W. M ; but read ^ ^^nrrapTsft: I ' ^Kfl l ffaiH, I. 

P. vi. 1. 1 3. gqm i fai o W. afl j imfac M, which is right. 

P. vii. 1. 2. %^J«lfn ^W. "^g^iftr^M, which is right. If the SAtra had been 
quoted in full, it would have been necessary to add Tfi( fw^- 

P. vii. 1. 6. tn» %. ^. <|<i«. This is a false quotation, arising, as I have shown, 
from a misunderstanding of the whole passage ; it ought to be VJ" «. I. «j(i. 

P. viii. 1, 3. %4,nH*l,W. %: f^C[^ M, which is right, as may be seen from 
Pin.YIl I, 15. 

P. ix. 1. I. w ^rr^: W. ?t *<MR,^il« l \ Trat: M, which is right. 

P. ix. 1. 1 3. »)4j^<^I<(i ^ after TJTR^Jwrat is not found in B only, as Professor 
Weber states, but likewise in M. 

P. xi. 1. 12. After ^, M has on the margin ^?>n^;]E$ ^rrw^.'. 

P. xi. 1. 1 3. •^RnftM^ng^ W. wW^ I iqrngz M, which is right. 

P. xii. 1. 6. "^^W. ^M. ' 

P. xii. 1. 1 1. From ^nW^J to nt3ft% deest in M. 

P. xii. 1. 1 2. g^ Wkj^ W. ^ i«^ qi^T^ M, 

P. xii. 1. 15. o<J!<i(!n<4iMKi: W. of^ftsr^jwRrr: M. 

p. xii. 1. 23. Jtvjft ^i^T "^Pfyn 1 TfPerPimfiTar^:. We are told by Professor 
Weber that ^«Hsr«n is wanting in all the MSS., and so no doubt it is. But why 
was it put in ? The sense is clear : ' The enemies are burnt, not the vessel, 
i. e. the instrument with which the sacrifice is accomplished.' Did Professor 
Weber think it meant, ' The enemies also are burnt, otherwise there is no 
accomplishing the sacrifice ? ' But this would have been ^nif%^: • Uva/a 
makes it still clearer : gTixj 7TH T^: I T ^ ^M€Ivi*jf«ai(iiflT^: '. 

P. xiii. 1. 2. MT^ehX^ f^ W. MT^«ni«|fJaa M. 

P. xiii. 1. 5. fmrn^mtlp W. f7re?^Rf'I M, which is right, as ^Bn: is neuter. 

P. xiii. 1. 14. fgRia«iq« [: W. f^f<<j<i^»i : M. 

P. xiv. 1. 6. \nv* 'ft^ H^fft W. vjvii ^vm nrfft M. 

P. xiv. 1. 1 1. a(<HA«j) ^fhrt W. m<»A*aJ(tn«lli M, which is right. 

P. XV. 1. 4. » nwimf^<«n4ij{« it W. ^rrwrf 1 ^f%pit^Tirorr M., which is right, for 

' NKatim, which is here inserted, was omitted by Professor Weber in another passage, \iz.\tg. PrStisSkhya 
.1. 90. (Indische Studien, IV. 127.) We ought to read ^•q«|i, instead of 'TOT. 


there must be a stop at the end of a question, and the answer begins witli 

P. XV. 1. 21. ^ *lMfial«(«tlf*l I W. WW vfk^f^i^fTfif, which seems better ; th« 
same on p. xxxiii. 1. 1 2, and elsewhere. 

P. xvi. 1. 19. After g^I'*If<J«tlf*(, M adds ^n^f^ ^'^V(<<|fi(, which is left out by 
Professor Weber, as well as ^ in the next line after ^^49. 

P. xvii. 1. 16. TheVilrttika is not Ykn.YI. 4, 68, i, but VI. 4, 77, i. The m 
ought not to be without Sandhi, otherwise it would be taken for %. 

P. xviii. 1. 4. After ?twrf^nft^WT^tf^, M has m^ r fu i, which is left out by 
Professor Weber. 

P. xviii. 1. 17. TrfTrTr^l li«(«l<,M<ilffif infrnn: W. M has qifflii , which is right, as 
may be seen by the preceding instrumental SiWiflnrW'it, and by the immediately 
following infam;. 

P. xix. 1. 8. «JiH?*»ir^H W. zni^nr f^ M, which is right. 

P. XX. 1. 6. ^(^£<«^ir^ W. jrgftrs^nrft M. 

P. XX. 1. 21. ff^7T3f%M W. fisfTt^i^^ M, which is better. 

P. xxi. 1. 9. TTTftnffTTJT W. irrftnTTfftw. not only B. P, but also M. 

P. xxii. 1. 22. iij|ry«(Trr9» »TT ■f'^tfJ'^.' W. ^ '4J^r^4l<l|4J^ TT ^^^'. M, which 
is right. 

P. xxiv. 1. I. Tifrqm 'JT W. nfrTWmf^ M, which seems better. 

P. xxiv. 1. 8. 1 ^3TJ% ^Mr^d'tnu'J I ^ W. 1 ^% '3qf(7i»rf?i% ?^ M, which is right. 

P. xxiv. 1. 10. ^ T <H<i<^MI W. ^TWr^^m M, which is better. 

P. XXV. 1. 21. fM8<| q M'1>*) l W. ftreWR^, not only B, but also M. On ^^^ 
see p. 26. 1. 9. 

P. xxix. 1. 10. f^ "^ 'irwr^' W. f^ ^^ffti^BTRf' M, which is right. 

P. XXX. 1. 8. t*raiTftn»:W. f«(^Tflra: M, which is better, see Petersburg 
Dictioaary, s.v. 1. 24. Or: mip(f W. fil«c»iHi«m M. 

P. XXX. 1. 13. ^^ ^i *) i ^<i«il« t: TRwrtf^tf?! tk: i W. ^^^rrmf^'fVJT tj4 »rn?ra?r 
♦^Jtt?T »n^: M. 

P. xxxi. 1. 14. ftt^ ^qfij ^^^^l ^^ i!l iK HiOfl^rfl fw^ I "^ "^f^ ^^ ^^^ 
'Wt^W. Here, first of all, ?r% is not supported by B. P only, as Professor 
Weber states, but also byM. Secondly, the passage, as printed, does not 
construe properly, for ^(^ ' ^vm^di ijs^ ^^ f^ requires the complement of either tttt: 
or f^:. We might read ^fn ftXT^ 'Hi:, or continue x.fn f^T^ ''^ ^f^ Wt 
fV^:. The latter seems Mahldhara's intention, for Uvafa, from whom he quotes, 

writes, t%^ft?rtsft I "vfmM I »rpn»? i « ^ f^njg^^fl[??'niw: 1 ^ ff f^tn^f^M^^m^ 
^^rf^ Vffrf ^ qsfjfir I. 

VOL. rv. u 


P. xxxi. 1. 1 8. xH«I^^wft W. vvtri qwft M, which, considering the gender 

of ^#t , is right. 

P. xxxi. 1. 19. VPRfW. ?(T^' M, which, considering what goes before, seems 


P. xxxvi. 1. 18. ^fH«t W. iffft> ^ M, which is right. 

P. xxxvii. 1. 2. %^»mftrW. ^4«miM* l *<fil M, which is better. 

P. xxxvii. 1. 16. «IS^ W. ^'OTT, not only B. P, but also M, which omits 
igfTI before ffn. 

P. xxxviii. I. 21. After ff?rff?f:, M adds f^rf^r^fHffn: , which is omitted by 
Professor Weber. 

P. xxxix. 1. 14. ^?rf5TfJt^VTf?l W. '«fMfi!<^viTRl M, which is right. 

P. xl. 1. 19. M Ml* 4n< f?tW. q f<<H*4fa[« , not only B, but also M. 

P. xliii. 1. 16. M reads f|[^ TfTSlfH I ^WW^ ^l f*Rn I ^ ^fT: ft?n ^m-qTORi 
^mfTT T«nf^ ^WTTT^:, which seems better. 

P. xliv. 1. 7. m j|^^^^*^<^ trrera 1 W. ?mm^^ 1 vm^ M. Uva«a has only 

p. xliv. 1. 23. ^pt: Trarcmr^ W. ^m: VJ:, not only B, but also M. Uva<a says, 

P. xlv. 1. 3. lMlr^^^l*^f^ =^W. '^jt ^ll p H ^^ *^ f^ ^ M, which is right. 

p. xlvii. 1. 2. gm^^fapTTTPTT^T^ W. gtMWsrfwt^m^T^ M, which is right. 
LJva^a also has gfij^fi^fMf'wf^: • 

P. xlvii. 1. 20. M has neither mn nor utrr, the reading assigned to all the 
MSS. by Professor Weber, but simply 7T. 

P. xlviii. 1. II. ft%^W. f^^'f^M. 

P. 1. 1. 14. Here M has really an independent reading, which, whether right 
or wrong, ought not to have been passed over. We read, % angf^t ^m'^rnft 

P. li. 1. 22. M also, like the other MSS., has ^Wv:, and there was no necessity 
for changing it, as Professor Weber does, to ^^^:, if we only read with M 5rf»T^- 

P. lii. 1. I. ^HT^^fnW. q-4< WHI ^ ni M, which is right. Uva«a says, U%^- 

These are various readings' selected from fifty-two pages, and they must 

' IaJdafewi.,ore"m a note: On page 56, line 2. fVX^; 1. 18, it add8 m^pft Uq^'^^n after 
M repeats ^?R: ; 1. 3, it adds ^^f^^ after g^TNi; ^''SWI^ft ; the « from ^, i. e. ^, 1. 21, should 
1.5, it reads ^rrerrm:; 1.9. it adds Rafter fir- go to JK^TTT, 1. 16. P. 59, 1. 21, WW:. P. 60, 1.8, 


for the present euffice to show, how much might have been gained by a 
real collation of this valuable fragment, and by a genealogical classification 
of the other MSS. It is not for me to exaggerate the iinportance of these 
various readings, but what I think cannot be exaggerated is tlie importance of 
a truly scholarlike spirit in editing our Sanskrit texts ; in fact, in doing every- 
thing we have to do in life. I know there are Sanskrit scholars whose labours I 
highly appreciate, who totally differ from me on this point. They look upon this 
kind of minute scholarship as mere waste of time, and as pedantry inherited 
from classical philology. Let them but read the history of classical philology 
and the history of the editions of Greek and Latin authors, and they will find, 
tliat the neglect of these minutiae has always proved most fatal, and that 
what one generation considered as minima, the next recognised as maxima. 
Anyhow, even if I should be mistaken in these oj^nions, I hope I shall be 
aljsolved from any blame if, by trying to apply to Sanskrit the same critical 
method which I had been taught by Hermann and Haupt for Greek and Latin, 1 
liave edited every year a hundred pages less than 1 might otherwise have done. 

1 also trust that in thus endeavouring to vindicate the critical principles 
which I have followed, by contrasting them with those of Ti-ofessor Webei', 
I shall not appear to have unfairly depreciated the labours of one of my most 
■'^teemed fellow-students. He has, no doubt, by this time discovered many, 
|)Ossibly all, of mistakes himself, and he has altogether done so much 
u.-,eful work that no one would wish to be hard on him on account of these 
little accidents. With scholars, and with all true men of science, who care 
t<ir truth, the question, as I said in another place, is never, who is right and 
who is wrong, but what is right and what is wrong. The life of a scholai- would 
not, he worth living, if, in return for many things which he has to surrender, he 
did not secure for himself that one inestimable privilege of owing allegiance to 

3WT¥fn; I. II, Trej n^^«; 1. 13, ^ ; 1. 16, p. 64, 1. 3. HT»t; 1. 7, ^Tft ^vn". v. r.-;, 1. 14, '^stfq 

^TJf^^ after gqf^Irrra; ibid. ^^^fir;, ^T^Xf^:. T. 67, 1 7, HfTII 5r»I<>. P.r,8, ]. II, 
^n%^. p. 61, 1. 18, ffT'S^T"; 1. 20, M adds VTgfJTTTOTf^, inil hence, 1. 12, ^^ etc. left out. 
rfier l||<(«(ir^, x^ mftftUTirnT I rl^Tm^T- P.70, 1 i6,f^5mTTR.. P.7>. l-,-„irr^T. p. 74, 

^ ^CT^?ft ^ ^^f^ g^q; ^f^ q-q-psr- 1. 18, g^rfHrf^; i. 24. 'i^ 1^ ^^ ^F»ra^ 

^"^^TWr^Wlf^ |. The same accident, from a TT^T. P. 75, I. 1,5, iip;iiiri a hommolelenton has caused 
mere Aomoto<e««H«on, has happened ou p. 62, 1. ji, after the followinR omission after 1f\5:, ^^^ ^WV" 
^ '1^^ M reads TIT^TO^ H'^THf *)^^« 1 ^t^ft I ^ I ^'3^I|«f«ITi^'^ 1^:. 

^Tfw'n»TT?Rijj;!itJj^;,^^jftmftj m- p. 77.1. 9. ^'^'tt, etc. 

U 2 


no person, to no party, to no school or clique, but being able at all times to 
speak the truth, and nothing but the truth, about all things which concern him, 
convinced that all who deserve the name of scholars will thank him where he 
lias pointed out any of their mistakes, will forgive him even where he may 
have spoken lather freely or bluntly, and will defend him against the clamour 
of tliose who seem to think they are nothing, unless they are infallible. 

I may take this opportunity of replying to some of my own critics. 
In the Preface to my reprint of the Rig-veda, I had stated that although 
ill order to have the SaHthitd and Pada-texts cori-esponding to each other, 
page by page, the words in the Sa?whifc4-text liad to be sjmced very considerably, 
yet, even thus, and printed in tlie largest Devan^gari types, that text occupied 
a smaller number of pages than the edition printed with Roman letters. 
I went on to say, ' No one who knows the peculiarity of the Sanskrit alphabet, 
would suppose that a Roman transcrijit could ever occupy less space than the 
or-iginal DevanAgari. We have here used the largest Devan4gari types, we have 
lost much s])ace in having to print the accents above and below the letters, and 
had thus only twenty-four lines on each i)age agaiiist twenty-seven lines in the 
Romanised text {exclusiw of notes), and yet the sum total of our pages is only 
844, against 920 pages required for tlie transcript in Roman letters.' 

Tiie facts themselves are pateiit, and known to eveiy beginner in Sanskrit. 
It is true that our ordinary founts of Devanagaii are very large, and that 
the com])licated character of certain Sanski-it letters will render it difficult 
ever to match the smallest Roman types. But what can be clearer tlian the 
fount of the Royal Printing Office at Berliii, used, for instance, in Pi-ofessoi- 
Kielhorn's edition of the Phi<-s<jtras ? Yet, even smaller types than those would 
still be perfectly legible. The advantages inherent in the Devanagaii alphabet, 
as such, and quite itidependent of the different sizes of diiferent founts, are these. 
According to the peculiar nature of the Sanskrit alphabet, we save nearly 
all a's, e's, u's, ri's, and they are many ; we save final and medial m's, ami 
they are many too ; and we ai'e able to combine sundry consonants so as 
to form more compact groups. Hence the saving of space. But as this 
has been denied, I must now try to give geometrical demonstration. 

In the three columns on the opposite page, the first contains the largest 
DevanS,gari types, with accents, these accents necessitating larger spaces 
between the lines, which would be saved in printing ordinary Sanskrit. 

The second column contains the smaller Devan^gari types, again with 
accents. These types are cast on the same body, as printers call it, as the 



Roman types used in the third column, and we have therefore between the 
second and third columns common ground on which to institute a real anil 
rational comparison. The system of transcription is that adopted by Professor 
Aufrecht in his excellent edition of the hymns in Roman letters. The spaces, 
liowever, between the words have been reduced, and another saving has been 
eilected by removing the unnecessary, and rather objectionable, break at tiie 
end of each Varga ; otherwise no alterations have been made, excepting the 
change of n into n in yajua, and the addition of a c in gacchati. 



i^¥^ I v^4 ^xifin II ^ II ^ 4 

TsfiT II i 11 ^fTj^jTT ^f^-gi^: H^t- 
f^^^rew: I ^^ ^%f>Tn M![^ » m h 
^fi ?P5^ T^ »t 'sft'Tf^ I ir^- 
^wmHiTTr: 11^ II •^^ j^t^ fj-^f^^ 
iT^iT^wf'5iT'rt RRt H5hi5>ifttiisii 

vfiT^^^Jtiitii ?rvT:fVff^gri^5^ 
^m^> H? I fl^^ ;?: s^5i lift II 

Agnlm ile pur6hitain 
yajfidsya devdm ritvijam i 
hotai-am ratniidhiiitaniam 
II I II agnih pflrvebhir n'slii- 
bhir Myo ntltanaii- utii i 
Sit devffi eha vakshati 
II 2 II agni'na rayfm acna- 
vat pdsham evil divi'- 
dive I yafilsam vh-dvatta- 
mam 11311 tlgne ydm yaj- 
iidm adhvardm vicvatali 
paribhdr dsi 1 sa id de- 
veshu gacchati 11 4 11 agnir 
h<')ti\ kavfkratul.i satyac ci 
tnl^ravastamah 1 dev6 de- 
v(5bhir K gamat 11 5 11 Yii<l 
angii d%i'ishe tvdni ilgm- 
bhadrdm karishydsi 1 ta- 
v<$t tdt satydm afigirah 
II 6 II upa tvAgne divd-dive 
d6shavastar dhiya va- 
ydm I ndmo bhdranta ema- 
si II 7 II riijantam adhvar^- 
ndm gopfe ritd.sya dfdi- 
vim I vdrdhamilnam svo 
ddme 11 8 11 sd nah pito- 
va sAndvd 'gne sApS-yano 
bhava 1 sdcasvH nah sva- 
stdye II 9 II 


Each column measiires exactly i inch and tV of an inch in width. The 
small Sanskrit type occupies 3 inches and -nr of an inch in length ; the largest 
Sanskrit type 5 inches and -^ of an inch ; the Roman type, without reckoning 
the last line, 6 inches and tV of an inch. No doubt, if we compare a 
Sanskrit text, printed in large Devan%ari types, with another, printed in 
small Roman type, the advantage, inherent in the Devan^gari alphabet, is 
somewhat reduced. But if we want to find out the relative merits of two 
alphabets, we must surely give the same start to both, or inform the judges 
that it is a handicap race. 

What follows, is still more curious. In comparing the two texts, the one 
in Devan§,gari, the other in Roman types, 1 have been accused of having 
suppressed the fact, that in the latter edition, there are about four lines of 
notes on each page, reducing the inimber of lines from thirty-one to twenty- 
seven. This, however, is the very fact which I make a point of stating, saying, 
' Thus we had only twenty-four lines on each page against twenty-seven lines 
in the Romanised text, exclusive of notes ! ' These were, in fact, the very four 
lines which I wanted for my own argument, as a make-weight against the 
exceptional spacing of the Samhitfl-text and the accents below the line ; my 
object being to show, that what in our case was excejjtional on one side, viz. 
the wide 8j)acing and the accents below the line, was matched by what was 
exceptional on the other side, viz. the four lines of notes at the bottom. 

Let me add one word more to my critics in general. No one, I cai\ honestly 
assure them, is more truly grateful than I am to those wlio have really taken 
the trouble of pointing out mistakes which I have corrnnitted ; no one, as 
I think I have shown sufficiently, is more indifferent to any hard words by 
which it is thought that such criticisms can be rendered more emphatic. 
During the whole of my literary career I have always availed myself t)f 
whatever was really good in the remarks of my critics, and have given 
them the fullest credit for it. But I have not been able to bring myself 
to waste my time in idle wrangling. If in matters of opinion I find that 
another scholar differs honestly from my own views, I am not so diffident 
as to fear that everybody will think me wrong, and him right ; nor so con- 
ceited as to imagine that, even if my own views are right, I could always 
convince him that they are so. I have spoken, and he has spoken, and, as in 
Parliament, I do not claim the right of reply, except when matters of fact 
have been misstated. We both stand before our judges, and trusting in the 
indestructible strength of truth, I have never declined lo submit to their 


verdict. I know I have sometimes been blamed for not replying to my critics, 
but such blame was most unjust. The fact is, that I could not possibly do it. 
When books are reviewed, as they now are, not only in England, but in almost 
eveiy country of Europe, nay, even in America and India, what are we to do >. 
Many of these reviews never reached me at all, but even if I had attempted 
to read and notice those only which I happened to see, I should have had no 
time left for anything else. It was not want of respect that made me silent, but 
simply want of time '. No author, when he publishes books, containing new 
facts and new theories, expects that the whole world will at once say. Amen. 
If it were so, the book would jarobably never have been written. An author 
must be prepared for contradiction and censure, and we all know that from 
certain quarters censure is more flattering than praise. After a time, every 
author becomes a target, but fortunately, not every shot that is tired, liowev^r 
loud the report, hits the mark. As for as my own experience goes, I have 
felt nmch more frequently inclined to pi'otest against unmerited praise, than 
against unmerited blame. There are few things written by any scholar of my 
name, for which, at some time or other, I liave not received the credit, though 
I did all I could to disclaim those ecpu'vocal honours. There are few languages 
wliicli I am not supposed to know, though again and again I have jn'otested 
•gainst the laurels of a Mezzofanti. 

These are old ])er2i]exities of which those who came before us have C(nn- 
pluined, and of which those who follow after, will complain likewise. Let 
me conchide with the verses of an old Indian poet : 

1 vcniiirc to avail inysolf of this opportunity to I mnnot tell. Il is generally said, that Hiiinboldt 
explain another apparent neglect on my part, for acknovvledgeil all books, and auhvvered all Ictter-t, 
which, I know, I have been hlamed, if not in pubhc, That may be so, but not every man is a Hiimlioldl, 
at least in private. During the last ton years the and Humboldt died before the penny post altaiued 
"umber of books sent me from all parts of the world its full development. When I tell my fi lends that, 
liaa become so great that I had to give up the attempt though most letters are now penny letters, I sjient in 
I') acknowledge them al.. When I was a young man, one year £i8 for postage, they can easily fiml "ut the 
It was generally understood, that no acknowledgment number of letterb I have to write, and I feel •sure they 
was expected, when a book was sent without a letter. will forgive me, if I do not always write liy lelmii ol 
I'o that rule T have conformed, both as a sender and post, that ' I .am looking forward with the greatest 
a» a receiver of presentation copies. There are, of pleasure to reading their books.' Nothing gives me 
course, exceptions, but they should be treated as such. greater pleasure than reading books written by men 
I' should also be publicly stated, that books sent with whom lam personally acquainted. Butifafriend 
through friends or booksellers, are apt to miscarry, sends me a book on Comparative Mythology, while I 
A friend of mine bought a volume of the Rig-veda at am in the midst of work on Sanskrit accentuation, 
a sale in Paris, and when he opened it, he found, that I must put his work aside for a time, and cannot ex- 
it was the very copy which I had sent him years ago press an opinion till I find leisure to read it carefully . 
•>8 a present. How such accidents can be avoided, Soyons raisonnMes! 


What care we for the praise of him who lauds 

In ignorance of where our merit lies? 
What painter values at a rush applause, 

However loud, from hiiu that lacketh eyes ? 

Nay, blame itself we'd rather choose to hear. 

If that the judge discerns the fault he shows ; 
And censure pleases the judicious more 

Than floods of flattery from fools like those. 

1 have still the pleasant duty to fulfil of thanking my many friends, both 
old and young, for the constant help which they have given me during the 
many years that I have been engaged in this edition of the Rig-veda. Some of 
them are no more amongst us, but the names of Biirnouf, Ruiisen, Wilson, Mill, 
Trithen, Roer, Bardelli, Goldsti'icker, Ballantyne, Bhao Daji, and I must also 
add the names of two most excellent printers, Pembrey, whose son keeps up 
the reputation of his father, and Hickman, a truly noble soul, will always be 
remembered with gratitude by one to whom, each in his own way, they have 
shown so much kindness, and I'endered such essential help. To those who are 
still living, and who have assisted me by their advice and by their active co- 
operation, particularly to Professor Theodore Aufrecht, Dr. Fitz-Edward Hall, 
Professor Haug, I have in the Preface to each successive volume expressed my 
deep obligation. With regard to the last volume, 1 have to add the names oC 
Professors Co well, Eggeling, Thibaut, and Mr. Burnell. My old friend Professor 
(Jowell, though fully occupied with other work, has never grudged me his time, 
whether for reading proof-sheets, or for giving me his opinion on difficult 
passages. Professor Eggeling has rendered me most \iseful service in the same 
manner ; and to Professor Thibaut I am especially indebted for the assistance 
he has rendered me in reading revises and in preparing the Index of the 
Uttarapadas. That Index is founded on the Index vcrhorum, printed in the 
fifth and sixth volumes. It is arranged alphabetically ; first, according to the 
Uttarapada ; then, according to the P^lrvapada. It will be seen that it contains 
all the words, actually divided by an Avagraha, except those in which the 
second part was a mere suffix, ?:^,JTr^, ^nxiifPC:, or a termination, ■^rf^fi^:. It 
also contains other words which, though, according to the system of the Pr4ti- 
.'<ilkhyas, they could not have the Avagr-aha, could easily be divided, and were 
thought to be useful to the students of the Veda. The principle followed in 
the selection was that of practical usefulness, not of systematic completeness. 
If, as happens frequently, the same Uttarapada occurs with different accents. 


then it is first placed ag Mjoid^tta, afterwards as madhjod;ltta, as aiitodatta, 
and lastly as anudiltta. 

Mr. Burnell's readiness in helping me to obtain information on some MS.S. 
ill India, has been acknowledged ; and J still liope, that his researches may 
produce new and important results. 


OxroED, 14 Septkmbeb, 1874, 

The firtt day of the Internatloiuil Congress of Oiientalifh 

in London. 




After the account given of the MSS. in the Prefaces to the earlier volumes, 
I have only to state here that no new MSS. of Sd.yana were available for the 
later MancZaLis, except a few fragments in my possession, viz. fragment D, con- 
taining Ash^aka V, Adhyayas 3 to 5 ( = Mant/ala VII. 20 to 80), fragment Bf, 
containing portions of the ninth, and Af, containing portions of the ninth and 
tenth Manc/alas. 

The fragment D is related to Ca sec. m., as will be seen from such passages 
as VII. 20, 10, where Ca, in the second explanation of ^i^ g, reads ini^rr with 
g %jfHg added in the margin, while I) has ini^ng <^rflij. VII. 40, 6, instead of 
fqviM »rr Bt^: Ca writes twrrnrmTT: , which has been misread by the writer of 
D, who wrote fini^ »rr '^T^:. VII. 43, 5, D reads with Ca sec. m. gitT gWT R«l<jn. 
VII. 67, 7, Ca reads ^i^jri t^ ei by mistake for y^j|i^^, D corrects ^<> to ^o in the 

1'he fragment Bf is related to B4, Af to A and Ca, as may easily be seen 
from the Variotas Lectionis. 

But though there were no new MSS. to be used, there was a new edition of 
the liig-veda with Siyana's commentary, published at Bombay, which reached me 
in time to be consulted, at least for the tenth MancMa. This edition, I must say 
at once, is very favourably distinguished from most editions of Sanskrit texts 
})ublished in India. It is neither a mere reproduction of a manuscript, with 
occasional corrections, nor a reprint of a text as restored and corrected by a 
European scholar with all its mistakes and misprints. It differs in that resspect 
most favourably from the edition of the text of the Ilig-veda, published at 
Bombay some years ago, which was so completely a reprint of my own editioi. 
that I had to take legal advice on the subject. It is well that it should be, 
known both in India and in England that to repriixt a text with its misprintfj 
and accidental mistakes is considered piracy by English and Indian law and^ 
is punishable as such. A small number of misprints is sufficient to convict! 
the offender, but in this case the number was by no means small, and I am - 


glad to say that the publishers at once recognised the bearing of the law, 
and printed a new title-page in which my name was given, as it ought to have 
been from the first. 

I have great pleasure in sayhig that no such blame attaches to the new 
edition of the Rig-veda with SAyawa's commentary. The editors, Bof/asa Rdjil- 
Mmas^stri and Gore iSiva-R4ma.9^tri, both well known as men of considerable 
learning, did not simply take my old edition and send it to be reprinted with 
a few corrections and additions here and there. They made use of my edition 
throughout, but I believe they made a copy of the commentary for themselves, 
and collated some MSS. They also inserted some of their own conjectural 
emendations and sup})lied some lacuiifis. In fact this edition reflects great 
credit on native scholarahip, and J hope it may serve as a pattern for future 
editors of Sanskrit texts. To me it was a matter of considerable interest to 
find out whether any of the MSS. which the editors had used represented an 
independent text, different from the three families of MSS. which I luul 
established from the materials at my disposal. I shall say at once that this is 
not the case, and my impression is that even in cases where lacunas have been 
filled, this has been done, as it easily might have been (see Preface to tiie 
Sixth Volume of the First Edition, above, p. cxxxvi), by conjecture, or by consult- 
ing commentaries on the other Vedas, on the Nirukta, or on other similar works. 
In order to prove this once for all, I liave asked Dr. Winternitz to put together 
a list of passages from the seventh, the eighth, and the ninth Ma«(/alas wliicli 
will show the true relation of the editlo princcps and the new Bombay edition, and 
will serve at the same time as a supplement to the Varietas Lcctionis for the 
tliird volume. The whole revised copy of my new edition was in tlie press 
before the Bombay edition reached me, and as far as IX. 90, 6 all was ])rinte(l. 
From IX. 91 onwards, however, the Bombay edition could be consulted during 
the reading of the proof-sheets, but in very few cases only were readings of 
li (the Bombay edition) inserted in the text on the authority of R alone, as, for 
instance, in IX. 97, 12; X. 27, 7; X. 27, 14; X. 30, 7. Dr. Winternitz has 
already published an article on the true character of the Bombay edition in the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of London, vol. xxiii. pp. 173-182, and the 
following notes will serve to confirm his judgment. The first class of passages 
given in list A below, is intended to show that tiie two nuti\'e scholars had no 
access to MSS. which represent an independent text, or a text differing in 
essentials from that of my three families of MSS. A great ninnber of mistakes 
which run through all our MSS. meet us again in the Bombay edition. This 

X 2 

cixiv pbUface to the 

fact is of great importance, and it naturally makes us doubtful with regard 
to another class of passages which are given in list B, where the Bombay edition 
offers a different, and sometimes better reading than that found in our MSS., and 
more especially with regard to passages collected in list C, where lacunas which 
are found in all our MSS. have been carefully filled out in the Bombay edition. 

Again, though the editoi-s have not stated that they have made constant 
use of my edition for restoring the text of Silyana, there are certain coincidences 
which hardly admit of any othei' explanation. Such passages will be found in the 
next two lists. List D contains a number of passages where the Bombay edition 
has adojrted doubtful or even erroneous readings from my first edition which I 
myself have now rejected, while list E gives a number of more or less certain con- 
jectural emendations proposed by me in my first edition, and "found also in the 
Bombay edition. I shoTild, of couise, be very much pleased to learn that the 
editors found some of these readings in their MSS. Nothing is so gratifying to a 
scholar as to see his conjectures confirmed by the discovery of new MSS. 
('onjectural emendations of my own which had the good fortune of being con- 
firmed by the discovery of new MSS., will be found in the Varietas Lectioiiis. 
But I am afraid that in most cases this is not veiy probable, seeing that the 
MSS. used by the Bombay editors are on the whole not very different from those 
on which my own editio -pnncepa was based. 

List F gives a number of passages where the Bombay edition has real 
improvements, which either confirm my own readings adopted in the new 
edition, or seem to me preferal)le. Whether they are conjectural emendations 
or rest on the authority of MSS., must again remain an open question. 

Appended is a short list (G) of palpable mistakes and misprints occurring 
from Rv. iX. 91 to the end of the ninth Mawr/ala, in the Bombay edition, which 
may be useful for a new edition. 

M 1 = My Editio Princeps. 

M 2 = My Second Edition. 

R = Bombay Edition. 


Passages in which R shares the mistakes of our MSS. 
VII. 5, 5. After '^mjmgi , A. B. Ca add j?fT7T. This has been retained in 
M I and in R. But it is clear that a lectoi- male sedulus mistook »»qft i. e. •*(: 
•^BjT for u^t, and added <<)ji<i . The same MSS. have in the same line the 
addition f^'ilT^ after ff^^:. This ^< )a n^ was rejected both in M i and in R. 


VII. 6, 7. E has ^R^o, the reading of the MSS., for y^n"^ 

VII. 7, 6. R, like all our MSS., has Jrr»I^Ti!rt, where we should expect 

VII. 18, 5. R, like our MSS., has ^^^jtr. We expect m^^JTHT. 

VII. ]8, 22. R has t^: for t^ with our MSS.— R reads 'STra^Trm'' with A. Ca. 

VII. 22, 6. R reads ^ftfH ^?iT5T?f7i with D. 

VII. 27, 5. R has ?|?«n*IT«f with the MSS., for jff^fNr^. 

VII. 34, 24. R retains f^rfrm of the MSS. instead of (^iirg') flrftm. 

VII. 35 introd. R has TH^rTrg like D, for Tpr""?r. 

VII. 35, 6. The explanation of gr?rm:, given by Ca sec. m. D g^r^:, is 
found also in R. It may be right. 

VII. 36, I. ^■RRT ^fi:R with our MSS. 

VII. 37, 5. R, like all our MSS., reads f^ <t|iw1fi| . The text has fz^:. 
ft is hardly possible that Silyawa read T^i^^. If lie had, he could only have 
explained it as a third person. 

VII- 39) 5- R reads »r<Wr'l,with A. B. 

VII. 43, 2. R has m^ like the MSS., not the emendation m^ (explanation 

VII. 43, 4. The MSS. omit •^fn g, and leave it imexplained. R simply 
.iKserts the words ^if?j ^ from the text. Surely no improvement. 

VII. 56, 9 and 10. R agrees with our MS. D in verse 9, and with B 4 In verse 10. 

VII. 56, 18. R also has ?t^ like all our MSS. 

VII. 57, 2. ^ JT^: R like om- MSS. 

Vri. 57, 3. R has vtTimv}<,i< }^ <,w<,gi: for otjh< :^<^ i ^^ ;, like our MSS. 

Vll. 59, 8. R, hke our MSS., has ^ 3r:. 

VII. 66, 3. R reads ^fffr: with the MSS., not gfj:. 

Vi I. 67, 8. For d^v i i i ^^t^ i:, R has d^ vi HA aT: like B i and M 1. 

VII. 69, 6. R leads »n f'rag with A, for in f^*)^t} . 

VII. 70, I. R has ^l^rni hke A. Ca. D and M i. Corrected to ^3f inv i" M 2. 

VII. 75' 4- R reads otj^HT^mrt ^T: with B4. D, without adding HT'l. 

VII. 82, 2. R also has ^ g?rf , like our MSS., where it should hi; g^wt. 

VII. 92, 4. R also has ^t^: ^tmT:> hke A. B. Ca, though ^^;pi: is quite 

VII. 98, 4. R has the reading of the MSS. ^^rg^^r^ (which may be right), 
not the emendation 'srf^f^. 

VII. 100, 6. R also has toto where we expect ^^ tirw. — R has ^rerm ^!W?l 
'ike A. Ca. 


VII. 103, 7. R reads ^Nhr: 7(Wl ^(^jn', which seems to be based on the reading 
of A ^r^: ^TF^:- 

VII. 104, 12. ^^iw^l i fkm' is the reading of the MSS. R reads ^rWJTrf^, 
Mi. 2 ^rwHTW- 

VTI. 104, 25. R copies the mistake of the MSS. and of M i ^i{f^ T^: for 

VIII. 1, 26. R has ^ flfj^, like A. Ca, for 9 ^?f^. 
VIII. 2, 6. R has ^mt with the MSS. 

VIII. 2, 27. R gives the same commentary as our MS. B4; see Varietas 

VIII. 3, I. R has :9f?^: with the MSS., for H^:. 

VIII. 3, 22. R has ?T7 with B4, for 7(^j:. 

VIII. 4, 3. R also reads ^jy^ift^' for ^jg]^. 

VIII. 4, 6. R reads V'<4(M^ I ?r«|7t, showing the same omission as our MSS. 

VIII. 6, 33. R reads ^RTf^: <T^, which comes much nearer to the reading of 
A. Ca, «r^<j*5i: rf^^, than our emendation ^^ft ?^: 1 7[^SJ% Yet the latter yields a 
better sense. 

VIII. 6, 43. R has ■^RireWrt^ with A. Ca, and M i, for -«(ti(Min*llf<y. 

VIII. 6, 47. R has UifljRiid l l*! with the MSS., for ^IJJjo. 

VIII. 7, 2 1, R has ■HfTT^lTRfT with the MSS., for KfK"- 

VIII. 7, 29. ?n^hff^ R with the MSS., for 7T?^nifvf9j. 

VIII. 8, 2. R also has ^t^fw: for ^tf«r:. 

VIII. 12, 12. wi'^ R = MSS., for irNrft. 

VIII. 13, 6. R also has the mistake '^w^: 55^ ira^. 

VIII. 19, 33. R has ^«fi<nt like MSS. and M i, for 5i5^^f?i. 

Vlir. 22, 11. ^T^rHirTr: R = MSS., for '(i^fHwn:. 

VIII. 22, 12. ^^^wTWrf'T: R = MSS., for ^^ « i nnf^ ;. 

VIII. 22, 1 5. R reads %'g^'V?nftwt with the MSS. 

VIII. 23, 25. ^«i^Tf?i^jrr^RT!ftf*r: R = MSS. and M i. 

VIII. 24 and 25 iiitrod. Instead of f^^^niT R has the reading of B 1 %?raTW- 

VIII. 24, 4. Instead of ^^trtt: R has ^htt: with A. Ca. M i. 

VIII. 25, 17. R, like Ml and the MSS., has q tjt qii j i Jf7iTf*T tn for ^^W^ 
^Trrf*T '^. 

VIII. 25, 22. R has gswrat for it%*rR^, like A sec. m. Ca. 

VIII. 29, I. ij^fT^^frr: R = A. Ca, for "j^^. 

VIII. 31, 16. ^iTRT f l^l^fn R = A. Ca, for ^m^ »R T"- 

VIII. 37. The Viniyoga in R the same as in our MSS. 


VIII. 41 > 7- The lacuna is supplied by R in accordance with B, ^: ^^; to 
ir^, after which it continues trf^^Tfifr etc. This may be right. 

VIII. 45, 38. Here also R supplies the lacuna in accordance with B, see 
Varietas Lectionis. 

VIII. 46, 33. ^tw R = A. Ca. M I, for ^twT. 

VIIT. 48, 5- ^f«»: R = A. Ca. M I, for i^Wf:. 

VIII. 61, 2. R reads with the MSS. ^ <i^M^ i <,^>«fl a%:. 

VIII. 66, 3. R reads ftiJT^ ^>^ ^rm Tf^ ^ i^ ffT^ etc., undisturbed by the 
lacuna after ^f?| ^ (ffif ^ - - MSS.). 

VIII. 6y init. R reads ^nfs^wm^irn, with the MSS., but immediately after- 
wards ^Hif^WT ^"im against the MSS., which have ^UTf?r«ft ^'TTn. 

VIII. 69, 2. R has the difficult reading of our MSS. f^^^f^ groi ffrr. 

VIII. 71, 3. R adopts the reading of B ^ ^iW^ f^%fH^[fi^^ »H^Ui , 
which agrees with the text. 

VIII. 79, 6 and 7. R sui)plies the lacunas in accordance with B. See 
Varietas Lectionis. 

YllL 89, 1. The lacuna after ^n*nf^ is also in R, though R does not mark 
it, as our MSS. do. 

VIII. 91 init. R reads with our MSS. ?i^rr: g^TfJTfTrrar: m^. 

Vlil. 93, 13. R inserts q^wtg without explanation, like B. 

VIII. 93, 24. R, like B, gives the second explanation only, thus avoiding the 
lacuna In the first explanation of f^. 

VITI. 99, 3. R inserts ^ht: before vfjif, like our MSS. 

IX. 7, I. R changes the spurious ^f^^h^ of our MSS. to o^Jprr; and reads 

TX. 10, 6. It is clear that SHya^ia read f^: against the authority of the 
Pada-text, yet R has f5c:% f^r^fr: Wf^TT^; compare B i. 

IX. 14, 4. R reads VJ^ ^(^ TfV^T etc., without marking a lacuna Ixsfoir Jf^j. 

IX. 30, 2. R leads i^^rmfri ^, the MSS. tfg^Rft - - ^. 

IX. 43, 5. R reads with B ^: f^-, for '?r^rf^tf :, and with tiie MSS. ?:^gTTT^^ for 

IX. 61, 23. R agrees with the MSS. in placing tfie words from % ift|: to 
i?WR^ before gi^Vrr^:- 

iA. 66, 28. R agrees with our MSS. in givuig a second grammatical explana- 
tion after ^^^jTf^ f^pjy,. . 

IX. 91 init. R has the same mistake, ^re^t for xrg, as our MSS. 
IX. 91, 4. R, like our MSS., has ^ for M. 

clxviii PREFACE TO THE 'i 

IX. 92, 4. R reads ^^^ ^^rf?r, the reading intended by A. Ca. 

IX. 96, I. R reads BnTPt.for ?nTTf*r with the MSS. 

IX. 96, 13. R reads 4<<*«iffl with A. Ca. 

IX. 97, 4. R reads ■JrajTraTTO with the MSS. 

IX. 97, 19. R, like A. Ca and M i, reads ?rat!nf^%^ and ^i<«^w i «t f*rf*r%. 

IX. 97, 23. R reads <^;^fi^d l with the MSS., for ^grrf^mr. 

IX. 97, 36. R, Hke our MSS., reads aryfyint for ^yfv. 

IX. 97, 58. Tpi a T 44^ i R = A. Ca. 

IX. 98, 1 2. The reading of R, <>^ tt^ *pt ■tn*|*)*M I *< 'V^H, is almost the same 
as the reading of A. Ca. 

IX. 99, 6. R reads with B and M i "xti w^fi; w^VTf?!. But ■ji i .^vufa cannot 
be the explanation of ■^!iT^\|f(^, the participle. 

IX. loi, I. g^:f%<!^ gr^rer R = MSS. 

IX. 102, 3. R has the same corrupt reading VTT^ ''>ll<<n<<<<l f^HTR^ t^ a* 
our MSS. 

IX. 106, 9. R reads, with A. Ca, |rf^fH^: %:, IX. 107, 5 w^ f?reH, and IX. 

107, 7 ^t»fr »T^*i,- 

IX. 107, II. R has the same interpolation after f?R;^pSl,as A. Ca. M i. 
IX. 107, 14. R reads ^ i||4)y ^T'tfTI ""VfH ^^^ ; compare tlie reading of A. Ca. 
IX. 108, 7. R reads ^^ (sic), for ^7)cii, A. Ca have <fm. — R reads, with B i, 

IX. 112, 2. R, like A. Ca, has wh^Tfinrrfir; and it x^:. 

IX. 1 1 2, 3. R has the reading of the MSS. <>gf«|qrr STRTXTTT- 

IX. 114, I. ?mg3RR = A. Ca. 

IX. 114, 2. R has the same mistake as A, in writing ^wm ti^Hl ^^- 


Passages in which R has independknt readings. Compare also list F. 

VII. I, 23. M I had i^^Tffl VT^srfn like A. B i. M 2 has ^^xfii like Ca. The 
reading of R, ^ynfff VTT^rfn, is better. But has it the support of any MSS., 
or is it simply a conjectural emendation? 

VII. 55 init. In the quotation from the B?-ih. R reads ^ it*<nj<cn fjg^5T^<^. 

VII. 56, 8. R reads Wff^: %»j: for qi Mf q- jq ai: . In the Varietas Lectionis 
^iqf%j7j: and ^Rf^jTn were suggested as possible emendations. Does the reading o^ 
R rest on the authority of any MSS. ? 

VII. 60, 3. R reads TTS^fTfnC'ftgfw for o^ffirfjB. 


VII. 6 1, 2. The MSS. have ^fm^. One expects ^^ as an explanation of 
HR^. R inserts the words of the text and reads ^pjB^ *f qp^. No improvement. 

VII. 71,4- Om MSS. have '«^raTf and ^w w^, R reads ^B^pn only. 

VII. 90. 2. Our MSS. read ^rmm HIH'*na , and this points to S^yana's reading; 
^ym^ instead of ^t^ -^j^ in the Pada. R reads, however, tt^ '^RT mrrej VTO 
VX^ (sic). 

VII. 98, 6. The MSS, have 7i%?i; ft^, as if S^yawa had read 7i%f^ instead of 
71%^ in the text. R throws out the i[?t, but retains the ij^r, reading m ?l%^. 

VII. 104, 6. R has ^^^^fvrsft for ^i^r^v«ft. 

VIII. 4. 14- ^ has g«i:ij-^^^(ft ^ ifJf, which may be right, 

VIII. 5, 23. Our MSS. read ^ ^t^ ^raift, which was corrected to ^ ^J\^ 
^^ (in M 2). The emendation rests on Fin. IV. 4, 98 (f|-^ ^ai^:). In R we fine? 

VIII. 17, 13. The MSS. have ^% <t^, corrected to ^ij^ in M i. 2; R has 
^ only. 

VIII. 20, I. R reads % ITOTTPT: KWrmr: H^MK, : »np!: '^JHRI, quite difierent 
from our MS. B, the only MS. which has the passage. Is this a conjectuial 
reading ? 

VIII. 20, 2. Here again R difters in the passage as given from B only. 
11 reads ^rm^JTRT: ^w: 'v^ X^T^ ^ etc. 

VIII. 24, 6. R reads «TOT »?^ »T^ ITR^ >iHTf?[fw: »<«jl^^ r ^ ^^. 

VIII. 25, 6. R avoids the difficulty at the end of this verse by omitting the 
last sentence altogether. 

VIII. 29, I. Instead of ipramf^ {^W A. Ca), R reads ^^niif^. 

VIII. 31, I, R reads ?r^ ?n5rrf'!I. But SAyajia read s^ for ?i^. 

VI 11. 40, 6. R has ^nmsrr for ^RKrr. 

VI [I. 44, 3, Our MSS. have ^T^^ for ^T^^T<1. R reads ^n^^m^ iti accord- 
ance with the text. 

VIII. 46, 15. R has •^TO with the text and with A, as corrected. All the 
other MSS. have ^?r. 

vIII. 47, 6. R has ^(RTIR: (S4ya?ia's reading) also in the Pada-text, for 

'"nil 55: 1. 

VIII. 64, 7. R reads ?|^ wX^ ^ Ui^ . This is in accordance with the 
text of the Rig-veda. But our MSS. point to a reading of Sdyana's, ?^ 
instead of jf. 

VIII. 67, 13, The MSS. have ^ f^^^ifl i, which had to be corrected to 'a^n:. 
1^ reads ^%7n:. 

VOL. IV. y 


VIII. 77, 9. R reads ^: ^51«mK«5lf*l' «\«q4lviK«Hf*1 was suggested in the 
notes of M I, The MSS. point to •VTTWm or •^TRTinrr, either of which may be 
right. But there is no evidence, in our MSS., for •\i|TTi:T!rrf*r. 

VIII. 80, I. R, reads ^asT ^ TWlTBt- 0"^ MSS. mark a lacuna, W35T ■^I^-- 
VIII. 83, 3. R avoids the first lacuna by reading ^htTO ^fWra TtRT TT '^ Ti'^lf 
^imtf ^^i) the second lacuna is supplied by f«|fiMfl|fM as in M i. 

VIII. 91 init. R reads ^trf^^iiirr like Prof. Aufrecht, for V5» W^n. In the 
same passage R reads VfffM^fU!Jl,:ngfl( IRrfif, taking iir!Tf?T as a fem, 

VIII. 92, 3. R has ^^«T instead of ?mT {j^ MSS.). 

VIII. 93, 6. The grammatical note, which is corrupt in A. Ca, and has been 
omitted as spurious, has been put after f^^M^tlHI'i: in R, and corrected, it seems, 
as follows : g^^; mUfia f%f^ ^isi^it 'g: ^ ^Nn: ^f^fwT!"' etc. 

VIIT. 93, 7. R again gives the grammatical explanation with some cor- 

VIII. 93, 23. R reads simply '^pr^^rf^ in ^i^^ftJMi, as if there were no 
lacuna at all. 

VIII. 98, 9. R has ^^5t in accordance with the Sawhitil MSS., but our 
S^yana MSS. read B^y t. 

VIII. 99, 6. R has '>>4«|^«(( ■?rRnn: ( = text), while our Sayawa MSS. , differing 
from the text, read ^spsraTl ?(•. 

IX. 33, I. R has tge i tH ^^ (?) for fsi^ ^<ft. The MSS. are commit. 
IX. 41, 2. R has ^ ^^?»tn "^ for ^-tm ipirai fS^rf?! ^. I 

IX. 48, 3. R makes the commentary agree with the text. It reads, like 
A. Ca, 1 ig^BTft iftH'ra^^'ni ^tm, but omits the words gwg: gmj: which stamd in 
all our MSS. \ 

IX. 53, I. S%ana seems to explain Tjft; i ^\t: (rendering xrfx; hy Jiffl^TV^) 
instead of xjf|;i^r«i: . R (against our MSS.) gives vif<,«gvi: for ^\j:, the rest of the 
commentary being the same. 

IX. 63, 4. R reads Ti^i^rf?! 'rast'W, but our MSS. read Tirtwra?t?f. If Sdyaria 
wanted to explain ^rfTi, he would say '*i<f\<v, '«iOi4hM(, or something like it, and 
not simply "^rfn 'ragfn. 

IX. 65, 4. R gives the fuller commentary of the B MSS., but it begins ipfJlT'l 
gjtTHT'J J^ etc., and explains ^fvn; by ^ftHirar^TO: yguiMflflt ^. In a foot-note, 
the commentary as printed in M i is given, adding at the end f^ ^igmnK- 
Does this refer to another MS., or to the Editio Princeps ? 


IX. 69, 10. The reading of E, xnm^ Vtf^ wm\ (A. Ca have xunrft^ ijtt^ ^^^), 
may be right. 

IX. 86, 21. R reads Tj^Tlfn 'n "^f^pq^n instead of n«tr^v;r a »n ^». No 

IX. 86, 27. R inserts ^'% between g<f\% and f^(tfi><j | it r. 

IX. 86, ss. R reads after WT^, ^im: ^l^ ^, which is not in our MSS. 

IX. 88, 3. R reads f% f^wrSTTm'^i'iS, f% not in our S^yana MSS., though it 
is in the text. 

IX. 89, 4. R reads 'anwxnprarra^n^ 3ITH ^4. This would be better than 
tiie readings of our MSS., if TT were added after gjT?r. 

IX. 91, I. The MSS. have x^ ^nn and ^ Xi^rniBt. R reads xrSj alone. 

IX, 9 1 , 6. R reads jff^ jfRlT^. 

IX. 95, 4. Instead of imt twi: (^ f%nm: Bi, n<ftf>mm: A. Ca) R reads 

IX. 96, 15, Our MSS. read xft;^ qtrrg:, tlio reading of R ^^551 T ^fWt ^Rf 
^ is no improvement. iJtgfH: in R, for wt^: , is possible, but not necessary ; 
see also IX. 96, 23. 

IX. 97, 2. For JTfT'l,, R alone has ?rfP(.^:. 

IX. 97, 16. Our MSS. read ^qviifiT and g^u, R, with the text, gtWT ^5'WTt'f 
and gjTrf^. 

rX. 97, 32. R reads UTi^ with the text, our MSS. give Jir^wft. 

IX. 97, 38. For ^f?nirr^ etc., R reads ^pifT qiTft% ^ STfWra ^ ipr^ffT ^^. 

IX. 97, 44. For WT Tj^ra wr ^g^ of the MSS. (^ ?t^ ^»^ M 1. M 2), R 
has ^ in^ ?ret ^. 

IX. 103, 4. R reads ^m: for ^fi|t%?T:. 

IX. 108, 2, R reads ^^l ^^ ^4^i^i taking ^"t^: from the text. But our 
MSS. read ^^:, which seems to be Sayajia's reading. If he had read ^fS^: he 
would probably 'lave given the explanation found iu B, ^^(H^i^. 

IX. 108, 4. R reads "Vf^l iiaif'l ^^^\- 

IX. 109, 22. The MSS. read -^sftw^ "^T'T^ ^"9t»it, but iTT'l^ cannot be an 
explanation of ^hf^, but only of fwj.. A lacuna ought to have been marked 
after ^ftjip^, which may be supplied in the following way : hTIiI'I f*i^*«»i. ^3^ 
^?jt: ^ f^;i!ni, ^^^nf*I ^T'ni, ^l. R is content with writing ^tWl ^K'ln. ^3^ 

IX. I II, 3. R reads m\h^ ^ ^. 

IX. 113, 10. For inr flTJnt m (MSS. have fw^ TPf only), R reads frot ^T^. • 




List of lacunas, supplied in R. 

VII. 104, 6. R reads wPfrfi^ yTTT^T 'TOT ^^IT^ V%: ^gK!^, thus supplying 
the lacuna of our MSS. This seems spurious, even if it should have the authority 
of some MS. 

VIII. 6, 23. R explains the words ^arar Ti^T g'fV^ by ^flifM ^ ^^^ ifWr^W^^ 
inrt WTfS ^ m^m^. Very doubtful. 

VIII. 14, 13 and 14. The words at the end of verse 13, x^ ^ TRTT^TT'l. are 
left out in R, and the lacuna of verse 1 4 is supplied according to B from '^ ^ 
to ^^"V, after which Tfl^ ^S^'^TS'l is added. 

VIII. 19, 37. R borrows the commentary from the commentary on the 
Nirukta IV. 15, adding at the end of the verse (not in a note) : ^TOTT ^^ 'sgrwpj 
r*l<\n<£l'4il4T "3^7!) wliich miglit give the impression, as if Bityaria, not the editors, 
had copied from the Nirukta-iikii. At all events, this throws somel light on the 
manner in which lacinias have been filled in R. ) 

VIII. 21, 14. R supi)lies a commentary for the second half ck' the verse, 
which is wanting in A. Ca, and supplied by B. But R differs frornVB. ^i^ ?^ 

^^ T?9^: II R. 

VIII. 66, 10. Our MSS. offer three lacunas In this verje. R gets nid of tlie 
first one by reading n qi^rf^t^ar^: ^mTT^ etc., of the second by reading'. ^t <i41 
1%f <^4'<ini etc. In the third place R reads simply ^m: ^^fTR. wW etc. 

VIII. 69, 12. R adds at the end : ^aisfl: ^ gfwf'T^ ^r«rr ^ Hfn TftvT^'* 
Hlff!: H Cf. our MS. B. ^^ 

VIII. 103 init. The omission in the second Viniyoga is supplied by R, whicfi 
has ^snf»T5rf^i%^^g *^Mit(tt(n<a "RJiffBT^fTT ^^Ru**: i M^n i «<j^ : 1 ff^ "^ 1 imf?sra 
Tra<T IT 'Spr ^ flqlrrtf+lRrfl l ^TW|l<ft<4l*<,<!n*l4*»<n: (read »7^») 4<«l^<j |l «wCl*l "^ 
^nf^Sm I gf^ ^ I TT etc. 

IX, 21,5. R supplies the lacuna after ^njnr by ni4 ( j!){^<.f^w ; w(ff: ^^, not at 
all in S4yana's style. Cf. the reading of B i . 4. 

IX. 47, 2. The first part of the commentary which is defective in our MSS. 
reads in R quite smoothly : '^rer ^^r^TRI ^t'HSr <4^flif<ar <<^» i m^|< | ( i; i Tt^rmfSr 'rrtf- 
^rrf»l ^S^ 'ff^Tftr wrrf^ '<l<*llfiu,^ anrrfn ^i^ etc Is this supported by any MSS.? 

IX. 67, 22. R adds after "^m, W. 'ftm ^ ^rf«nr: iT'^.^, which is not in our MSS. 

IX. 85, II. Our MSS. are deficient at the beginning of the commentary, 


OTif being unexplained and ^MuHtqiti being not fully explained. No such defects 
exist in R, which has w^ ^^% fl^*<i*i 59^ iifl«»im5t^?i v^sr^ ' ^^V\^^\^ " ^mnnif i 
i^ etc. Yet R, like all our MSS., reads ^jm« v3M«*'!q«», as if SS,yana had read 
g4 I ^i'frtf for ^ig^l^. 

IX. 89, I. R adds the missing explanation of the last Pdda : »rrg: ^^imft ^^ 

IX. 89, 7. R has a complete commentary of the verse, our MSS. have none at all. 

IX. 96, II. The explanation of the last Pada is deficient in A and Ca (as to 
B I, see Var. Lect.). R inserts ^fWr^Jrafi: '*i%<^rM'^: before ijt^\fH,. •''-nd 'WTr t^ 
vn jjqr: after n^rNi. Doubtful, whether in MS. or not. 

IX. 97, 26. R has i|jrf?t TfrJnmfn <jy*iH' '^iTEianr: ^ijfir^^: f^^'tKi: f*r%^#m:, 
a good explanation of the third PMa, wanting in our MSS. 

IX. 98, 4. After ^ \H R inserts f«Rref|| I ^ t^ ¥t»T ^ sSfftn!! tHj^N^ii^ i q^ 

IX. 107, 18. R inserts 'aTTT;: ^t^CTX;: after #^. 

See also X. 12, 6 ; 14, 3; i8, 14 ; 19, 4 ; 27, 9 (here R gives a different com- 
mentary from that supplied by the authorities at »SVing6ri, see above, p. cxxxvi); 
30, 8; 45, 12, etc., which shows again how easily lacunas are filled by native 
.scholars in India. 


List of doubtful or erroneous readings in the Editio Princeps (M i) 
which have been repeated in 11. 

VII. I, 3. ^nref^rnnTPfNWT is the unobjectionable reading of the MSS. 
^«^<n«<i ^RTirii^^rsrr in M i was wrong, yet we find the same reading in R. 

VII- 5. 7- »» I *IMI , the reading of the MSS., was corrected to WHTPl^ in M i, 
t« ^TPJT in the new edition. R has ^rrrri'^. 

^11- 39. I- ^Tl^t, wrong form, in M i, but adopted in R, instead of ^^, the 
light reading of A. 

^^^- 39. 3- The explanation of ^^: is now given as gf^rat w^: in accordance 
with NIrukta XII. 43. The emendation in M i was ^ait, which is the refiding 
ot II. S4yana would hardly explain wTT: as a locative. Besides, tlie rejuling of 
t'le principal MSS. gfqiqun comes nearer to ^flrat WTT than to ijflrat. 

^11- 57. 6. Trar^igTi:, the reading of the MSS., has been restored in M 2 ; in 
M I it was corrected to nwnww:, which has found its way into R. 

VII. 88, 3. 11^, the reading of A. Ca, has been restored in M 2. It wa.s cor- 
rected to ^Jjf^ in M I, the reading adopted in R. 


VII, 104, 19. jft^iiB^ of the MSS. has been restored in M2. The reading of 
M I, <f\^g^ , has been adopted in R. 

VIII. 2, 12. ^rfrj ^ ^: t^i^ i R i, the reading of A, Ca, has been restored in M2. 
R has adopted the erroneous emendation of M i, irfir ^ 'TOT: Jfe^ifil. 

VIIT. 15, 10. R has adopted the readings of M i, now rejected in M 2, See 
Varietas Lectionis. 

VIII. 22 introd. After ^g5H.R has the mistake Mfl^Tl i^S{*ft"l[ 3«ftf7r^ (compare 
the reading of B : ^m^\ ^Ifft '^ s^^fTnit). This was printed in M i, but in tlie 
Corrections at the end of the volume (iv) ■t(^vh <(m*f\ was corrected to n^rr^if^ 
j^mf^ ^. The editors of R have not observed this. 

VIII. 24, 17. The unintelligible Tt?? of the MSS., which is now corrected to 
ij*^, was changed to •^am: in M i, and this is adopted in II. 

VIII, 24, 20. R has ^Bf^sf?:, with M i, for ^Hfl^fw:. 

VIII. 30, 3. As to HT^^TcT. 'HI* ^tc, R agrees with M i, except that it ha.s 
iT^: ?l^ f»m for ?^Tit ^: ftmr. 

VIII. 35 introd. '#i?f^ST^5jftf?r^ now restored according to A. Ca. It was 
corrected to ■ a M fr. " in M i, and this has been adopted in R. 

VIII. 45, 40. Instead of fffti •?r?rerr¥f, Mi proposed another emendation: 
t^ ^ JTTHt, which is the reading of R. 

VIII. 70 introd. ^q1<^art 4<,'dft<ll<tj W^«, the reading of M i (according to B), 
is adopted in R. It had been corrected already in the Corrections to vol. iv of 
M I. This has not been observed by the editors of R. 

VIII. 71, 13. R agrees with M i in reading ?rf^H^ | •^SI^TT, which has now 
been corrected to dR^tcii. 

VIII. 76, 12. ^f afl^i was corrected to ^ft »nn in M i, and this is adopted 
in R. M 2 has the reading of B, ^gfTTOf- 

VIII. 96, 8. R has TTTrf^ with M i, the MSS. (A. Ca) have W^ ^rff^, which 
is now changed into TJTtf^: • 

VIII. loi, 14. fTsrr %W% wngm (A. Ca) has been corrected to 7T«rT %?ra V\W^ i" 
M I, which is adopted in R, It is now T^T ^flX*l«ll». 

VIII. 103 introd. R reads with M i q-^ f8H: T 'j[M T ^H*^ l '«l<l'* l« and ngjwj^^^- 
See Varietas Lectionis. 

IX. 72, 8. ^^W ^lfl (now corrected to •^) had been corrected in Mi to 
TI^P9^fT?j_, which is the reading adopted in R. 

IX. 74, 6. ' «n*<4<m<iri J || fv|^ |: , the reading of C 2 and very nearly of the other 
MSS., is unobjectionable. It should be remembered that »wi?l is one of the i^SWffffll 


in Ngh. II. 19. ^T^t 1»ret Tr» was, therefore, a wrong conjectural emendation in 
M I ; yet it has been adopted in R. 

IX. 87, 8. vji ^mn\4 is the nearest approach to the readings of the MSS. 
V^ Jrar irnra of Mi and R is against the authority of the MSS., and no 

IX. 1 01, 13. THWI* in Mi was an unnecessary correction for ^)rpsnr>. Ci'. 
Dhp. TTV HfH^. Yet R also has jjysum*. 

IX. 103, I. Compare : Jt ftR^ ija n M ^ Hl<<«<m!m V^ irfTT^: ^o M i. 

i^t^fftT^^tei^ jn*(*<uiji«i z(g[T JTflrfH: ^ftfwt: 'eft" R. 

IX, 112, I. ^4|4j||«l||4|(<l|44 (MSS.) was at first changed in M i to ti \ ms ^(T>, 
but afterwards corrected in the Varietas Lectioni.s. R has adopted #4<m w(», 
a wrong emendation of M i . 

A few curious passages of the tenth Mawf^ala n)ay here be added : 

X. 13, 5. t5!T»'> which was corrected in the Varietas Lectionis of M i to twnt. 
is retained in R. 

X. 20, 10. R reads with M 1 •ftgjjTrer instead of »fl(g^7ref, the correct i-eading 

X. 66, 5 and 7. Tlie MSS. have all fw»t. The conjecture f^KJH is against 
the MSS., as stated in the Varietas Lectionis. The Anusvilra of ^ in verse 5 was 
lost by a mere misprint. R has, like M i, f^r^H in verse 5 and f^r^ in 7. 

X. 121, 4. The passage discussed above, p. cxxxviii seq. Here R has in^Tt'TT 
etc., my own very bold conjectural reading, excej)t that it substitutes f;Trn'ilT: for 
twn?rr m. How does Prof Peterson, who criticised my conjectural emendations 
ill the Academy, account for this ? 

X. 184, I. R has the (now rejected) conjectural reading of M i, ij^trnrnnrfRT 

for ^rnnrr». 


List of emfndations, with or without the authority of MSS., 


VII. 1,1. ^at m^^in^H ^ (easy emendation). VII. 2 init. Ml(lf<|{ilf<l<^. VII. 2, 11. 
^m^ for STOT»t.. Vn. 3, 4. ^T^. VII. 3, 8. T%:. VII. 5, 2. ^ before ^T^VT^:. 
^JI- 5. 3- ■'srflrTTWr:. VII. 5, 6. ^s^m for "^m (easy emendation). VII. n, 5. 
tw^« for fj(im». VII. 15 init. ^fim\. VII. 16, 5. wm^f^- VIL 18, 9. ^jnt^fc. 
vn. 18, II. gqn^jfil etc. (easy). VIL 18, 17. '^R^. VIL 18, 21. ^3xnra?flT. 
VII. 20, 8. ^: before ?| by conjecture. VII. 21, 5, ^39%?! and ^^9|fr(. VIL 22, 2. 

'"Wi''- VIL 23, 6. ^ira^nwnr. VIL 24, i. m^^j^. VIL 24, 3. ^ ^, VIL 


31, 12. ^ft^Tftr. VII. 32, 4. ^ 51^:. VII. 34. 4. i^^TfJTJT^. VII. 36, 4. 
gain?^.. VII. 39, 7. '^ to ^^. VII. 40. I- l^»n^- VII. 41, 5. ^ before ipj. 

VII. 43, 3. m^^ and 'vmr^. VII. 46, i. prm. VII. 48, i. »r»p?ffiEn. VII. 48, 2. 
^ »rt^t?fH4:. VII. 55 init. Tsnm *i \ n-i\ etc. and Tranininffnn:. VII. 57, 4. ff inrr^:. 
VII. 60, 6. ^ifTJ qi^. VII. 60, 12, ^:%i». VII. 61, 3. ^vw^ 'w: f^i^^iTJi,; R 
omits v B tlJ il d at the beginning. VII. 61, 5. g^T«rt and •rrJJ^'l.l »rtf?r. VII. 66, 15. 
^ 7Tff?r. VII. 67, 4. -snfr m. VII. 68, 6. im w^ -am^. VII. 68, 8. vsjt^ 
and «f^ m. VII. 70, 2. ^ before ^ by conjecture. VII. 71,4. ^ by conjecture, 
and ^ for m. VII. 72, I. ifm^^. VII. 72, 3. irtXlTrf^. VII. y^, 4. ?r»R^n. 

VII. 76, 3. ^l^ qfTi vfKsm etc. VII. 82, 5. grrfmifTi. VII. 93, 8. m before ijt^ 
^p^ by conjecture. VII. 95, 6. ^: for ^7J. VII. 96 init. tKy^qfll^l!:. VII. 98, 3. 
^si^[WT T^'Ti?^^"' R. VII. 100, 6. ^a^^M^ifq. VII. 104, 12. f^ ^flre^tn t: ^. 

VIII. I, 24. rifl[^7nJt«Sr. VIIT. I, 27. ^ f^rgTBt. VIII. i, 29. jif^. VIII. 2 init. 
^ after w^TT^r^. VIII. 2, 2. w^^^. VIII. 2, 37. Trg^:. VTII. 3, 1 1. f^^- 
^[j^rni. VIII. 4, 8. t ri4M< <T< 4n«( <^ ' . VIII. 4, 13. <*<*«(«[?» 'frrn^n tt^. VIII. 4, 20. 
sjifpjt. VIII. 5, 6. ^tiTq:. VIII. 5, 7. aR\^t:- VIIT. 5, 35. TTO^mi^^ n\*\UA. 
VIII. 7, 5. ^31^ by conjecture. VIII. 7, 24. 'H\^m (easy). VIII. 7, 28. ?mT»I- 
^n^ p> » >a i d*tm<<<)<l^ ! m . VIII. 8, 5. x|%. VIII. 8, 10. Is fjraWTWT in R a mis- 
print for t^Rijrnirr ? VIII. 8, 12. ^i fiminn^'la T. VIII. 9, 5, TWTf?nT. VIII. 9, 
17. ^T after fm:. VIII. 12, 12. «^rtiJ|u r° for ^WTpi'. VIII. 12, 20. «rT aftet: 

TTTTifttTnt. VIII. 13, 4. ^fiHt iTRf t^ ^j^rftt. VIII. 13, 20. trra^ ^^. Vlll. 

13, 25. ^wrMfa^rMlf^fllfi r:. VIII. 15, 3. ir^^mTrf^. VIII. 17 init. ^JTJT^^. VIII. 

17. 5. <l'*l <n i H !i ; ^ ^ -' i T. VIII. 17, 12, v jlR ^^a i * ! and zm:. VIII. 18, 10. fij^. VIII. 

18, 14. "vmf^:. VIII. 19, 8, ^trnwiT: wK^^t: %»n^ VKUiMfM. VIIT. 19, 14- 
f»i at i«i ^m w^. VIII. 19, 25. »<^«f*)rd . VIII. 20, 2, TH^:. VIII. 20, 9. ■ftt^. 
VIII. 20, II. nr^m^HfTgvrf^. VIII. 20, 14. fN:. VIII. 20, 19. ipirR.. VIII. 

20, 22. vrrf^m^ ^¥% ^51% ^. VIII. 21, 5. jfrfinsm: ^f«W!T^ ^rtu^'ft^Tt. VIII. 

21, 7. ?r ?5rt *rfi?Tmf7t 'sn^mt ^ n^mr t^tt i^tt 11 VIII. 21, 16. v««if<f«: and 
%f^. VIII, 21, 18. ^^7TT»l.and\i^^pfrfn. VIII. 22, i. ^gri^nrf^mrt. VIII. 22, 
2, ^g. VIII, 22, 6. II has adopted the conjectural readings given in Mi, 
except that it adds 5ri»»lm after |%i!r. VIII. 22, 7. ^wn^. VIII, 22, 18. im^ft- 

Ylll. 23, 7. vj^. VIII, 23, 8, •inprfTT. VIII. 23, 15. M i *m \ r^ im- Vlli. 23. 
17. ^ for ^. VIII. 23, 24. oTrtrffxTT. VIII, 24, 24. tB^twrf, wnftfn, ^i«wtmt- 

^m^, and mRm^I ^RTTrfV^liTT!!:. VIII. 24, 27, ^»R»T. JT^^rm; WttTl and H ^' 
VIII. 24, 28. HirMd« 1 ftlf*) and 5T<tf^. VIII. 24, 29. ^'JIT^'^m^. VIII. 24, 30. W- 

Henceforth some striking cases only will be noticed. VIII. 26, 5. ^SrU'Rt etc. 
VIII, 27, 5. ^g^gTfqr H l H-q^^ai^ ; 7(^\,'the reading is very doubtful,* VIII. 31 >S- 


^ »r T^ ' very doubtful.' VIII. 32 init. ni Tj^mmq i ^ Mrtn«<ai*<|ins)l> . VIII. 61, 
16. tWT?t TWWTTH^ etc. VIII. 77, II. iiT%^ ^Twmr y(^ m^. VIII. 91, 7. 
R begins m ^ T«l*9r«Jfffl, the rest agreeing with M. M, VIII. 94, 5. jniT I TTTR- 
^^i^ ' conjectural and very doubtful.' VIII. 100 init. R has adopted all the 
emendations of M. M. IX. 67, 32. <||*l|f^4<, "^^mu si trq ^ 'different emendations 
might easily be proposed.' IX. 73, i. Is ^.^njiai*<(«<«l,q r in R a misprint, meant 
for rr^str*, the conjectural emendation of M i ? IX. 73, 7. R retains jtur^t^ 
of the MSS., but follows M i in reading g^ jrvf: WlfT TRT nfipft w^. IX. 97, 
7. ^awn^m,. IX. 97. ^o. ^^^t ^t«t^:. IX. 108, 4. inrmv^timTT. IX. no, 11. 
znrTTfi:. IX. 112, 3. ^m ^m\\^:. IX. 112, 4. ir*Ert%^. 


List of passages where R has better readings than Mi or M 2. 

VII. 15, 14. <>Hi*|<,ir<:, the correct reading, instead of oinrnrrf^: (MSS. and 
M I ), is also in R. 

VII. 23, 3. ^TiT^: R = M2, for ^s^^l of the MSS. and M i. 

VII. 48, 3. fm^: of R seems better than %^:, as fij^iiplfj^l l follows im- 
mediately, and fji^^may be both first and sixth class. The various readings 
jioint all to fijo. 

Vn. 59, 4- W^' wm f?m ?nr» ITSr^: R. This is better than t[ ^, as all 
our MSS. read. 

VII. 83, I. R gives the right reading ^i^gfji and the reference to TBr. III. 2, 2. 
Vn. 93, 2. R has g^, not vp ^, as our MSS. read. In any case it might 
have been better to omit ^, as there is no justification for it. 

VII. 103, 8. R reads THTJ^II, which seems to be the right reading for irefajur of 

our MSS. 

VIII. I, 30. ^nsi%, the same emendation in M2 and R, inde])endently. 
^m- 2, sy. The reading of R, fj^^urer ^Bft:, is decidedly better than ft^- 

^VT if^ 1^;, or fjj^vtlT?r ^Bft:, as suggested in the Var. Lect. 

*^'^- 3. 13- 'J^ corrected to i|^ both in R and M2, independently. 

VIII. 3, 24. For if^rer ^mrt, as our MSS. read, R has ^?Ri ^m t, which 
would be preferable even as a conjectural emendation. 

VIII. 4, 20. R has % Hft^^^ T f n, as suggested in the Var. Lect. (of M i). 
Is it in a MS.? 

VIII. 6, 40. ^ml^, as suggested in the Var. Lect. (of M i) for •ffm, is the 
reading of R. 


clxxviii PREFACE TO THE 

VIII. 8, 4. ^: for ^f«r:, the same emendation in M 2 and R, independently. 

VIII. 12, 31. R reads Tharf* iK^rfn. 

VIII. 19, 32. R has the same emendation *<nfl^Ql for ^"mSW- 

VIII. 24, 14. ^ for T^, the same emendation in R and M 2, independently. 

VIII. 26, 20. R reads ^<rt<ai<j^l« a *i ;, which seems better than "flvani*. 

VITI. 41,1. M\^^ for ^n^fr^, both in R and M 2, independently. 

VIII. 44, 9. R has »^<H<\'^ for ^^I.^Tt- 

VIII. 67, 12. For the unintelligible ?«^^Mi;|WIHf^g R has :i\q^«nMwi^f^«j, 
l)ut can ^nw be used as a masc. ? 

VIII. 76, 3. Instead of vr?:^r^. R has the correct reading ^^n^ ■«n»«Kn,. Is it 
supported by MSS.? 

VIII. 92, 2. ai H<r t J*i , the reading of R, comes nearer to amnft^^ as our MSS. 
read, than m^", and .seems therefore preferable. 

VIIT. 96, 13 (p. 575. 1. 2). R has ^^ns^ for the unusual ^^m of our MSS. 

IX. 64, 1 1. Note in M I : 'one expects ^fl*I«,' R has it. 

IX. 66, 28. ^i^ ^J^"^ '^rrf^ is at all events a good emendation for Trf?mw 
^x:fTT. It would be still better to conjecture mmt Tff^ Tfmm ^TTfn- 

IX. 77, 5. R has the right reading |^ for ff%t^, which is the reading of 

all our MSS. 

IX. 86 init. Our MSS. read -ftq^O , R has the correct name r*lflHO> as in 

the Anukr. 

IX. 88, 2. '^raJt^f<t*itf^ is perhaps better than 'flfftVTJl,, as it comes nearer to 

the reading of A and C. 

IX. 91, 3. R reads oi»4 H <i ^ : for "J^i^m "ST^: • This seems better. 

IX. 97, 12. fmrfisi H^mRj^fu! v*rftr trn^rrftt ?l^tftr ^rjm q!T%T«Tlr of R is much 
better than the reading in M i. It has therefore been adopted in M 2, except 
qr(%qrr%, which is not supported by MSS. ^ 

IX. 97, 13. •^ 'S^ is good, on account of the following ^: ^^, ^: benig 
the explanation of w. But our MSS. omit the "W. 

IX. 97, 16. R reads m^ m^fw^ ^, ^ wanting in our MSS. 

IX. 97, 40. fi*t^«ifd of R is better than the unusual ?|^qfn. 

IX. 97, 55. R has xrf^^ for the first irf^mftr, as our MSS. have. 

IX. 98, 4. R has with the text *{M^ for «flSr«I. 

IX. 107, 7. ^imH ^ ^<<il*ri, the same emendation in M 2 and R, independently- 

IX. 1 13! 10. f^ fi9, which is in A. Ca, is left out in R ; it is reaUy quite 

superfluous. „ , 

Sayana, as a rule, repeats every word of the text in his commentary. l>u 


it often happens that a word is left out in all our MSS., and was so probably by 
Siyawa himself. Sometimes also a preposition or a particle of little importance is 
omitted altogether. R, in such cases, frequently inserts the missing word from the 
text. Thus, IX. 91, 4 our MSS. omit the f% of the text, and read only gtrfff , while 
K has f^ftv 3r^. IX. 92, 2. R has H^ ^Mft^pJ. and ^ ^tnmwraST, while our 
MSS. omit ^a^^and ?nT- IX. 94, 5. R has mf^ fwrfn, inserting fTTf^I from the 
text. IX, 95, I. R reads ^ wm^T^'.. IX. 96, i. R has jpsn 'TWfW, our MSS. 
only ^WtW- IX. 96, 12. R inserts ij^ before ipr. IX. 96, 14, R inserts ^m^- 
tfur: from the text, before 3B»raf^ ; it is not in our MSS. IX. 96, 20. R inserts 
^T before ^^Tf^; IX. 96, 24. g^m: before gj ^>; IX. 97, 32. i^t before vmvii ; 
IX. 97, 42. 9llflliar«J<fi before sn'^T^f^ ; IX. loi, 8. Ji^nr before »i^ ; IX. 107, 
17. i^ before f^; IX. 107, 24. f^gjT before f^!irrf»J. 


List of mistakes and mistotnts in R, from IX. 91 to the end 


IX. 91, I, 1. 4 of the comm. ;g^ R for ^mi^. 

IX. 92, 2, 1. 4 of the comm. u^wT R foi' •^TTf^f. 1. 5- ''f4^T faf r R for "fS'. 

IX. 92, 6. Pada-text ^^ R = M i for ^n;. 

IX. 93, 3. Pada-text ^fti^fsfr R for :^twt%. 

IX. 94, I. Pada-text nrfU^ R for mftrN. 

IX. 94, 2. Samh.-text wwrTr: R for ftpcrmr:. 

IX. 94, 3. fl1«ifii<*|R R for •sirrf%. A. Ca. M i have wrfil^rrf«r. 

IX. 94, 4, 1. 3 of the comm. ^fUpi ^ R for o»r ^. 

IX- 95> 5- Samh.-text g^iTJT R for g*n^. 

IX. 96, 1 5, 1. 4 of the comm. ^^ R for ^^ . 1.5.^ f^f^W R = A. B 1 . Ca 
for ^i$o. 

IX. 97 init. gqanrr: B for »7(n!:. 

IX. 97, 8. r^ l HM i O R = A. Ca for f^iniT^. •fJiWT'i R = A. C'a for 'JiamTM. 
'"n^: R = A. Ca for in^o. ,„t^ r for ^^pf. 
IX. 97, II beg. nfl^^nn: R for o^;. 

IX. 97. 23. f^T^ 7f R for <j^iuif. ir?Rr«PirrtiT: R for u?n^naT»iiT^:. 
^X- 97. 27. *<<uiM44.f^^ R^ A. Ca for '^tfv\. 
IX. 97, 29, 1. 3 of the comm. ^^t<l.R for g^fr?|(T?^. 
^x. 97, i3. ^ifrff R for ^^. 
^X. 97. 45 end. aj^ifh R for jftmff*. 

z 2 


IX. 97, 46, 1. 2 of the comm. ^tS^t: K for o^:, 
IX. 97, 47, 1. 2 of the comm. gf^j^ R for gf%r^:. 
IX. 97, 49. Pada fi < il4s «!IT R for •^^SWr. 

IX. 97, 5 J, 1. I of the comm. nftr^ R for Trf||%. 1. 2. ^: R = A. Ca for ^i^. 
IX. 97, 54. R has %l^m: for %• m Samh., Pada-text, and in comm. In 1. 3 
of the comm. R has vf^ for jf^. 

IX. 97, 56. f«n^ R = A. Cafor t%^?t. 

IX. 98, 6. Pada ^mK ? R for ^^TTT: • 

IX. 98, 7. Pada f^^rwc R for ^'^jm,. 

IX. 98, 8 end. igTM <l*rt1f 7t R for •^TTftfTT. 

IX. 98, 9. Pada fW; R for m^.. 

IX. 99, 5 end. vri^ R for HT^^. 

IX. 100, 7. iftf'rf^: R for •nfSm:. 

IX. 101 Inlt. WT^T^^^ ^«r^* R for o^iv^'. 

IX. lOi, I, 1. 3 of the comm. f^t^l^ R for ^^^f^rgf. 

IX. lOi, 2. HJlT^firt R for •Jl^frt. 

IX. loi, 3, 1. 2 of the comm. ^g R for ^aflf. 

IX. 1 01, 9, 1. 2 of the comm. ^^W^nRfTHT R for 'fT- 

IX. 104, 2. Samh.-text o^rr^R for «>^T>i»W:- 

IX. 104, 6. Sa/uh.-text w^ R for ^m^- 

IX. 106, 3. ^cra R for ^n^*. 

IX. 107 init. xrf^n: R (p. 30i- 1- 4) misprint for uftrr:. 

IX. 107, 5. Samh.-text '^rifr^R for '^n^^. 

IX. 107, 5. ^(l^TKi: V^ R (p. 303. 1. 7) wrong and against MSS. for ^T«r5^. 

IX. 107, 1 1. *^ ^f^ R {p- 306. 1. 2) for w^^o, 

IX. 107, 15. Pada ^l^R for ^jj^and also in the commentary UT^n, foi- HT^<1- 

IX. 107, 17. |^.^l^s^ 1 <? R for •?rtn^. 

IX. 107, 26, 1. 3 of the comm. usi^Hi: R for vn^:. 

IX. 108, 8 (last line). »i?Ti?T5(n» R for WfH: I mn». 

IX. 108, 9. Pada ipim^ R for wmti,. 

IX. 108, 9, 1. 2 of the comm. ^\f^ R for f^^. 

IX. 109, 7. ^%m R for J»im (wrong and against the MSS.). 

IX. 109, 14. ^R for zH (wrong and against the MSS.). 

IX. 109, 16. TlVl1mR( = A. Ca)forTr^Tt7t. 

IX. no, 5, 1. 1 of the comm. 'iffHgiiprm, R ( = A) for ^: 

IX. 1 10, 7, 1. 4 of the comm, ^\T:g^ R for if^ g% (MSS.). 

IX. 1 1 2, 4 beg. ^ R for w^- 


IX. 113 Anukr. ^[W( R for ^iijni. 

IX. 1 13. 7. 1- 3 of the comm. 'v^nj^^ B for '^ ^. 

IX. 1 13. "• 'Hf 'n^ R for ini ^% ^ (A. Ca). 

IX. 1 14 init- t^tf^ R for <<(tR : f? l. 

IX. 1 14. 2, 1. 2 of the comm, q^ R = A. Ca for '^^J^. ]. 4. R, like A. Ca, 
has imwi: « (« is impossible), 

IX. 1 14, 4, 1. 2 of the comm. fiftEnfTiTT: R for fwfro;. 

Besides the complete edition of the Rig-veda and its commentary, we have 
likewise received from Bombay a Selection of Hymns of the Rig-veda, edited 
with Sayawa's commentaiy, notes, and translation, by P. Peterson, Professor of 
Sanskrit at the Elphinstone College, Bombay, and from the same author a ' Hand- 
book to the Study of the Rig-veda.' What applies to the complete edition of 
Sayana applies totidem verbis to Prof. Peterson's extract also. He has collated 
some MSS., and he may have had access also to the MSS. used for the complete 
edition by R4(74-Rdma,s4stri and 6'iva-R!iraaA-4stri, but none of their MSS. contains 
what may be called independent readings, none of them stands outside the 
circle of the three families of my own MSS. Prof Peterson has not used either 
the Bombay edition or my own new edition of S4ya»ia. The following list of 
passages will show on what grounds Prof Peterson either follows the Editio 
Pniiceps, or differs from it. I have mentioned such passages only as are of any 
ciitical importance. There are many more on which a difference of opinion is 
possible, but of very small interest to scholai-s. 

I. 19, 7- Mi had #i!]if<^ ^J a< ^'l<t l i r<*«lcl-<H<«I«: I irara^n;:. Prof Peterson 
corrects (?) : •^miH^c^ ^^ftflaiTfljir ll^Tiara^^:. The only possible explanation 
of ^^l^ with the accent on the first syllable is #T!rrf^gftifT^ H rtt<< g ?::. which is 
also supported by the best MSS. There is no suflBx ?f^, nor is t?^ formed by it. 

I. 25 init. P. adopts from M i the mistake ^fH5mgwrrfTTrW?f '^ for 'fi^f?! 
'^%. It is right in R, which Prof Peterson has not consulted. 

J- 25, 10. »p!W-^*)«(5Jt!!lf4«r for •3rr?r' was a mere misprint in M i, but we find 
it again in P. 

!• 143 init. P, prints from M i, ?reT ^T^T^fH^ "^^rrf^^RT'Jxnr?!, though offfTT^ 

and gq^^ are impossible forms. R also has '^^fTt^, but writes correctly 

^'""m. The reading of the Grantha MS., o^ifjlfj^ltt, would be possible, but 

"'^Tf^n: of A. Ca is quite unobjectionable. 

^- ^43. I. ^ff»!% was a mistake for ti^jr^. R has here again the right 

^- '43. 7- Both P. and R have adopted the readings of M i, ^B»pBl?ft and 


^CH'I^I^ (R ^^)- The Grantha MS. gives here the correct readings '^iwnirTJft 
and >dqnai*lf<l. 

I. 154 init. The palpable mistake ■"?ITf»wnnf^ for 'v^<» is simply repeated 
in P. and R. Ibidem, ^r«r ^^ ?< fflf ?l '3% has been corrected in R (to ^•), but 
not in P. 

I. 154, I. It would have been easy to verify and correct from Rv. I. 108, 9, 
q^'^ T M^ to ^lf^» (right in R), yet P. prints ^i^» from M i. 

II. 12 init. The quotation from Ait. Ar. V. 3, i is introduced by the words 
^^ \fi( ^% ^fifl. Here both R and Peterson repeat the mispriiit in M i ^ 
?Cf7f '3%. 

II. 12, 3. Is there any authority for 4)v|^^«i, as Prof Peterson writes? 
II. 12, 4. Peterson prints from M 1 f^t^pspn ^, R has f gtq f^a . Prof. Peterson, 
according to his system, ought to have printed f^r^^T'l, ^• 

II. 12, 5. P. has the same misprint «it«|«fttf*l for ql^wrrfw as M i. It is correct 
in R. 

III. 59, 7. igferf^^TfjT ■^Kfim^fn in Peterson is better tlian ^fqq\*<uin oT»Tft of 
M. M. and R. 

III. 59, 9. Peterson and R copy M i in quoting v^ ^ 'iiW l f^'H I. The right 
reading ?i% ^° was intended by the writer of Ca, which has tnsarrf^;^ • 

III. 61 init. Peterson ^^ (sic) ^^^^. M i had 'g^ ^"it^ with A 2. B. Su 
also R. But Ca reads ^^ ^ftp^ with the Anukr. MSS. 

III. 61,3. Peterson and R retain the mistake of M i ^a^ A*n7i for ^r5^ 
^fts^. If there could be any doubt about the reading, it would be disjielled l)y 
the grammatical explanation following immediately afterwards, illfta'Hftl ^:. 

III. 61, 4. R agrees with Ca, from which the ^ after 4J^^|Jt|<jBi has been 
inserted. P. = M i . 

In the same verse both P. and R have taken two false readings from M i, 
It^ for ^^, and fjn ijn^ for tR ■^•. 

III. 61, 5. P. and R read jt^: ^hv. with M i, for »t^ Titm (Ca reads ^l ^:. 
the other MSS. have >5fHr:). 

V. 26, 3. Both P. and R have copied the mistake of M i, q)fdf1i OTW^, ><^ 
can only be '^TTRnr. The gloss «lfT frPSWlT, inserted by P. and R, is also in our 
MS. Ca. 

VII. 28, 3, P. inserts »| after »l»i^. R, still better, reads »fw ^wf»I«f. I' 
.supported by MSS., this would be the best reading. 

VII. 68, 4. P. ' corrects ' ai^^Pfl to irs^. Why ? 

VII. 68, 8. If we retain ^^ of the MSS., j;c^: has no object. The reading 


of C. Ca, »l^tm, supports the conjecture in^ irt, which is adopted by R, and 
certainly yields a better sense. 

VII. 75, 4- It would have been better to write with B4. D and Peterson's 
MS., f^: I f»im<vv|*< !<!(<« 1 vSj: 1 m^,, since the nominative is in all MSS. R = 
A. Ca. B I. 

VII. 83 init. P. shares the mistake of the MSS. and M i, fhTT^ntui for T^^r^t^. 
It was corrected in R. 

VII. 88 init. If P.'s MSS. read "^s^T^^, they are wrong. It must be ^t^, 
according to the Anukramant. 

VII. 89, 5 Viniyoga. VThy does P. insert ?tt between ff%:g and ^n^iirei ? 
There is no occasion for it. 

VII. 89, 5. fij^^?n*r: in M i for fiph^^JT: was a mere misprint. It is corrected 
in R, but copied by P. 

VIII. 30, 3. P. adopts the reading of B in the second half of the commentary. 
Tlie difficulty is that the explanation following after iTR^Tfl. fM-^ I f^ belongs to 
«I*l<?l<t, only, fii^TfC, remaining without explanation. Nor is there any sense in 
the two clauses : ' Lead us not away from the distant road, but even far beyond 
that : lead us away from that road '(??). The emendation now proposed rests 
on the readings of A. Ca. Sayawa explains ifPf^r^l by j(^: ^^ frjm ?m ^IPHTTJi;, 
r.'id frrsTRl by ftm JT^J^ mij ^ TTOVi;; so we get: 'Lead us not away from 
Manu's road, from the road which father Manu has made.' Now in order to explain 
ilie last Pada, S^yajia inserts the clause ^^ to i{j(n i.e. 'Lead us always 
on that road where there are BrahmaA-arya, Agnihotra, and other pious acts.' 
and goes on : ' But lead us far away beyond that distant road that is different 
from Manu's road (i. e. from the road of piety).' The words ^ Tpisrfjrfx^ 
r^H«8«tiflfif% ?rgrr(t,are the explanation of »jx:r^:. 

VI] L 30, 4. P. reads Jjiifrfii Tv^ with our MSS. and M 1, for i^nnfn ff'. 
R has the right reading. 

X. 14 init. P. letains the reading of the MSS. gft ft ^ypft qx:5ft^WT*»T^: 
^ (sic). But what would be the construction ? R adopts the emendation 

X. 14, 2. The MSS. read ^^«^?mphmRm: , gn i4*) 1 < i mMi :,and tc)<ft4*<n? mRmm:, 
which P. corrects to ga n^tjutuBi l J l fl T. But how is this to be translated? R 
reads with M.M. ^Ti|4in%7TT 'nft:, which was of course a conjectural reading only, 
out at least a possible explanation of qsn:. 

^- 14, 6. Our MSS. A. Ca, hke Peterson, read ?r[t ^JTPnnfftfil*. The best 
reading, however, is that found in R, ^^j ^nnq<nir«', which should be adopted. 



X. 90, 6. P. prefers the reading of B i, but jthe reading of A. Ca is better. 

X. 1 19, 1 1. P. writes 'iRi^ for ^im^ {^VfifSi MSS.). "^nrnf is a better explana- 
tion of "V-cDskM the aorist. That Sayaj^a uses the imperfect ^j^trr^ afterwards, 
does not prove anything. 

X. 119, 12. P. and E repeat the mistake of M i , ^H^ for MT»ft. 

X. 121, 4. See Varietas Lectionis and Preface, p. cxxxviiiseq. P.'s transla- 
tion of t;fvnd'*IT: is impos.sible. 

X. 121, 5. P. and R give the reading of B i ^^i j if^l^m Ifl^m TT- There is 
some corruption in these words, as may be seen from the various readings. As 
a rule, Sdyana would make the adjectives agree with ^iRrft^, hence the emenda- 
tion. However, P.'s reading is not impossible. 

X. 168 init. The MSS. (A. B i. Ca) read ^rrg^fTrNi, and the Anukramani lias 
irre^, nor is there any mention of Indra in the hymn, yet Peterson alone reads 
^^*IT*l^*lflT«*, a wrong form, as it could only be either If^^rnraj or ^5(en<j^qtl i 4 . 

A number of pas-sages of the seventh Manc^ala have been discussed by Prof. 
i*eter.son in his Preface to the forthcoming edition of the seventh Mam/ala. 
Some of his remarks are useful, others require considerable qualification, as 
will be seen from the following list. 

Vll. 2 init. Instead of ^ftrerf^ of tlie MSS. (m nfqy tf ^ ^ emendation of 
IM. M., also adopted by P), Peterson proposes qif^sfn^, which is better. 

Vll. 2, 4. Peterson may be right with regard to iTRft VXyt:. 

VII. 2, ir. P.'s explanation of »fti^rPl, ^ff : ^siwrerf is possible; compare Pv. I. 
142, 7- 

VI r. 3, 5. ^nj<!(«n*n^fw p., is possible, but I doubt whether it 'gives a better 
sense.' Wf^'lV«rn9ra% comes near enough to the readings of A and B, and ^nwl 
corresponds better to ^EJt'ft' WI^- 

VII. 5, 2. Sdyajta takes ^^rpiTR: from the text, and explains it by ^iS»TPf:- 
If he wanted to explain it as 'growing in glory,' he would say t nw T'T: ?^3Rn 
^>5»rpT:, not ^m ^VR: ^>Sm^: , as P. reads with the MSS. To supply ^ before 
TT^VR: is certainly not a very bold conjecture. 

VII. 5, 3. ^rf^ is ' dark,' ' black,' not ' white,' and therefore not so inappro- 
jjriate by the side of tij^^. P. prefers to read with the MSS. ' <|ft l H« | U? i;, which 
might, no doubt, be taken as an etymological explanation of ^vflrein':, but what 
would it mean ? 

VII. 5, 6. 1 doubt whether Sslyana or P4wini would ever tolerate so uii- 
grammatical a form as %^. He may have written %^ or i«%^. 

•" . ;• SKCONP EDITION. clxxxv 

' ■<' '' , 

VIL 34, 4- P-'e conjecttir© j|j{<g |f 3)^«< ; Trenrnrn: is better than ^^<air*<y<a n*. 

VII. 41, 5. P.'s explanation of ^ 1^ ^ \|%»| ^ i^tdti; ^tr is possible, 
though x^ m seems better on account of the following ^jppmt »t%»t. R reads 
w5m 1%^ ^ without «i^. Possibly' the best reading would be \^ ^ ^ 1^11^: 
:5jTU, assuming that vi'N w-as inserted by a copyist from the margin. 

VII. 57, 4- fvrar^: gWH:, the reading of B i is intelligible. But what would 
j?»p5T¥t fi|H*ll*l*|Hl*{: mean ? 

VII. 59, 7- I doubt whether PAninI or S4yawa, for any reason whatever, 
would tolerate so ungrammatical a form as fW^jj for tM^, nor would SAyawa 
ever explain fir ^ by fW^ and f*rt^, for Sdyana does not mean to say that 
^ stands for ^^, but if he had added a grammatical explanation he would 
have explained it by a vaAanavyatyaya, or purushavyatyaya. The reading of 
Peterson's MS. D, ^^PRTTTfti^ i. e. 'tW^-'-g, shows how the mistake in the 
MSS. arose. 

VII. 60, 12. S^ana explains ^ etymologically, and therefore he can only 
say f :%»! jprarfn (so also R), as he says X. 56, 7. SAyawa might render -^(rf^ 
by f :WTf'T, but lie would never tolerate an etymology explaining ^: as f :»aTf'T. 
In our verse ^ is rendered by ^jpj^:, and f :^ >m3rrf*f is only an etymology, 
and as such cannot 'spoil the sense altogether.' Compare I. 41, 3, ^:%^ Jj^w- 
^ 4*1 1 Ri, and X. 85, 32, ^ ^:%»i ijg ippr. It is, therefore, needless to consider 
the question whether ^:»inf*r »m^Tf»T could mean ' evils that have to be faced.' 

VII. 69, 6. f%?i?j is as impossible as f«T^^. 

VII. 70, 2. Sayajia explains ^fwT as ^nRr»fhm*rr, evidently on account of 
Dhatupd^Aa 13, 1 7 qpft « OrH^>iPl< i rd^ , or as ^f7I^!tt»ngq(ft on account of Nirukta 
VI. 16 ^if |.MI<4<1I<I. Hence ^tt is necessary. Where we have a combination like 
^T ^ ^ some mishap will often happen in the MSS. Accordingly we find tlie 
various readings m 'g^, g^ ^, and B^^rt ^. R also has the ^. 

* jI- 7?)^ 4- *ri«i'i,*l*1J*(fl ^rffl^p^ ^, as Peterson reads, is better than ^^: 
a-nd ^maNpf (so also R), and ought to be corrected. 

vll. 88, 3. Peterson is right with regard to "Vf^, as he will see from the 
new edition. 

VII. 104, 23. Peterson is right, ^j^ l ^m fiir (so also R) ought to have been 
retained according to P&n.V. 4, 77. 

In a great number of cases not mentioned here where P. differs, it is simply 
a question of opinion, whether It is possible to retain the readings of the MSS. 
or not. In other cases P. will find that his text agrees with the new edition. 

In 'Rig-veda Handbook,' Part I (1890), Prof Peterson gives text and trans- 
VOL. IV. 2 a 


lation of S%ana's introduction. The text of this introduction has been so 
inucii altered and, as I hope, improved in the new edition, that it would be 
useless to enter into details about Prof. Peterson's text which is based on a 
collation of the old, not of the new edition, with one MS. of his own. 

In conclusion I have once more to express my sincere gratitude to H. H. the 
Maharajah of Vijayanagara, Sir Pasupati Ananda Gajapati Raz, K.C.I.E., for his 
enlightened and truly patriotic liberality in bearing the whole expense of this 
new edition, and in enabling me to distribute copies of it to my many friends 
and fellow-labourers. After the latest researches into the history and chronology 
of the books of the Old Testament, we may now safely call the Rig-veda the 
oldest book, not only of Aryan humanity, but of the whole world, and we may 

hope that 

TW7^rreff?f Pk^i: ^rftTra T^^ I 

And if so, he who as a liberal patron, like one of the Vedic Maghavans, has 
inscril)ed his name in golden letters on this ancient monument of human thought 
and faith, may hope that his memory will 1)6 honoured for ages to come, like 
that of the famous patron of S^yana, Bukka, the enlightened ruler of another 
Vijayanagara, nay, like that of SudAs, the patron of VasishiAa, or that of 6'ana- 
nieryaya, the patron of Y%wavalkya. 


Oxford, 20 April, 1892. 



A, Colebrooke's MS., India Office Library, Nos. 

2133-2136. [Prof. Eggeling's Catalogue, 

Nos. 27-30.] 
AD, Dr. Bhao Daji's MS. belonging to the A class. 
Al, Fragments of Saya»a',s Commentary, con- 
taining portions of the 9th and loth Man- 

dnhia, belonging to mc. 
Hi, Dr. Stevenson's MS., India Office Library, 

^fos.3I26-3I29. [Prof. Eggeling's Catalogue, 

Nos. 39-42.] 
1' 2, Burnouf'a copy, taken from Stevenson's MS. 
^ ;, A modern copy, taken in Bombay, from B i. 
H4. Dr. Taylor's MS., India Office Library, 

Ncs. 186 1 - 1 864. [Prof. Eggeling's Catalogue, 

Nos, 43-46.] 
('2, Mill's MS., Bodleian Library, Mill 24-268. 
(U. Wilson's MS., Bodleian Library, Wilson 78- 

<'a, .My own MS. of Sayawa's Commentary, the 

original of the C MSS. 
(Mi. Dr. Bhao Daji's MS., belonging to the B class. 
^1, Another B copy, sent to me by Dr. Ilaug from 


M I, Editio princcps. 

P I, Pada MS., Bodleian Library, Mill 155-158. 

P 2, Dr. Taylor's Pada MS., India Office Library, 

Nos. 2023 A, 2023 B. [Prof. Eggeling's 

Catalogue, No.g. 25, 26.] 
P 3, Colebrooke's Pada MS., India Office Lihraiy. 

Nos. 20-2 7. [Prof. Eggeling's Catalogue, Noh 

P 4, Paila MS., Bodleian Library, ^Vilson 439- 

P8, Pada MS. of the 8th Ash<aka oidy. Bodluiiin 

Library, Wilson 360. 
R, Borfasa Eag'arama >Sastri and Gore Sivarania 

(S'astri's edition of the Jlig-vcda-sawhita with 

Saya«a's Bhashya, Bombay, 1888-1890. 
Si, Samhita MS., Bodleian Library, Mill 147- 

S 2, Samhita MS., Bodleian Library, Mill 151- 

S 3, Colebrooke's Samhita MS., India Office 
Library, Nos. 129-132''. [Prof. Eggolinga 
Catalogue, Nos. 3-6.] 

S 4, My own Sawhita MS. 
BWh., k.aunaka's Brt'haddevata, MS. of my own. Sv., Sama-vcda. 
For other Abbreviations, see vol. i, Varietas Lectionis, ]>, i. 


VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 1. 1. 5. (i.) 


P. I. 1. 5. (i.) X!(n %5»T A. B I. Ca; not in Asv.— 1. 6. ^^<iliq*i*n^d\: Asv. 
^g4H i q*l*n^^1 : A. Ca. C 2. B4. ^<^^ q * <^< ^t : B i. 2. CB.— P. 2. 1. 23. (i, 4.) ^^ »t^ 
MSS. Cf. TS.VI. I, 4, 7.— 1. 32. (i, 5.) ilrt J^Mm fiSfttt Tf^^ A. Ca; lacuna in 
B I. Cf. TS. V. 4, 8, 3.— 1. 33- f^K^i^ C 2. f^iHi A. Ca. B i. 2. 4. CB. R. 

P. 3. 1. 26. (2, I.) After ^g B I. 2. CB add f^ft '^.— P. 5. 1. 3- (2, 5-) After 
^'>« i <'q i:, ^q?r!T *»n<fai^ i A. Ca. ^mTmrf^ f^i%«T B 4. ^RjniTt^rt^ C 2.- *(nfl4H««Pi?H 
B I. 2. CB.— xn^ B I. 2. CB. Tfrt^ii A. Ca. B4. C 2.— 1. 26. (2, 7.) ^^iij% A. Ca. 
B. C 2. 

P. 6. 1. 29. (3, 4.) ^rtn;njct<iiai4a^<*i«» i'> II 'gw^^g^^r^^iTC^ret'' A. Ca. ^w^tf^^- 
Bzre^wo B 1. ^?irwtg^ipre^w*R. Cf Rv. Bh. X. 23, 7. 25, 1.— 1. 31- '^'ft 
A. Ca. ^w^ B I. ^jft?— P. 7- 1- 5- (3, 5-) ^Jt'Tf^^T A. Ca. B i. 2. 4. CB. 
Another explanation of %f^T. must have been omitted by the earliest copyists.— 
1. 22. (3, 7.) Jiff Jii?Tn,A. Ca. C2.B4. JTff JTfTft B I. 2. CB. 

P. 10. 1. 5. (5, I.) JT^ % ^T *rgxg^ A. Ca. C 2. ?T^ ?t ^ JHI^ B 4. f?nft % 
t^T Mi i mm B I. 2. CB. Cf ;S'at. Br. II. i, 4, i. — 1. 15. (5, 2.) ?i^ ^n^ A. Ca. 
*ft^ran^Bi. ^^sj^^gr^Mi. Cf versee.— P. n.l. 14- (5. 5-) ^^^^ A.Ca.r2. 
B4. ^^^ B I. 2. CB.— 1. 25. (5, 6.) <3^: A. Ca. -aww: B i. ^^sf^mn: R.— The 
first enumeration of the seven forbidden things is taken from Manu VIl. 50 
and 51. After enumerating eight sins which spring from k4ma (kainaj/a), and 
eight which spring from krodha (krodhaf/a), Manu selects four of the former 
and three of the latter, as the seven most dangerous. Danrfa stands for 
danc^asya pdtanam or dajiJap^rushyam, whereas parushyam is more specially 
meant for vak-parushyam. Instead of ' ^^^^nuj Manu reads twice "Si^l^N, i- '■• 
^'jl«1l*IM« j ^ui ^«IM I * < <l^ i '^. Sayana, no doubt, intended to write ^J^f«wf, but 
the MSS. agree on iRifqi!! (A. Ca. B i) or ^?rar^TO.— 1. 26. fj^ g^' B i. m 
7^0 A. Ca. B 4. %?i Tl" Nir. SS. %^nnT» Nir. Roth.— J^TjnfWt Nir. after 3^m 
^4^m i 4i A. B I. Ca. Nir. SS. otnw Mi. Nir. Roth.— P. 12. 1. 4. (5, 7) tJT'Rrfl^ A- 
Ca. C 2. B 4. 'WTiJ ^rfi! B I. 2. CB. 

P. 1 2. 1. 29. (6, 2.) ff w qi*K'*«ll«l. B I. 2. CB. ^ng^T^TT^ A. Ca. C 2. B 4. «TiRTn 
R.— P. 13. 1. 2. H^TO*!i B I. CB. m^m^m A. Ca. B4. ^c^ro^ C 2. ^ ^1 
B 2.— 1. 17. (6, 4.) ivt ^Tft B I. 2. CB. fv: ttf^^ A. Ca. C 2. B4.— ff^f^^: 
B I. 2. CB. ff^fg%: A. Ca. C 2. B 4. 

P. 14. 1. 28. (7, 2.) •«ftg^^i?«TWT: B I. 2. CB. •^fWg^fr^?i; 1 ^Pmr: A. Ca. B4- 
"^ft^^^ I vj<M«i: C 2. 

P. 1 6. 1. 28. (8, 2.) ^a^jpRlfn A. Ca. C 2. CB. '^^hw B 4. sec. m. ; the com- 
mentary on this verse is left out in Bi.— P. 17. I.4. (8, 3-) 'W^tr?^ < ''"^ 
t'lftpiftj I f^T^^fran^m « TtTFii ^ "WK^ inf^^Ra« i r4 «i fli» i ^ xfti 1 A. Ca. ^wt^t 


p.3i.l-J3-(i3.5.)] MAiVDALA X. 3 

% I ^ ^mM i^fvff^mfv!^[fm^ifif C 2. '^rih. ^ ^vr^ ^t^^ ^jTi^^frairltm 

B4 ; lacuna in B i. 2. '^rff?! ^^ '^in?*! t^^Rf^ fSTR^PraTfUfil CB.— P. 18. 1. 2. 
(8, 6.) ^wH'rfn A. B I. Ca. ^<^<<ird R, with TS. 11. 4, 10, 2.— 1. 8. (8, 7.) ^im^ « 
^^n^A. Ca. t?:T»i^Bi. tsrT»W^Mi.R. 

P. 19. 11. 2 seq. (9.) The words from tifRT Tfn to TrfTreT, and again from 
vm^ to JlfJlltH were left out in all the MSS. and had to he supplied. 

P. 21. 1. 8. (10, 2.) The end of the commentary is wanting in all the MSS., 
also in K— P. 22. 1. 21. (10, 7.) ftngwT B i. 2. CB. f^^in C 2. fwOT A. Ca. 
B 4.— P. 23. 1. 7. (10, 9.) After xmr^ CB alone of all MSS. inserts 'iflm.— ^WSTTRT- 
«rT<lt CB. ^mUi «Tflt A. Ca. B4. R ; deest in C 2. In B i. 2 the commentary 
of verse 8 to 10 is left out. — 1. 14. (10, 10.) »i^T'^« 'rapi.A. Ca. M i. 

P. 24. 1. 25. (11.) gf^f^j^ Anukr. g f^» A. Ca. M i. R. f^(^» B i .— 1. 30. 
(ii,i.)fwm''Bi. f^t^'A. Ca. |^:(sic)R. ^1% |wt?— P. 25. 1. 26. (i r, 4.) 
u^i^uniW n a^wt 11 »i^T»r»nftw Wfitft (aRcfr C 2) A. Ca. C 2. H5i fi) j| 4 { «n*iTt i ^ ri eft 
B4. ^f«»l*J^!<ai 3fifTt CB. The commentary of this verse left out in B i. 2. — 

1. 27. TiTrrafT A. Ca. Hiijiiid C 2. inrran B4. inft^ CB.— P. 26. 1. 16. (i i, 6.) 
iJtjRl^fil I B I. 2. This is meant by S4yana for the desiderative of g ; but A and 
Ca. C2 have Tl^|%^; B4 corrects this into 7rf%isj% ; ^(^^mOi CB.~P. 27. 1. 15. 
(11,9.) •5i^T^<) II •gnrr'TO" A. Ca. C 2. CB. <>5r^jim<» B i. 4. M i. R. 

P. 28. 1. 8. (12, 3.) vrn^ifn A. B i. Ca. mr^ R.— 1. 22. (12, 5.) ^<)i> » i« tt n 

5qi»^*t*t S I. S 4. ^ ^aft S 2. ^ qi y gti fi S 3.— P. 29. 1. 2. (12, 6.) The com- 
ineiitary to this verse is wanting in all the MSS. B 4 adds on the margin 
T^ 'jfil^ ^; . R supplies the following commentary : ^ ij^I sl^cHjl *|<^t!iv i- 

^<H'\^ ^^ "Htm VKm^t^TTTwm g ^ fg^^n ^rarjftwfJreiTf^ iiftry 1 (Rv. I. 191, 
'o) wm^ ?N^ Tw Twrag^ "v^ ^pgt ^f^i^it f^fgi^TT mTP^ >orrtW h^ i 
"^m «fT«rr^tr^ ^ ^irft f^ xfn m^ mz^ 1 (Rv. VII. 49, 2.) ^tfii ?t?i; ^jg 

'^' W^ *i<i<.i«mt;tv »ng7rra^^ »n^^ ^^rafar^ ^nrr vrg?rm%^rn}«Trfi -jiwt ir^f^: t 

^^*«9iivr ^ajl^tlj H{^ti^ ^ft: n It would be interesting to know whether 
■Ins is taken from any MS., and from which. — 1. 8. (12, 7.) <jim<ifd ^ I A. Ca. 

P. 29. 1. 26. (13.) fTt^^ B I. Anukr. M. ft^>N A. Ca. M i. R.— P. 30. 1. 4. 

('3. 1.) Tirtnmnflml f M q#^rrai^ fo a. Ca. C 2. B 4. M i. R. ij^trraTr> B 1. 2. CB. 

'"^ee liv. Bh. X. 36, 8.— 1. 18. (13, 2.) IT HTn: Wtm « HTHX^ntfil A. Ca. B4. xmx^ 

'"'^GB. inn^imtfnC2. iwr^Ji^tTT Bi. 2.— 1. 24. (13, 3.) ?T|T!nBi. 2. CB. 
'ffWr A. Ca. C 2. ^ ti-nA i m B 4 sec. m. — VTMT» B i. 2. CB. v»rp A. Ca. yvT» C 2. 
t^" B4 sec. m.— 1. 25. •^»»iTtfTf»T I Wfit^'- « '<<l ^i r* < 1^ g^: A. Ca. C 2. B4. 
^''^ttfTfii rp^ g^: Bi. 2. CB, < i qOfin< W^ g^: R- I* «iay have been 
> V^ ^n^:.— iR^ B I. 2. CB. unSr A, Ca. B4. R. «T% C 2.— P. 31, I 13. 

4 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 31. 1. 15. (13,5.) 

(13. 5) '9t*W ^[VJtd' II ^at^RS t*ig^: A. Ca. C 2. B4. CB ; deest in B i. 2, which 
omit the whole commentary from 13, 4, to 14, 10. — 1. 15. From ^qtuMHI to ^ 
g^n: left out in all MSS, except CB. 

P. 31. 1. 20. (14.) JBTTTH^ ^ -^vnt TiTwlNrm'N^m: f^^ 11 g^ ^ ttt^ nvH^- 

VjA^ fii ^ W t A. Ca. C 2. B 4. CB. See above, p. clxxxiii.— 1. 32. (14, i.) ^ijMfiiSdti I 
C 2. TnnT^nn«t A. Ca. B 4. CB.— P. 32. 1. 3. (14, 2.) 'firfirH f^^ 1 C 2. -firfint »n 
f^%^ A. Ca. B4. CB.— 1. 5. ?jt ;^: ^jjm: ^'sn: J^^n^in^m ^mU^ TaeefTj b ?r^: 
^^ttt: pwr: 'g^n 4*<jJ i H«^ i J i a i: ("iTamr: B 4 sec. m.) -^ araftn 1 A. Ca. CB. B 4. 5(ra^: 
^ttt: y^n: <a<Hi? »< l^i<*)UM i: ^ ^I^^ C 2. — 1. 14. (14, 3.) The commentary to ^f^- 
f7P^t»T#i^«IT^: is left out in all the MSS. R adds nm ff^lft: ^BSpfn: ft g ft^ ' ^ : 
^f ^TiS'l'rtt 9T^f7r. — P. 33. 1. 6. (14, 6.) Read ^r^ »[o with R. A. Ca have if^ ^. 
See p. clxxxiii. — 1. 9. (14, 7.) ^m*i^ ^^tf^Rrei *n:% H n^ T^ ^H^iiT*r«r «i^i;»ft 1 A. 
Ca. C 2. Tm »T^ ftf^riTO^ 1rT«r B 4- ^PffTSr i^tf*J7W«t »r^T% CB.— 1. 23. (14, 8.) 
f*)<l*<l* < l«^ A. Ca. B 4. (i|<< | *n« ll <#i C 2 ; deest in CB. The dental n shows that 
the mistalce lies in f?r, but I cannot amend it properly. It may be ^^nrPrref, 
or it may refer to the same idea which is expressed in the varia lectio of 
the TA. VI. 4, 2 (7), where we read ^m ^ |t!j% thJ 1^. — 1. 26. (14, 9.) araf^^if 
A. Ca. B4. CB ; deest in C 2. See M. M., Die Todtenbestattung bei den Brah- 
manen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. IX. p. iv. 
note 5.— P. 35. I. 27. (14, 16.) j< {^ «f< w| < l'8 i* < < l H fin; ^Vi ^iTg A. Ca. B 4. CB. 
^<54<l*< l ^ B I. 2. 5f<^ ^ifinr^ C 2. The commentary to TA. VI, 5, 1 1, affords no 
help.— 1. 28. ■w'rf^imf^ \ A. Ca. C 2. B i. 4. CB. 

P. 37. 1. 7. (15, 4.) From g^<ti r *>I T begins a long lacuna in Bi, extending 
to the last verse of the hymn, where it continues again with s^mt- The same 
lacuna exists in B 2. 3. — P. 39. 11. i seq. (15, 10.) A. Ca. C2. B4 and R have ^ftflf: 
and gwr: ; CB. <{^^in ^'^d ^nrr:- From tJ^: the adjectives are to be referred 
to fqgf«:.^l. 12. (15, II.) ^ H -^ A. Ca. •g^\»ft C 2. ^ B 4. 'JJ^Tf'T CB. 

^*nf»i R. 

P, 40. 1. 20. (16, I.) H^f\^ A. Ca. C2. B4. ?rf^ Bi. CB, i.e. like ink. 
In the commentary to TA. VI. i, 4 (20) we read ^«j vr^t^- — 1. 30. (16, 2.) H^ 
A. B I. Ca. JT^rf?! »T^tn R. — P. 41. H. 5 seq. (16, 3.) The last portion of verse 3 is 
imperfectly explained. R inserts ^rfi[ before d^iaR.^ and adds tifdPitifn after 
irfTTfire. S4yana in explaining the same verse in TA. VI. i, 4 (22) says: ^ 

f^mf*! aiOofiq ^i^ww ^: 'srO^: iifriftTft wtt »— 1. 12. (16, 4.) ^hrrH^" A. Ca. Cz. 

B4. CB. B I. 2. — 1. 21. (16, 5.) ^B [ amfg;f» T: B4 sec. m. ^^«JT^: A. Ca. C2. B4- 
^?^: B I. CB. Siyana, TA. VI. 4, 2 (6), has 'd^^li l f^p T:, and another MS. ^r^- 
^rftr^:.— 1. 23. S4yana, TA. I.e., explains !J^: by hW.— 1. 31. (16, 6.) S^yana, 
TA. VI. 4, 2 (8), in explaining the same verse takes f* an ablative of ft^:' 
i. e. fvmJl. t l ^<H I ^Mi^« ll <l. .— P. 42. 1. 10. (16, 7.) n < « IK « n» B4. CB. ft^RTT^ ^- 

p.44-l-;7-(i7.)] MAiVDALA X. 6 

Ca. C2. ft«K<ifJ« Bi. S&yana, Tl. VI. i, 4 (19), q^{i9^ xrf^ ^ ^^^TOg 
ni1M*ll<,«i *" ^ftg I.— 1. 12. (16, 8.) The quotation from Asv. is omitted in the 
MSS— P. 43- 11- 7 to 13. (16, 1 1.) ^w^Tfif: ^sd^ A. B i. Ca. ff^sT^Vt: w C 2. li 
The Samhita and Pada MSS. ««»•,— 1. 15, Sayana leads ^t^ instead of ^t^.— 
1. 17. {16, 12.) From "vn^rM m: B 1. 2 leave out everything to 17, 6.— I. 25. nif 
CB. irereA. Ca.B4. irafC2. 

P. 44. 1. 17. (17.) wareilBT CB; A.Ca. C2 and B4 have ^irara^^ ; Bi is 
missing. The following extract is from the Nltima«(/ari (p. 68 a) : g ^fi<T^ m 

<^iTi<i(iTi<*i*^uaT >fn5T^ HTOTT iTg* I 7i?[^^i^ II ^ Mi ^ i ^ i a^fli mSvc - ^i^: 11 7»^- 
fre: I ^TTR^^ l^r^ ^<^f^^TT%f?r ^ g ^ na < «B4 H Mai^«< t ^ 1 nfT^srer fi<.< ! ji» ii n<^ f 

sif^mTUT: fw^: «»flf^ «H<4«<{i<i f%\n^ ^^nrr^ ^ ?rarT ^^^Jtt-^i. i 'jtf^'tiPf ^mm 1 'vsi 
f^TOT^jit f^ *K«igfi(rfl Tmx di*i<*n<i I Treit »rg^ ^Ka i rtii.a ii qfl 1 imt m^n^ 
«T^ H^5ftf?i f^TiT^ ^Rmiirat ^jm fl i *)^i^rmq1 i ' n \ n \ 'S\n^ 1 7m: *i< i tl<*< i n<n<;i<ft t^: 
gfW I'm I iro m ?i^'«T?n TTf^rfTTn^TT ^«!inrTft 1 Jifra^: *i«ii«i i 4r^t ii <»^ i «i di R<ra 1 

The following extract from the Bnhaddevata was given me by Dr. Thibaut, 
wiio is preparing a critical edition of the whole work. He has divided the MSS. 
into two families : the one comprising B. b'. b^ all MSS. in my possession, and 
h' a MS. lent me by Dr. Biihler ; the other comprising h, a MS. lent by Dr. Hall 
to M. Kegnier, H a MS. given by Dr. Hall to the Bodleian Library, and K the 
MS. at Berlin, copied by Prof Kuhn. 

1. '^w^f^np W5: ^-^ugRflfsKi: Wi I 

2. ^ % ^RTO irra^p^^^j^ f^n^ I 

3- jht: flXTt^T ^nn^ ^m^j^ft fn^^m: 1 

4- ^ wr^ vm^ «rrqwT»^ g ^ ^m: 1 

5- ^F H^: ti<H g ?itth: ^i^iff f^ 1 
6. Pif^ui fir^ d<^m^T gwm^Jii^ 1 
7- ^f^'iii*iiffli«i*fii<5i ?rerwatTq««rg 1 

^^'•H.h%|:. K. ho-q^o. 3. K. H.h'T^. H. hin'J'. 3 H.lilfR?IBfN?». 

'•^T. •^. H»^» wanting. 4. K. H. h% T^ft. 5. K. H. h i^CT. K^'^:. 

« H. h n^^io. K T^wm". 

«-B.b.bU».wtinr.. r.b.b^.b'.^w. 

6 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P.45. 1. l (i7.a.) 

10. cTT^" wPflai'imi^ "rr^ »jjm ^^ranrt i 

11. ^RTH^ fSfwn f^ntn^ w^i^ftw I 

I 2. f*<g*H<nM'«t» TO m ^ ff^T^ftf w. I 

14- '^MiR i H^ 'wr ipraT Tj'sf* n^^rrrarer i 

15- ^i« i ^*<m^<M^ gwrr^ ^i^^^^* ' 
i6. « i mdti^< i ^^rg ^ ^m^f^^ifqf Tt i 

P. 45. 1. I. (i 7, 2.) T i ^^^v} CB ; B 4 had the same, but struck it out. A. C 2 
have B^fMW ' ^ t , Ca Tt ^fM'rtls} ; . The meaning is ' for the sake of men,' i. e. that men 
might be born, all men being the descendants of Manu, the son of SavamS,, i. e. 
SaranyA-sadrist stri.— 1. 2. ^i^^'^Tm A. Ca. C 2. CB. B 4.— 1. 23. {17, 4-) ^rfrmg « 
vr<mRl A. Ca.. B 4. nftTTRt C 2. CB has w ufr^nflT, leaving out TrfXTmrf?r. In 
T1.VI. I, 2 (7) S4yana says, ^ ^ i tflm^fd q R MH fiJjm^ fn ^ITT^JTR^ ?^ 
infHTT nsi: I.— 1. 25. vfim A. Ca. CB. C 2 ; deest in B i. Kflm B 4. It may be 
meant for ^ or ttoW, but as all the MSS. agree on the short i, iffifTC may 
possibly have been used in the sense of irflrg':, or ■RWSjTffjm: • See again in verse 5. — 
11. 31 and 33. (17, 5.) '^ir^: P. I. 2. 3. -^f^: S. I. 2. 3. 4. TA. I. 6, i (5) reads 
^ftr:, and SAyana explains it by ^(^:. — P. 46. 1. 2. Trf*i^ A. Ca. C 2. B 4. «fiiin 
CB ; deest in B i.— P. 47. 1. 20. (i 7, 10.) ^ ^ etc. Cf Sat. Br. III. i, 2, 1 1. 

P. 49. 11. 5 and 9. (18.) The name of the Rishi, according to the author of the 
Sarvanukramanl, is 'Bfg^:, not ?Nl^:. MS. S 3 has H^', India Office MS. 
Colebrooke 1636 ^igs^J^Bt, Sharfgurusishya (India Office MS. Taylor 1823) 
m^m^ and ^finitt, (MS. Bodl.) ^qig^at. AH SAyana's MSS. (A. Ca. C 2. 
B I. 4. CB) read ti^* repeatedly, the only various reading being H^^Uti once 
in C2. In his commentary to the VS. XXXV. 7; 15, Mahldhara gives the 
name of the Rishi as Sankasuka, a word explained in Un. II. 29. Prof. 
Aufrecht supposes that the author of the Anukr. took the name of the Rislii 
from the Atharva-veda XII. 2, 1 1 ; 14, where Agni is called both sankasuka 
and vikasuka, and he proposes therefore in the Anukr. also to correct Sanka- 
suka into Sankasuka. I retain the reading of the MSS., for it is more easy 
to explain how the name Sankusuka was changed into the regular sanka- 

8. K «>^nf»r?r- p- h f^irrrra 5"r». i> fwnrr w. h. h 'Mi^^un- 10. h. h 'W^ 
^T^. Kiif?ra»mrpg. "■ H. h fii»ir*<>. k fl^^n^rR" nrn^^f. 13- k ^• 

14. H.unfn. K •w^«Tssrar?nr5*- 15. h. h ^Rrnn-- k «^?rt^ gun^t. i6.h»ir 

wanting. K g[^. h ?p!I' ^^"'• 

8. B. b. bl b» <|q i r4<*iq<Wt ^ft f^*. 10. b. b*. b» ^^. II. B. b. b*. b' ^R?f^. "^ 

ft^WT. 12. B. b. b^ b» ij^'ir. 13- B. b. b*. b-^ ^. 14. B. b. b«. b» •^• 

15. B. b. h\ b' 'wrg. 16. b. b*. b* '^riN. 

p. 6a. 1.13. (22. 80] MAi^Z>ALA X. 7 

suka than vice versd.—'P. 50. 1. 19. (18, 5.) ^f^ i ^ MSS. M i. K. One ^ out 
of three immediately following might easily have been omitted.— P. 51. 1. 16. 
(18, 8.) ^^m^' suggested by Prof. Aufrecht, adopted also by Windisch, Zwolf 
Hymnen, p. 85. 'irgflTW B i. M I.E. ^rg^rrnr"' A. Ca. C 2. CB. <K^^T:iir« B4.— 
P. 52. 1. 12. (18, II.) gjT^anft^STO^^A. Ca. B1.4. gM^mt^ra^if C 2. gji^jpft- 
jTO^ CB.— 1. 13. ^M^ir<*l CB. ^nmrfw A. Ca. C 2 ; deest in B i. B4 had 
the same reading as A, but altered it to nyrrrf^.— 1. 14. Instead of infini and 
Iftufiram (A. Ca. C2. B4) B I has ^TWi*ni and ^fTHiftq^WT, which seems more 
appropriate, because Tf^tm is generally used in the sense of deceiving, over- 
reaching, instead of simply reaching. But it is difficult to see why ^0 should 
have been changed into tt». In TA. VI. 7, i (3) Sa,ya7ia explains ^rm^n by 
g|tpm #^rR^ 'TOt: ^. CB has ^31^^ tj^ ^fr^in^wTrr.— l 24. (18, 12.) ^ 
Tfwm: II B^ ^m A. Ca. B 4. ^ ^sm CB. ^^ ^^ C 2.— P. 53. 1. 2. (18, 13.) ^ 1 
A. Ca. C 2. B4 pr. m.; ^^^ CB. In TA. VI. 7, i (x) the published text gives 
^, and S^yana explains ^ ^t^ ^^^ j^ji ^ ^t^> ^fts:.— 1. 9. (18, 14.) All 
the MSS. leave out the commentary. They write ^sm ^g^ n ha^^^s i ^ | A. 
Ca. C 2. CB. B 4 adds in the margin, -^ni 'rf?nft Tf^: a B supplies the foUowing 
commentary : '^jij^ vm^: m^ % TfWVt^ H^\^ m^^ ^?r^ fl ^m Ji f^ lTl ^^TTOTnii% 
^ ^ifg^lN '?IT^: fM?fT^nT: ^ ^: 1 fgiftf^ ?t^: ^ij^ tj4^ xr^finr tj^ im 

"#t 'gfr^ai^: ma 11 

P. 53. 1. 25. (19, 1.) %^7nT I ^ramfTT I jft^t?^' I ^inra ^^nn??? 1 ^frftf^" A. 

^^^ ^i^»nfn I 5fr^?»T» Ca. %^^m 1 v^JirfTr 1 jft^t^f" C 2. %n?m ^n^mm 

^ft^' B 4. ^ra^iTj ^r^^ j( 4j i nmm i f^ o b i. %g^ s)-!)j|ii | * » *fli* i mH i f< » CB.— 

' • 54- 1- 8. (19, 3.) S3,yana seems to have read ijirr: for ipn:. — 1. 9. tlUH l f^*)^* ! ! II 

^(t^t^iitS^ a. Ca. -^ mi r^^^ n -ij c 2. tinai r^^ i^ n ti b 4. tn!« i if4Hd\*n b i. cb.— 

1. 18. (19, 4.) The commentary to wtm ^fM^l^ ig ^Bltf^ is left out in all the MSS. 
R, however, inserts before fir^ the following explanation: wtn^ sfrfH: ^^IWW 
"f^ n^ irr^ riKjm m<mi*)h" irfi nfn jptt ^unet jnm ?i^ ?i^ w^ ^?nW ^- 
<nf?7!l^Wiff>T: ^ innN ?l^ n^ m^.— 11. 30 and 32. (19, 6.) A. Bi. Ca. Rhave 
1^^: and ^?i^: instead of aRjf* and ^o.- 1. 31. ^ B i. ^ A. Ca. M i. 
P- 55- 1- 26. (20, I.) The words are not separated in the Pada MSS. — P. 57. 

1-31. (20, 10.) f^^^fti B f4if^^ fi^f^ A. f^sf^ ?nrf^ Ca. mf^^^ra^iftr C 2. 
Wj^^ei^B4. fif^t^TOf% B I. ftif^^rmftr CB. 

?-^ '• 33. (22, 3.) ^ i fj4 i 4mi I ^ «5ffT^: n -^ *i^\<{n\ ^hw w- i A Ca. CB. 
'^^'^r^ ^nwTH: C2. B4. ^ anh^ w ottST: Bi.— P. 62. 1. 13. (22, 8.) At 

end of this verse there is great confusion in all the MSS. A has ^Jf^TO- 
^^^* < lW\fl^fw ^ ^rfinifn, iriWf fihETTOf ^mit «%»?, running on from verse 8 to 
verse 9. The same has happened in Ca and B 4. C 2 fortunately supplies part 

8 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [R 63. 1. 13. (aa, la.) 

of the lacuna. It reads : ^♦t^-"^^^^^*' ' ^ ' ' ^P^^JJ^If^ ^ 'iJt'l^Fl r[fm fjftc ^ 
♦<^m<jl "aM ^ Ria gl^ ^v: flfX ^rn. U^ ^rf%l « B i, on the contrary, breaks off after 
^qH T MttTW '> and continues fm ?in.«i'TiT % ^ fifefv |. CB gives the text as I had 
restored it, only reading f^ for fijfv. B, has iff^ iftfti, inserts ?rer before ^v:, 
and reads f»Tf»^ for fi^.— P. 63. 1. 13- (22, 12.) Sdyana seems to have read giw^. 
This is the reading of A. Ca. B 4. C 2. In CB ^ is inserted before ^SVq^. B i 
has '^ngiw^.— 1. 20. (22, 13.) mfH r*i^»i**nr^»lMUi«flKii 58rfM f^r^^i^rrMpTO^STni: A. Ca. 
safn r*i ? a t* <if^a mu i w i<ii. C 2. ^TfTi f» i <aifq^M>m«( i ;i. B i. CB, ?rf*r f*j<!H*air«(alM*i!<flr?i; 

R. I suppose it means, the final a of t4 and saty^ must be taken for the nom. 
plur. fern., because otherwise (sati, as it is) there would be no predicate to the 
proposition, i.e. tk and satyS, would refer to nothing. — P. 64. 1. 2. (22, 14.) 
xif^^(tsi II ^Bsi B I. M I. II. In A. Ca all from f^psr^ to f«raTO% is missing. 

P. 66. 1. 13 to 16. (23, 7.) From ^wrfn to ^rwrf^ all is left out in A. Ca. B 4. In 
C 2 there is a longer lacuna from ^ 'RfW J^W etc. to the second verse of the next 
hymn. The text is preserved in B i and CB. — 1. 1 3. R reads ^rtlffltsg^M *ia<*l<4|&»l 
^ ^rf^ra^rftr- — arf^ CB. %f^ B i . R. — 1. 1 4. After imfit CB and R insert jreret »lf?f. 

P. 70. 1. I. (25, 6.) A. Ca read •^rngn ^TT ^ams^^^ifCiRrf^ etc. In B i verses 2 
to 7 are missing.— 1. 25. (25, 9.) ?Tf^ ^f^HTfiftari: II rrf^JP^rfn ♦<f<ft«'J: A. B4. CB. 
Tit^^t^ ^Tfiftwm: Ca. C 2. <if*««w<^ifiu ?Tfiiflw^: B i. 

P. 72. 1. 29. (26, 7.) S^yana seems to have read Hf^ffJl, for f^lt^i;. R, however, 
reads irf^^vtT^. 

P. 73. 1. 20. (27, I.) ^Hrarr^ etc SeeKaush. Up. II. ii; Asv. Grthy, I. 15, 11; 
Nir. III. 4.— 1. 31. {27, 2.) «i4^<i<^ i t*)q H ^TOi^nfiTBl -^n^ A. Ca. zw^i^^ Mi. 
ira^T^fim. ^H^n R ; from verse i to 3 lacuna in B i.— P. 74. 1. 18. (27, 4.) 'Slfh:- 
^r^T^^rarf^: A. Ca. C 2. B4 seem. 5jO<'«M«»l«lf^f*T: B i. TifK^l^n^wrt^: 
CB. — 1. 22, IT f^rart C 2. B 4 sec. m. n^fwf A. Ca. B 4. CB. irr^fWR B i. R 
reads Tl^tWt Hrf< 1 < ll *<f<« Trf^rrr^.— 1. 27. (27, 5.) ^ ^ TSK^ II % ^ \^^ A. Ca. K 
%^T^C2. ■^^f^l^Bi. ^^!t?iSr^TptB4 sec. m. ^ f^J^ CB.— 1. 30- 
?irT«R:» A. Ca. C 2. B I. 4. CB. WT^:? or ^rfn?:: ?— •ftTftt^raTf?[^ C 2. -M- 
R i <nf*i^ft A. B I. Ca.— P. 75. 1. 18. (27, 7.) im JjrresraT^' from R, ^n^^resra *' 
M I. Ti^ «5rTnrt« A. Ca. '^jjrsjTt ^ijni ^« B i.— 1. 25. 'H^irra T^wft 11 'h^:, then 

lacuna to irgpn: in the next verse, A. Ca. C 2. B 4. In B i the lacuna begins after 
i^nwra:, after which it has R ^^ ^#^r5 ^ Jgim: etc. 'H^TnT^ nwft (sraft R) "V 
^4^ Twl^ ^KR^^I (irai^nn^eT R) "^^nw^: 1 CB. R.— P. 76. 1. 2, (27, 8) 
^^ II ^if^ A, Ca, If B I, ^ R. •jfTT M i.— 1. 6. (27, 9.) The commentary is 
left out in all the MSS. In B 4 there is a note xjtTnfti^ wn^:. R supplies the 
following commentary : ^nnjT ^t*rft^ireT^«W ^T^T WT^Tm H^ISl^lPfl I ^TRT ^^W^ 

3i% ti ^i^ i't ivt 'ra: ^: ■wniitQi ^M ^ n^frf* ^mftw n^r'rt^ gw; ^Riti^ «^' 

p. 90.1- 30- (3°.".)] MAiVZ>ALA X. 9 

f^: ijwmTt ^iram: ^Hurrt i[^t?i: r«ff^ ^i<»i*imiw g i ^r^ iift ^ ^i^ ^ratf^ 
^r^^grn; fi^m"^ •"htot ^«issm ^rfmi%^ ftq^rni. Iwmn ^ g»ra?t; girfm ^j^f^ ifnn- 

»pTf?r?r$f »)fl^*il«5^«IH*nf?l m^: N q l See also Preface to the Sixth Volume of the 
First Edition, above, p. cxxxvi.— 1: 22. (27, 1 1.) Mz ^ B i. %fe ^ A. Ca. C 2. 
B4. ^n^rfj ^ CB.— 1. 28. ^TKf^ B I. CB. TTTTf^nj A. Ca. C 2. B4. R.— P. 77. 
11. II to 13. (27, 13.) From ffeWsT^ to gra^Jt r n i ltJ^^ all is left out in A. Ca. 
(^2. B I. CB and B 4 (in marg.) give f^Rf^ instead of pifTfi(. To inif^, R adds 
the following note : ithH JTf?rf9rjf?iTT^^?R#EfJrTm?r 7T^ Oni<lJH<.<if ?n^ dln r i^TT^ 
JTn:i.— 1. 22. (27, 14.) q^Tir^if^^!^: from R. qTHnR[»nTf*fr A. Ca. H ^ iaj^nof^- 
f^ C2. Tnj«i,(i|flni<fr B4 sec. m. B i. CB. trarwrfaf^ M i. Cf Nir. XII. 
29, and var. lect. in Nir. SS. vol. iv. p. 294.— P. 78. 1. 4. (27, 15.) fttfn « Ttt A. 
Ca. B I. JTtfTT M I.— 1. 6. fntfw II Tfttn A. Ca. B i. M i. R.— L 17. (27, 16.) OwTO 
CB. jrfTrf^Rra A, Ca. Bi. 4. R; deest in C2. It would he better to read 
<r^ f^nmi.— 1. 24. (27, 17.) ^^n^ from ^ gambler? A. Ca have ^»n, B4 
^i|t, Bi ^At>n, CB ^^jn; deest in C2.— I 26. fl[T 11 tret A. Bi. Ca. M i.— 
P. 79. 1. 13. {27, 19.) gifT gmm II 'g^ ^jnf*i A. Ca. CB. B i. 4. R. ginf^ c 2.— 

I. 2r. (27, 20.) gj ^^ MSS.; gj ^ijtf^?— 1. 22. •TTT^n^'n?^ II '\SV\ m »nra A. 
Ta. B1.4. •UTT 5RT JRI^l C 2. •^lT^?n»raCB. 'iiTfi: maUHT R. 

P. 82. 1. 5. (28, 4.) 'vmO^i. II ^fcifrra; A. Ca. Bi. R— 1. 6. ^jrfTnii^iiTfi: 11 -^itH- 

T?'Jt'nfi:B4. Mi.R. 'SR^TiitlirRi; A. Ca. C 2. Mfs^^TnJlBi.CB.—l. 31.(28, 7.) 
^J??fW A. Ca. C2. CB. B4. ^ «?nJ Bi.— p. 83. 1. 17. (28, 9.) ^^RT^^o II ^- 
^f^g«A. Ca. ^gr^^rWf»C2. ^^rai^j^T:^' Bi. B4sec. m. ^^rsr^T?" CB. 
T^^^ ?• Ml. The passage is corrupt. Prof Aufrecht suggests 3^31^775^.— 
1. 30. (28, 10.) #^T A. Ca. C 2. B 4. CB. iSti^ B i.— P. 84. 11. i and 4. (28, 1 1.) 
Ill this verse the Pada MSS. (P i. P 2. P 3) read jftVT:, probably in order to avoid 
the hiatus. In the commentary A. Ca. B4 have jfrVTI, B i . CB jftVT ; lacuna in C 2. 
P. 84. 1. 26. (29, I.) The commentary begins with ^ »r ^j^ itt v i iflfd in A. 
a. B 4. CB. In B i the commentary on this verse is left out ; in C 2 there is a 
long omission from X. 28, 1 1 to X. 29, 7. The commentary here, and X. 30, 1 1, 
's tlie same as that given by Durga on Nir. VI. 28. See Nir. SS. vol. iii. p. 257 
.se,iq.— p. 85, 1 2j ^2(j^ 2.) ^ jMf: ^F^ I ^ II JET T«r: 315^ A. Ca. B4. ^ ^: gR^n 
B I. CB. n x:^ gR^ R._l. 24. (29, 3.) AU MSS. have twt, not t^.— P. 86. 1. 25. 
(29, 6.) w^^ A. Ca. B I. 4. 3Hi^ CB.— I. 28. ^jjrarf^: 11 i«ji i f^-n i: A. Ca. B 4. 
'^^^^V^'- B I. ■^RHT^^n: CB. R reads ^mm, ^mTPr: ^rrf^: ^ ^ranfJrfwT: ^. 

P- 89. 1. 21. (jO, 7.) •»nf«ri(*l'>TH, from R. 'nT f^H^m, M I. "Tntw: fi^m?^ A. 
;f- ^4- Ca. o|n^. f^j^rnt; CB; lacuna in Bi from verse 3 to 13.— 1. 31. (30, 8.) 
file second half of the verse is left unexplained in the MSS. (A. Ca. C 2). R 
«i^pbes the following : #^ irt^ iji^g ^tt^ ^ntnnf ?& ^rer n M<|l|flmrfl* i n«t|>^ : I 

^^'"ST'f ^3^ «— p. 90. 1. 6. (30, 9.) iwtfllt 11 wW A. Ca. M I.— 1. 30. (30, 1 1.) JTO7IT 
Vol. IV. *B 

10 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 90. 1. 31. (30, u.) 

Duvga on Nir. VI. 22. iraraTTl A. Ca. M i. R. — 1. 31. HfSBWf^ Durga. oflftTii A, Ca 
Mi. — 1. 32. n i ^a<n«» l «l ^Fgn B4. C 2. f*i^w^^^rrm ^3^ A. Ca. CB. The commen- 
tary is taken nearly literally from Durga's commentary, see Nir. SS. vol. iii. 
p. 233 seq. — P. 91. 1. 25. (30, 14.) '^rrr^r^ll ^irm»l, A. Ca. Mi ; deest in Bi. — 1. 27. 
m^H } H t^ II W^l Tf^ B I. «i<^«»i«nRl A. Ca. M i. R. 

F. 93. 1. 12. (31,4.) After Trfw: CB alone has ^:. — P. 94. 1. 15. (31, 8.) xpn^- 
^araiH ^rnrafi gurfSrf!! f 1 '^ffxj g 11 nrtm'^q^i<i «i*iSfin ^ ^ 1 ^rfq g A. Ca. C 2. B 4. 
tjttt; ^^ ^ ^rnr ^rrTr^T g^ 1 tp^*?^' B i. xprr ^^ ^rni ^rro^ ?t gw xprr it^»9t CB. — 
P. 95. 1. 7. (31, 10.) wTfttn A. Ca. »?^f7|Bi. jiwMnR. Jt^?jTBr. I. I, 9, I. 

P. 95. 1. 19. (32.) The devaU is Indra.— 1. 26. (32, i.) ^«l<^«|<rt Bi. S) | ^|^« ;;ff 
A. Ca. M I.— P. 96. 1. 5. (32, 2.) ?:gr:m*<ix«6*i '^jtwr;: 11 T^: th^ ^ 'sjjwr;: A. Ca. C2. 
i^isam^^i^*! w^iTT: Bi. -^aiiTis^T^re ^mtK'- CB. ■^:^is^t^^ ^^irarc: B4. It looks 
like a marginal gloss inserted in the text. The intentioii was most likely 
to take ^^ for T^nt%. — 1. I4- (32, 3-) gSf^nSTT" Bi. gsngTOlTo A. Ca. M i.— 1. 25. 

(32, 4.) sfhJj^ A. Ca. B 1. 4. CB.— 1. 27. ^nr wrwu^rnr^mti'w shi\m*ii^ 11 ^tn: ^irprw 
iHRTij^w^ ^BTT^^nf A. Ca. C 2. B4. R. jfji: -^([im n^Tsi^iw^ difM^*<!«j B I . ?Tfi: wn? 

inirnrra??ni mrwnf CB. — P. 97. 1. 23. (32, 7.) The exjjlanation of %^tf^ WfTZ is 
found in C 2 only. — P. 98. 1. 1 1. (32, 9.) After % qreni A. Ca. C2 have ^iwnpi., CB 
tR^nnT- T^t is struck out in B4, but is not found in Bi. R has ^s^rTTT.. — 1- 18. 
fl(r!n»T ?T^mTi: ^i^^r^wr: 1 ^^^ ^irT^fq^ 11 flB^Tw: gi^^fnuT: 5^T«ir ^y^r^ ^^ A. Ca. 
C2. B4; from pzj^fj: to TRT^g lacuna in Bi. r**t\H ^p^TT: f^ ^ ^ q U iT g^rrat 
6(ir<t-if»i I M^ CB. t^B^rml *(^«fT*i: ^fitj^^mn: i^rnrt 'fy'R^ ti^ R. 

P. 99. 1. 12. (33, 2.) xn^T#Vf*T II ir^^rrf^ A. Ca. C 2. B4. t^i^ ^ T^Tf*! B 1. x(p§r- 
^sgW^ CB. Cf Rv. Bh. 1. 105, 8.— P. 100. 1. 2. (33, 5.) nfCTTff^ T^ H irfTrcarrff'i 
n T^ ^ A. Ca. utrreTttf^ -^^€2. •nfTj^nrf?^ ^ -g B 4. irfTre^rff^ ^ B i. iifTf- 
B^rrff'f T^ CB. The emendation nfHTfff'i was suggested by Prof. Aufrecht. 

P. 100. 11. 24 and 27. (34.) ^m^n: Ca sec. m. Bi. 4. ^^Bi^n: A. Ca pr. ni. 
C 2. CB. One Shat/gurusishya MS. writes 'qjW?^, all the rest ^o, see Anukr. 
M. p. 151. The name of the second supposed poet is Mau^rav^n Aksha 
(India Office MS. 132 writes Moyav^n, by mistake). The commentator of the 
Anukramawt explains Maur/avan as M%avatputra, and he is quite aware oi 
the irregularity in the fonnation of the patronymic, for he says that, although 
the patronymic suffix has been omitted, the VWddhi of the first syllable has been 
preserved. Hence Mau(/avat, instead of Mau^^avata. Roth in his Dictionary 
gives the name as Maugravata, but this is wrong, for ShacZgurusishya quotes 
Sauvishfakrit as a parallel case, clearly showing that the name he wished to 
explain was Mauf/avat, nom. sing. Mau^/av^n. The name, no doubt, is iiTegular 
even thus, yet we have no right to change it. — 1. 25. "%r ai l t^ i a ^l ^fHrfl etc. Here 
all the MSS. are at fault, and possibly Siyana himself or whosoever wrote the 
passage. I shall first give the various readings : 

p.ioi.l.<5. (34.1.)] MAiV^DALA X. 


B4 ^r^ ?iT<mn«i«i ^Hfir 'p^jit^ ^i^^w: 1 ^?ft i^H^af t ^ '^f^ ^^ftfji 1 

C 2 V? ?[r^ ^rm: 's^ Tuisrnrr n g ^ w^w. nrnft ^i^Tft ^ ^ ^ftt?r 1 

B2 ini wr^TWT^TR, ^m ^ - ^^Hivf TT ^b|tto: ?j^ ^^^ifr^ -^ wf^ ^^ 
(JB ^m fliKiiHiK Wtf^ f^«n ^ 7T WR»^: H>Tift ^^n^^iit ^ Btf^ ^jftfTT 

A im^i^frerr t^Trr 1 ir^ tj^ airrr: ftisrfJTi*^: f^iri^ wrg N^ 1 ^rtot ^srftj 7r|Tm: 1 
Ca '?i7r^'5itwr ^m 1 ti4 tj^ im: fwsT^r^nt»T: f^mt 'grrg fsi^ 1 '^nrar ^ift y^^m: 1 
B4 ^sra^Rfrwr ^m ittt q^ Tftr: fimfiri^^: f^mf wr^ fsj^ 1 ^jtot ^rft? TRt^TBr: 1 
C 2 ^»<rei^:^ ^^m 1 th 'H Tm: fiimtH^^: ^^t wrg f^ 1 ^ifriT ^rft n%^m: 1 

CB ^jfremt: m ^^7n 1 tr 'N im: r5{Bifii^«if«: ftifi^ ^t^ t^% 1 ^n^i ''srfti jt^cu: i 

Now it is clear that the seventh verse does not praise agriculture ; nor would 
it he ^f^T in the singular, if two verses were intended. Nevertheless we have 
i\^:, a dual, as if two verses were intended. Shat^guru.sishya in his commentary 
to tlie Anukramawi says : (T^^i^i ^aD ^ft\ i[^w^ ^ ^jmt '^^ft^'^ «fw ^1f?t 
t^i'rt '^rginf^ fV!Slfi|s^<(fi<<^<!T: t3B7nr%^ f^t^nt tl This is clearly metrical, and evi- 
dently taken from the Bj'ihaddevat^ (VII. 1009 seq.), where the following verses 
occur : HT^qi %f?r ^ <<-r1<t|^rd^^% I ^^T'«jr»aiT?[3f^ '^ftfil l^wn^ 'f W^ « 'i^ l ^i O 
af^ ^ftf?r ftlfR "qi^jmrefw (read •«ft) I ^!Rt^ ^ fij ^ft II If we look at this, we see 
what has happened. Sayana has taken the BnhaddevatS., quoted it, and inserted 
after each paragraph some words of explanation. In doing this he seems to have 
diawn ^jTjf^ and ^^ij^ together, without altering the verb ^ftOf, but putting, 
when he speaks for himself, the dual ?»^:, as referring to the seventh and thir- 
teenth verses. What he ought to have said was this : ^m grr^W^TT'^t?! 'nfwjT^n 
'^ ^rjmt I ^« l <;i i <<i'^<)rt ||: 1 i<n< ! tn wW ^ftfn 1 ^BTTO^t: m ^m 1 This is, no doubt, 
H greater alteration of the text of S4yana than would be permissible according 
to the critical prixxciples followed in this edition. But both gr-ammar and sense 
lequired this deviation, and the various readings as given above will enable every 
reader to form his own opinion. R reads ^R ^T^^Pl. ^M7( ^^*H T^ ' ^\iHm *« \^m '. 
^^ '■iM\i,T^ ^ Bffii ^^ Ti?rerat: m t^im tt? xi^ »rit: 1 fiiHTfM^: etc.— P. loi. 
'■ '■ (34. I-) fwtwJfW A. B. Ca. •»J^» Ca sec. m.— '?jrarft A. Ca. greJt B i.— 1. 2. 
'f^ftw: B 1 . li^ft^: A. Ca. R.— *mift^T: A. Ca. ^i^ir' B i .— 1. 3- tw^^ fvftn^' 
^- t^jftrot f%»ft7WI<» A. Ca. — ll^^f^ H 'VWF'l. A. Ca; deest in Bi. — 11. 4, 7, 
'^'^^ ^- ^>^r^ (twice) and giirmn. A.. B. Ca. ^ Nir. R has g* in the first case, 
but afterwards ^«.— 1. 6. f^jftrrwr II ftjftw Bi. fv^Ufm A. Ca, f^pf^^i^ Nir. 
Again, 1. 8, A. Ca read m^^ (in B i the word is left out), while Nir. has fwt- 


12 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. loi. 1. 8. (34, g 

^.—1. 8. Instead of f^^^tm T^'t^tJ^^ftniTf R reaxis f^rt^rfN^^fM^^nnt*.— P. 102. 
1-3- (34, 5-)'Tf^H f^J^Bi.Ca. ^^A.— 1. 5. vrf^ritBi.CB. ^rafmA.Ca. C2. 
B 4. One expects ^^f^^, but as the next sentence seems to depend on this -word, it 
can only be w^rfffft, in the sense of attentive.— I. 20. (34, 7.) ^ffomt f*mtf^ 
f*JTftf^7rafT^ II 'Sfjm^ f^ (f^rfrf^ Ca sec. m.) f*|<i\f^fl^<l^ H^TTST ^ft IRP^ 
A. Ca. ^ ftiq;?^ f^H^f^fl^flJa H^ ^«IH<1^*4I«* C 2. ^grar^nt f*rcfrf^ rnol-^n^ g^(X(^ 
?r^ H ii »| i M « n a B I. ^irgrar^ifr f^mtf^ f^td^r^titi: (f^TTfrf^: sec. m.) g^[^^ ^ sfft 
TT^^T% B 4. ^fgrar^ f^«ftf<-i1 f^Tfrf^^nr: g^^^ ^ 3w!»n% CB. ^jgrsr^ t%<ftf^ 

H< > <^*< l <) B. If the emendation in the introduction is right, and we are justified 
In assuming that Silyana did not take our verse as a grfSrgfH, then the words 
tj^qij l ijr^ n<(^*4H*j< irmst be an interpolation inserted at the same time, when 
the mistake in the introduction arose, they have theiefore been omitted. Tlie 
corruptions in all the MSS. justify such violent critical proceedings. — 1. 28. (34, 8.) 
^ill«»»K n -ti^H. A. Ca. R. '^qtwrfr Bi. In 1. 30, A. Ca (and also R) have -^rraRf^, 
B I 'W^T corrected in the margin to ^^f^. In verse 9, Bi has again -^crarrft, 
A. Ca. R wwft;.— P. 103. 1. 7. (34, 9) ^ Ma n i : A. Ca. B4. C 2. Bi, ^m ^nx: CB.— 
P. 104. 1. 8. (34, 13.) jrfTi f^ A. Ca. B1.4. CB; deest hi C 2. Prof Aufieclit 
suggests the plausible emendation xf^ J^ I, which is also the reading of R. 

P. 106. 1. 28. (35, 9.) fTre A. Ca. C 2. Bi. 4. CB. 

P. 108. 1. 16. (36, I.) ^: ^ 'sr 'TC^ II ^: ^ ■«[ TS^ A. Ca. B 4. ^: ^ 'g v:m 
C 2. ^: 3Ei4 tt B I. ^: ^ '^ CB. ^: ^ -^ ^re^ R.— P. 1 1 1. 1. 1 5. (36, 14.) After 
^mxf\: ^(n^^ B i adds ^noTTfi; ^r^n"^ fmn' w ^rf^Trr ii<i*iMr<BK ^f*m!«'a f^: «tw. 
Cf. Rv. Bh. VIII. 61, 16. R has ^vTTrrrn: ^WcT^ fwn: ^f^mr. 

P. III. 1. 28. (37.) The Viniyoga of X. 40, 10 is inserted here in A. Ca. O2. 
CB. B 4. In B I it is added in the margin. 

P. 114. 1. 31. (38.) 7ir??n: ^ i 'a n<4*< » >iT 11 m^s^fhrpsrra'raiT A. B4. m^^ ^n^srra^^ 
Ca. Tlt^yT aiia|i << ^ <M C 2. m^srr *1*H«I*I*1 CB ; deest in B I. nt^i(i!IA|l<<*raT' 
m^W R.— P. 116. 1. 7. (38, 5.) ^TwTn^i II <)i fwm ?^i B I. R. ^rfw^^T A. Ca. In 
I. 10, A. Ca have TTf^:, B i igrrfv^:, R Trfwf»T: ; and in 1. 14, A. B i . Ca and R read 
^rftnn^. See T;\?ic/ya Br. IX. 2, 22. — 1. 10. R omits n before gift. — The quotation 
from the >S4«y4yanaka could not be verified, as in spite of repeated eff'orts, I have 
not succeeded in finding any copy of that work in India. Sdya?<a's quotation, 
however, from the (SdtyAyanaka agrees very much with the passage in the 
Td/u/ya BrAhmana IX. 2, 22; in fact, it does so to a greater degree than the 
extract given by Sdyana as from the A'/tandoga Brdhmana. — 1. 11. ^wr^f^H aR^ 
A. Ca. ^n^j( B I. See T4nc^ya Br. 1. c. — 1. 12. mfi^ q f<jf 7T II nr^s(<lf <* < f q A. Ca. 

H ' lsir^n T B I. nTfspiff^f/f R.— 1. 13. wsrw^Tft h ynwn^^f( A. Ca. '^jjnm^ Bi. 

p. 1 1 7. 1. lo. (39, 3.) S4yana seems to have read ^ffff^ for i(7T^. A. Ca. CJ>- 
B4read^?rei, C2 ^7n?l, Bi wtt^.— 1. 17. (39, 4.) g^ ^tttr A. Bi.Ca. gm^J^ 

1>. 137- '• 10- (45,12-)] MAi^^DALA X. 13 

R, like NIr. Both and SS.— 1. i8. 5»r^ Bi. 5»rWW A. Ca. C 2. CB. B4.— 
P. 1 18. 1. I. (39. 6.) ;fNfv*lfil*)*41ftI«i A. Ca. C 2. Bi. 4. CB. S4yana has evidently 
used ^5T^ as a masculine. He may have intended to write wjt^. See Pdw. 
Hi. 3, 115.— !• 8- (39, 7-) f^'T^T^ Bi. B4 sec. m. CB. f^ A. Ca. C 2. B4 pr. m.— 
I. 19- (39' 8.) The commentary to the first line is left out in A. Ca. C 2. B4. It 
is given in Bi. CB.— P. r 19. 1. 20. {39, 11.) iTOTTWJ CB. C 2. mT»T^} A. Ca. B 4. 
^rsrTJTiiBi;deestinR.— P.i20.1.4.(39,i3.)?ni»»T^|Bi.CB.C2, m7T«^A.Ca.B4. 

P. 121. 1. 14. (40. 3-) ^f^ ^'ifV ^iTtn I ?^^^ « M^ q<<in<ftN I < T m A. Ca. ^^ 
m\^svnnvj C 2. ^f^ qtift wm ttot B i. 4. K ^^ ?rrw^ ^ i m ? i<) r CB.— 1. 17. 
TT^WTTf^ CB. B 1. B4 sec. ni. Tragimf^ A. Ca. B4 pr. m. \HjniOr^1 
C 2.— 1. 22. (40, 4.) g^ II ^ g^ A. Ca. C 2. B 1 . 4. CB. 

P. 126. 1. 17. (42, 5.) g*f^ II g^: B I. CB. B4 sec. m. g%: A. Ca. C 2. B4. 
R.— P. 127. 1. 26. (42, 10.) P I. 2.3 read ww:, S4yana leaves it free to read 
ji^rm or ira?rr:.— p. 128. 1. 5. (42, 1 1.) ^(ffst^: A. Ca. C 2, B i. 4. CB. 

P. 128. 1. 8. (43.) oJ^n A. B i. Ca. -j^ g Anukr.— 1. 15. (43, i.) ^fj^:^,^ 
^ivm A. Ca. C 2. B 4. 1 ^1^^ g?i^ CB. 1 ^1'ti4)<j| gf^a^l B i.— P. 129. 1. 1 5. 
(43. 5-) M<.yi»li CB. C 2. in^Tlt A. Ca. B4. M<,< j| Mi B i.— 1. 18. ^ifq || gftfT, 

A. Ca. C 2. B 1. 4. CB. g^T7r»mti B.— P. 130. 1. 1 1. (43, 8.) Tjrrafri 11 ^<^ A. Ca. 
?nfn Bi. ijTifTi li. 

P. 132. 1. 12. (44, 5.) o^Tftr II o^WTfSl A. B I. Ca.— 1. 23. (44, 6.) '5%%^ 7\ A. 

B. ( k ^f^ ^ srf^ifTf 'Sff^ ^ (^%4 var. lect.) % Nir.— 1. 30. (44, 7.) ^ ^ n All 
tlu! MSS., ii.s well as 11, read ^ ^r^.— P. 1 33. 1. 9. (44, 8.) ^: t?n4<.4j|l^»4n*< l 'Ml<*< T 

^ ^ « ^"W ^\^ w^ ^ffi jm: <r)<<«ji i ^f(i i^mv\ iftm ^^^ ^rm I. Ca. C 2 
lixs the same, but it omits '3^ ^^ and reads <f > <,<j| |^r?tt. B 4 had the same 
iis A, l)ut sec. manu it inserts ^ "1*4<.^na , %w!i^ and Ji^ for ^t^. B has ^li 
''^ »l^ ^ f^: ?PmT^% %^ *Ft*ITn, ift^TT ?^ 'frf??. CB reads 5x15: ^^t^^ ^%^^ 

^TTil ^Wr 3^ ?rf^. R has 1^: << f i 4<,< ji m9 f ^ ^iinfNn^ €t»rm: etc. 

P. 1 33. 11. 29 and 30. (45.) The name of the Bishi of this hymn, and of liyimi 
IX. 68, is called by the author of the Sarv4nukrama?ii Vatsapri, not Vatsapri. 
Wlia^igunwishya in IX. 68 has ^(^ffji: twice, in X. 45 ^j^rfn: thrice. S&yawa in 
'X. 68 has the genitive ^rg^: and nom. ^n^:, supported by all the MS8., 
and likewise in X. 45 the gen. nmit: and the nom. ^j^ft:, without any variou.s 
readhig. See BE. s.v. ^jgift; Aufrecht, Rig-veda, vol. ii. p. 494, note ; Anukr. M. 
PI'- 34. 38, 146, 152.— P. 134. 1. 9. (45, 1.) prnm C 2. gn^ %?n A. Ca. gmj^ 
^?rT CB. R. gimfr^m B4 sec. m. B i.— P. 135. 1. 11. (45, 4.) ^mn %Tftimwt n 
^^"Tm^^^x^^nrsrA.Ca. '^rm^tf^^nJwBi. wr % 'riNt ^fw'nisft -Sat. Br.— 

^•136. 1. 19. (45, 9.) ^ „ ^ B I, ^ A. Ca.Mi.— P. 137- 1- 10. (45, 12.) The 
commentary to the first line is left out in all MSS. R supplies the following : 

14 VAKIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 139. 1. 11.(46, ,.) 


AsiiT-AKA VIII.— MSS. for the Eighth Ashiaka. 

1. A. Colebrooke's M8. 

2. AD. A M.S. lent me by Dr. Bhao Daji. It is an A copy, but more care- 

lessly written than Colebrooke's ; it offers no original readings. 
;{. C 2. Dr. Mill's MS. which was copied for him at Calcutta from different 
originals, represents in this ])ortion tlie A class. The copyist has 
occasionally l)een enabled to supply independent readings, either con- 
jectui"ally or by consulting other MSS. 

4. Af. Fragments of a MS., belonging to the A class. It has l)een consulted 

for critical passages in the new edition. Though generally agreeing with 
A. C2, it occasionally offers independent readings, or helps to restore tlie 
original reading of the A class. 

5. B 4, Taylor's MS. This MS. has been much read and corrected in the last 

Ash^aka. In its original text it agrees with A ; the corrections and 
numerous marginal notes come fi'om a B source. 
<}. Ca. My own IVIS. Though very carelessly written, it is of tlie greatest vahi(\ 
as containing not only readings independent both of the A and B classes, 
but as supplying passages which are omitted in all othei- MSS. 

7. B I. Stevenson's co])y. 

8. B 2. Burnoufs copy, taken from Stevenson's MS. I transcribed the tenth 

Ma/wfela at Paris, and finished it on the 30th of May 1 846. As I traced 
the whole of it, my copy is, I believe, perfectly trustworthy, even at this 
great distance of time. 

9. B 3. A modern copy, a mere repetition of B i. (See vol. i. p. xxx.) 

10. M. Another B cojiy, sent to me liy Dr. Haug from India. It was derived 

from B I, directly or indirectly, but before B i had been corrected witli 
yellow ink. (See X. 56. i fin. Here B i has surya iva iti hi srnt\fi, but 
iva is covered over with yellow ink. M has sArya iva iti hi *TutiA.) 
This MS. is afterwards replaced in my edition by 

11. CB, a MS. lent me by Dr. Bhao Daji, beaxitifully written, agreeing generally 

with M, but here and there supplying corrections and marginal notes. 

In the passage quoted before, it has slirya iva iti hi srnt'ih. 

The three representative MSS. for the eighth Ashtoka ai*e : A. Ca. and B i. 

Of these A is generally supported by C2 and B4 prim A, mauu ; Ca 

stands by itself; B i is supported by B 2, afterwards by CB, sometimes 

by B4 sec. manu. In difficult passages the A readings were checked by 

AD ; the B readings by B 3. 

P. 139. 1. II. (46, r.) 5B^ before f'Jwt^'JJl in M i and E, but not in A. Bi- 

Ca. — 1. 12. 3]%: ^: A. 3%: gTumT^ Ca. 5%: g^if: B1.2. M. — "^tyn n ^ 

Ca. irnn A. B i. 2. M.— 1. 13, %^ A. Ca ; deest in B i, 2. M.— 1. 14. tra[T I ^ ' 

P.i4i.l."-(4«,8.)] MAiVDALA X. 15 

^mrerfWinJ: » "^ ?wh X^: [^inj in marg.] Ca. ^ vi ( ifi<tt )< j : A. B i. 2. M. R.— 
1. ,5. ^?mT from Ca.— 1. 16. gn: Tnf^: A. B i. 2. M ; ^: deest in Ca.— B 4 gives 
the following independent couunentaiy on verse i : fm ^^ l ^ l N l ^m T wm: vr^: 
ga: TM^fi insmw^ ^sirani^ ^r^d^K '^ra: ^nrn: ^>^ ^: •j^jmnPt 'Sfrf^^Ti^ 

gf^rai^^r^ vrT^^fTft '^ ^: 1 « u^ 1^ f%\^ 1 ^^ ,i^ , ^ fs,^ ,^^ , ^ 
U^ f^vrg wtm I !T^: 1 7rf»rT ^< i * i. i t!iir< vj O <n ii f Mim t^: ^^ a {0<a\n - 
qof^ ^^^ f^^vrg I ^snm^ II— 1. 23. (46, 2.) ^^ ,j^^n% Ca sec. m.; deest in 
A. B I. 2. 4. M. U.— f%^ Ca ; deesi in A. B i. 2. 4. M.— irfxr^tTI Ca. A. B4 ; deest 
in B I. 2. M.— 1. 25. •M^ A. Ca. B4. ft^f B i. 2. M.— 1. 26. ^ft^: Ca ; deest 
In A. Bi. 2. M. B 4 has ^^Tf^ff^fiHirfii^fTft.— ^sjraR ^^t II 'Sf^lfJTOft Ca. 
4iidiMR<^d: A. B 1. 2. M.— xrar^jrn^ Ca. xi^rraro A. xrar^ B i. 2. M. twi^titr- 
^TTW B 4-— P. 140. 1. 5- (46, 3) ^iwr ^: I rmr Vn ^?5f^ 1 ^«rrf^w^: 1 ^^nV^ 
?fajmi I ^ifti: Ca. wi^T ^T ;g;€f% ^3?nf*»3f^: 1 TfiiTi^ri ^a^rrn. ^i^: A. 
^?r3n: JJRn: ^f^ ^Jqiffrarsl: Tf^Tf^ ^rstrar^ ^ifq: B4 ; but altered into -^ffi^ 
im <{n:. -^irmTUT ^ft^^^j ^q^<^ uto »ni: B i. 2. ^^^ju ^Mvf^ 'ssf^ rn^m: M. 
^ffigjT^ jjiirT ^i5fiT ^TfiiWT^: ff^^Tf^ ^raRTn: ^fq: H— 1. 6. fi^^ ^^lftp^ v^ Ca. 

A. B4. g^^q: B4 sec. m. B i. 2. -1. 7. ^r^^nf^^ ^ Ca. wf^a^T ^ITRl ^ A. 
B1.2. M. q»5^ ^nr^ ^ B4.— 11. i3seq. (46, 4.) Ca leaves out the words 
l-tweon Wf^'^4 and ^^^Tnnt-l. H- '^WTt «mn<HI<.*«fa JJmt II ^mTK UTtrf^mrt 
< 'i^- %mt ■^T^ 'mrt A. B i. 2. M. B 4 had ^^n »imt, but it?jn: added sec. ni.— 
' 22. (46, 5.) % ^ftcr: Ca. 1 ftn: A. B I. M i.— ^Trc^Ji^titsiiiH 11 ^?m^ Ca. B 1. 2. 
M. l'^. tfN A. 11^ g^tt B4.-I. 23. ^ <jdr*(rt l <j> ^i JTc^ ^ i l-fllleB l ^ i eJdr^ird 
^^^TT II ^^^irtfirm (TjEfi il^fn Eiarg.) a^ etc. Ca. ^:^Ti7rfJ?f?T n^i^fitPd »?t^ etc. 

^iJ^ »mT etc. B4. In his connnentary on 8v. I. i, 2, S, 2, S!iyn,ntx adopts the 
•same division of words, and the same construction as in our verse. But Satya- 
Niiita remarks, •^br ^JT^SI^sr JERVrf^TT^r: Jj: n\!< ^ cft q -q>qn4^ f|(f^^W^ir^ W^ 
?S5i.— 1. 27. ifhpi^ Ca. A. B4. Bhnr^ B i. 2. M. As to >im = ifti!pr, see 
' "■• Ul. 9 ; Dhp. 15, 84. lihr'RIWt^ in the commentary on Sv. I. i, 2, 8, 2 is 
l)etter.— P. 141. i. j, (45^ g ■) B t. 2. M add an explanation of ^njf:, viz. ^wuft 
i^nr^: 1 ^»»r!TO^: 1 ^jfv^iT^ trfurt ?rt: f^raiRTf^ %: ?r? wtf^m J^sran*: 1.— 1. 1 3. 
(46, 7) f^^^: %f?T»rRjH^: n f^fTwrn "g^ Ca. %f7r»rpri?^: A. tfror^irta: 
I- 2. JVl. %f7mT<«j<j^: B4. Although the substantive %t7nR. does not occur in 
Wilson, nor in BR., it is correctly formed according to F^n.Y. 1, 123. (It is in 
ohthngk's smaller Dictionary) — '^pto: is left out in the commentary.— 1. 21. 
(46, 8.) i^p^^ A. Ca. B 4. vmJf^ B I. 2. M.— 1. 22. jt^ ^ A. Ca. B 4. ^^ 
^^^^ B I. 2. M. — Instead of vffvn m Ca reads ?nr*nm VigfiRT pr. m., but it has 
been corrected in the margin. 

16 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 142. 1.17.(47,1.) 

P. 142. 1. 17. (47, I.) f^qfffWt A. Ca. B. Cf. Pdn. II. i, 3 coram.; Rv. Bh. 
V. 4, I.— 1. 31. (47, 3.) %->ri!^ (lfm»rpi marg.) ^ ITfTTT Ca. ^wifn ??fW A. B i. 
M I.— P. 143. 1. H- (47, 5-) ^'' 'HWi from Ca. 

P. 145. 1. 10. (48, 3.) finiQ [ flqi n. Ca. ^n^ *imf<flfli*i A. B i.— ll-jt o to 13. 

From pn Tf'T to gi^ the text is given from Ca, where all from ^f«rftfv» stands 
in the margin. A. B i. M have after wrf^TT^TT^ nothing but ftfif^qyiRi^^j 

(^^TiftrTf^o B i) qs^TUT "wS^ i^fn 1 ^n4t?fiif7rai^T (T»rafw*» M) 1 ^i?t ^ t?5rt gpfft « 

B4 gives after ^J M lf^ ^ q i *!. , "^ W^ 11^ f^ir<«|v<irHV»^ ^«*nT I TTm ^^m: ^: 

Titjf?j 3r'^?f!T 'o4rd4(di*4^ T I v^ vA*i\'n{. fffn « B, has ^rfxi "^ ^«tt: »Tf^ ft^ ^ 

^§f»i I^qvif4v>w ^W[ ^srq^rf^ «rt ^ ^miifTf i^ffH 11— 1. 30. (48, 5-) *>^ Ca. % A 
Bi._^ before ;(r# from Ca.— i» A. m B i. Ca.— P. 146. 1. 14. (48, 7-) ^^rf*Pm^ 

B4 seem.) ^ T§ tna i f<< d *<* i K ^- ^4- inwrf^iwrt 1 ^^^'Sfairrf^'S'Twni. B i . ^ 
nm f»t«m«i<J1*.S«l8liR*<i«(T*lE'. 

P. 148. 1. 14. (49, 3.) <L<M ' ^r*4« < WTlT'ftW^n^ A. T^fJl\'im >«^lTl«l<r< Ca. Xj^- 

ifm^ a<<i'«<ri« i <ra B 4. ^< i «ri* ^ q fm^ i[w^j^^ B i. Ki'n*^'* »fli*n«J4*i^ li- 
I. 24. (49, 4.) H^ B I. ^ A. Ca. B 4 pr. m. R. Should it be TT^rpi?— P. 149- 

I. I. (49, 5.) TJ5 Slit A. B4. ■nSTain: Ca. igj^^qr^^Bi. usi W^'^ nnni»i'«i« 
■^rast B. As all the MSS. of Sdyana give ^vg*<n».gti<^: it is clear that Sijaiia. 
read ^!inj% wt- The MSS. of the Pada text, however, give ^KWK- 

P. 152. 1. 9. (50, 5.) ^m iwrf^ I ^Sh!nf?[^ ^h-hw**: i ^^ ^am^^: 11 ^m iwrf^ 
■gluiir^H i ■!iiM'i<Wi< : (o^B^^' B 4 sec. m.) i^r^ xj<if<<i^!a: (^5mT^: B 4 sec. m.) 
A. B 4. ^m <iwir<a ^tisnt^ ^^Hitfm : wt^: 'stt^: Ca. ^|*<^in^^«iir<<*\«i-M«ii: 
^t^ 'sraT^: M. #?raTf^ ^mir< « »\i« i nw« : I wi^ "argrrt^: B i. Cf. Un. III. 

105. R has *v-A'»m*i: and ^rm^:. 

P. 152. 1.32, and p. 153. 1. 3. (51.) ^PN^ B 3. A. ^N^ Ca. #rt^NitBi. 
The MSS. vary in the same manner whenever this name of Agni occurs. The MS. 
of the Anukramanl (Ind. Off. 1 32) has ^t"^: ; the commentary (I. O. MS. Taylor 
1823) has likewise ift'^^:. The MSS. of the BriTiaddevatA vary. MS. Breads ^- 
^flrUT *i)M\^ M«KfMafJI 'gfn: l. MS. H (a fragment) reads ^^xm^^TR ^^: ^^ 
i fk i USii ^' I. ffM^:, in the sense of tailor, is given by Wilson, RMhakant, and 
ill the Ganap^^Aa, with the short i only. In writing ^N^: I am guided chiefly 
by the authority of the Anukramani, though unfortunately the commentary 
does not in this case give an etymological and grammatical explanation.— P. i53- 

II. 3 seq. TT^ gaft to ^^(fKfn Ca. A has only o4f-H«"^«lRj I, B i •»5t7\m*»«lfir ^ '• 
Cf. X. 53, p. 157. 1. 16.— P. 154.1. 7. (5i,4.)^^t^^ll^'ft^l^ A. ^^t^" 
B I. %Br 'aft^rarfr Ca (where ^n^fWfl is left out). SN ^t^^ R.— 1. i7- iS^' 5' 
^wmr A. ^rmwn B i. ^mn Ca, isfm R. It would be better to write JW 

p. 164.16. (55, 5-)] MAiVZ>ALA X. 17 

?WWT.— P- 155- 1- 8. (51, 8.) TTOT'Rr ngt A. B I. 4. JTOTij^f^ti% Ca sec. m. 
j(V([9(^ probably Ca pr. m.— 1. 14. siO<<l*<I ? 'TT 'sra^ Ca. >|<\<,.^ T ^ T^ ? ^ 
^^l^^n B 4. ?rO<.<I*II<^T f ^ imt A ; deest in B i. 

P. 156. ]• 7- (52, 2.) ^grrrTnu A.B i. 4. '^i*pT7T55 Ca— 1. 8. ^ jet x^i B i. 4. 
Ca. €ref^^.* A. ^ ^ HtH TW^: R.— 1. 9. TT^^fm^i »m^ II TT^^TTJT^ w^^\fn Ca. 
Tl^^jm 'ftfn A. % ^ H^Tftf?! ft B 4 ; deest in B i. <T^nt«^!P!ftfJT R. 

P. 157- 1- 15- (53-) ^ Tn^fwwrar Ca. rtgm^A. Bi. Mi.— P. 158.1.3.(53,3.) 
srWn intr^ m^ ti^ 11 '^^^ ^fn ii << i ^i<<^ ttott: Ca. wNfH '^rfn ?fnr^ ^rra^ 
?raB3. R. ^Ww i» ^rrsrr ^T'JT^ TT^n B I, ^t^ n m TmTt 7n?n: A. ^p^innpr 
r(f^(^ ^7TO^: Asv. ^ '^nftTTTftf^ff^ ^Tf^ ?rm IT W^ H l <<nafar<n i Ait. Br. VII. 9, 
Cf. Rv. Bh. V. I, 6.— 1. 23. (53, 4.) ^1^ ;i< < v! ( f4ip < T?q «l^^*ll^ ^mwg^ ^ ^ 
B 4. A. ^^ lifTT %iT«4 I TH ^w ^rm vf^w^f^ v^ ^ Ca. ^^nM x^ ^^^ sr^^- 
»n% ^lf^T5«af?T ^R^ ^^ B i, R adds f^rorST'i after fri. The text is corrupt, and 
requires emendation.— P. 159. 1. 3. (53, 6.) '*n^fl<.i% ^t r d**< g i a uf^ ffr ^»4^ l f T[^ 
l^^ A. ^sfq *rft ^3jfd*«^ B4 marg. ^<a<i<|?| ^Tf?im% Ca. ■^if*r »rfr ^fTT wt»niw% 

B2. ^rf^iifr%5ifH;iw%Bi.— 1. 25. (53, 7.) *i6H<(1<jM'!)K A. B4. M. '^rei^^^n^nnn, 
Ca.— finuT^rni, Ca. frnTOTarR A. B4. M. R.— p. 160. 1. 26. (53, 11.) B jnpft A. B. 
7{sv\ Jf^ Ca. 71 -^BH^ ? R has ?| ^BH^, but is it supported by MSS. ? 

p. 160. 1. 32. (54.) m f to m»T^aj: Anukr. m g t|^ f?l^ TT TW^ Tfif Ca. 
?Ttgtff%wTf^A. Bi. mgirspfwrTR^^fWMi.— P. 161. 1.9. (54, i.) ^^t^ 
T^if B 4. Ca. ojifpT A. fi|<) r <,%^ B I. M.— 1. 27. (54, 3.) 5ft: fqm A. B i. ^: 
ftfll (Rv. I. 191, 6) R. Ca has only <<^<j< i f(^ »n7Tt ^ ^: ^om^Hil'^l l RiWv} : etc. — 
P. 162. 1. 1. (54, 4.) ^tK.^^ ^Mirti^iHi^ ^ fl«i*l«Jif^ II y*H<,^g '^(^^ ^^ fT 
TOiDsrit^ B 4. ■gRn:^ ^m-^j^n^^g frg TTfri^mt^ Ca. ^tk^ij NdrM«4r(<ir4^3 
Tsrrt^ M. '3ttt^ ^^i^7{ ^^Tf% f;«iTf^ B i. ^in,^ 'grnm^i^ ^ ?Tg#- 
''nl^ '^'^'^3 R. 

P. 162. 11. 24 and 26. (55, I.) ^pft^ Si. S2. S4. S3 had ^nft^;, but the 
Visarga was struck out. The Pada MSS. have ^ra:^^. It is the same in X. 67, 
1 1. Here, too, S 3 seems to have had ^rat^:, though this is not quite clear. The 
other MSS., S i. S 2. S 4 and P i. P 2. P 4 have again ^(^ and ^mi^. But P 3 
'•ii>d P 8 have ^js%: |. — 1. 30. ■^i^BlfTTt y wt^' M. ^aj« A. B4. B I ; deest in R. 
Lacuna in Ca, extending from jf\^ to < > n< l *<l*i in the next verse. — 1. 31. f^TOTTrtJ 
A- f^nOTTif B I. B4. M. — 1. 33. At the end of verse i, B4 adds : ^f?l ft^[^^ 

Tfij ^ m^ia^^ ^f^ mJ r ^< a ^mw^ tt^t^' q i ^i ti y^a *rr7rn»ni^: 11 R has a similar 
iiddition : ffif ^^<^i^^^' S i*^ \ 'i ft^'R; xfn 'n^rait^ 1 ■^v r^inwffm ^^^ mgr:^- 
^^ »*Trrr^ipn^: 11— P. 163. 1. 6. (55, 2.) ^Tf w«<n*<«<i'<^<4i<< ^^srerrff^: 11 ^Tw^t^i^rw- 
''^''^'f^^Tjfn: A. ^rwjgtwnsaraTq ^ ^ w i ^^tji i frn : B4. C 2. n^n^^nrtf M. ^j!*rat- 
"^"^'"'^ ^mi. B I ; Ca is wanting.— 1. 8. After fT(^^ Ca has TJTlf^ 'W ^^flllf^Hl 
^^ I H(^ ^rogPT]^ etc.— 1. 27. (55, 4.) mft^:. One expects ^pift^:, but the 
relative is left out here m all the MSS.— P. 164. 1. 6. (55, 5-) Vlt^: vjm I ^m 
VOL. IV. * c 


irwm A. '^jSN w^'. jDm^ M. B I. B 4. '%(^ vn: irnsrn Ca. — ^n^r'i'nfl^ A. ^nip,. 
%iTft% M. B I. B4. < i «<Jm ii «n M^ Ca. ^ 4^< l M«r i 'i)? i II.— 1. 7- ^nj Ca. B4 pr. m.; 
deest in A. B. Ca, struck out in B4. WTT^in^W^: H'H'l. B- — 1- 27. {55, 7.) 
«<<{7i;(« !i Ca. JT^rn ?i^ A. B i. 4. M. C 2. 

P. 165. 1. 23. (56, I.) 'ero^ a ^Tf^ Ca. ^: ^ A. B i. See verse 6.— P. 166. 
1. 4. (56, 3.) '^ig ^n: I '«i-«(jm: I '«i*i*j^ I B I. •^ tr: I ^ni'i^ • M- ^ tt: 1 ^^»n: 1 
ara? I A. B4. Ca. E.— P. 167. 1. 4. {56, 6.) infvm A. Ca. B, instead of M^f\s(, an 
inadvertence, it would seem, of Sdyana's. — 1. 7. 1^<^: A. Ca. B, instead of %?^:. 
The same form in the editions, and in Ind. Off, MS. 1980. — 1. 13. (56, 7.) xnj ^ 
A. Ca. ^rm Bi. M I. The words Trfl[lj: gf^ran: are omitted in A. B. Ca. — 1. 15. 

P. 167. 1. 24. (57.) S^yana does not notice a passage in the Anukr. at the 
beginning of this liymn. The Anukr. says, xj^lftf ^H'r< fWfgirr W^^ %^ 
ffif-iM^vt , i. e. ' The Rishis mentioned in the Dvipada portion in the Atriman(/ala 
saw the next four S<iktas.' This refers to MancZala V, Sukta 24, where the 
four GaupS.yanas or LaupS,yanas are mentioned as Rishis. — 11. 31 seqq. (57, i.) 
The extract from the (S^^y4yanaka has been fully discussed in the Preface to the 
Fifth Volume of the First Edition (see above, pp. c to evil). It seemed a useful 
passage for pi-oving the existence of the three families of S^yaJia's MSS., which 
had been called in question, and for showing, at the same time, the result that 
can be obtained by a strict application of the principles of diplomatic criticism. 
It has been objected that, according to these principles, I ought not to have 
restored ^T^i ff a, because none of the MSS. have it. This would be true, but for 
the fact that we have here to deal with a proper name, which can only be either 
right or wrong, and where therefore the authority of the MSS. must yield to the 
authority of independent facts, v^, by itself, is impossible, and could not be 
connected with ■?:r«I. Again, if the lirst syllable has a long vowel, we cannot re.if! 
Xj^niV%, but must admit a patronymic TT^nfl%. VtB'. is a word of doubtful 
meaning. It occurs in the Ga/iapa,</ia (.s-ivMi), where it is followed by iftftrai' 
The commentary to Ptln. V. 4, 120, explains "fft^: by 3ft:, ox. See also Fhn.Yli. 
3,18. Wilson gives the meanings of carp and ox. The Amara-kosha gives proshWa 
as the name of a hsh, and the commentary adds prosh</ia/i. as a masculine in the 
same sense. R4dhakS,nta gives the following extract : 1; g^JngT^^trfT'n^T'T^ 
iftft nt: «^^ ^' (cf. Hema/.andra, 1257) ^^ qT?[ W¥r Hr«fl«n I ^ ^tV^ t 

Tff\ 7n <,«ft<ftr|<<mfgq'q H I T^ *n7T: |. In the Rig-veda iffH occurs once more m 
VII. 55, 8, in TfV%T5^:, which Sdyana explains by iit^ l^n^:. In X. 60, 5 
Ti^nrftg is used as another name for AsamtUi and his family. Again, the 
passage from ^ ^ ^ r 'T^ ^ to qTT^^* 's evidently corrupt, and it has been 
remarked that I ought to have restored it conjecturally. But my object was 

p. 174. 1.22. (<5o, 5-)] MAiVDALA X, 19 

the very opposite of conjectural restoration. It was to show how far in a 
passage, where we could not hope for external help, a strict adherence to the 
rules laid down by Lachmann and other classical scholars, would lead us. I 
ought, however, as pointed out by Professor A. Weber, to have given more 
weight to the reading \^i,\4 in Ca. Though this is not the reading towards 
which the three families of S4ya«.a's MSS. point, yet my own MS. Ca frequently 
holds an independent position, and would suggest the reading ^g^, which has 
now been adopted ; R reads ^rgi^ ^._p. igg. I. 7. (57, 2.) m^^rm II jfRfttW A. 
Ca. B I. 4- M. <4l»i<im R.— 1. 14. (57. 3-) ^^- See K%dyana &auta-s{itra IX. 
13. 35-— 1- 1 8- i57> 4) ^i^nwRi etc, n ^ irnjiTra ^rrro 'WTR^rraimift % i^i xn^r: 
?Bgftf?j A. ^ KimiM ^^x^ iRT^»mi TmfT % ^^'ragfrfn Ca. w?t vmrv mr- 
*ira HWt ^ ^i\^ri[: *<jR,ni B I, ?if^ Tjqj'urra ^trra hi<!]m«ii« etc R. See TS. II. 
5, 2,4.-1. 22. (57, 5.) Sdyarea seems to have taken fxnn:: as a nominative, and 
to liave read ipt: instead of jh.*. 

P. 170. 11. 1 seqq. (58, 7 to 10.) A has no commentary, but simply states ^ WJ 
rft ^1% ^r*\r^ 'Ef^ q^mf^rf?! V% T^'^VmU ^rra ^^ r^ KK Pf l ^ T: I. The same in 
B and C 2. B 4 has the same, except its retiding ?i% f«r^t»T^ a i J i r<.n T etc. Ca 
reads : ?nnft I '!I% ^q ^fw I ^fl^ 1 1(% ij^7nf«tf7I I ^wt ^1% f^m^ ^Rf^ | ^ifjft I 

^^ ^ ^ «5i %(Sj%sT etc. The text as given in M i was taken from M, which 
Iiaa : 7, % ^vt ^ JlMti^ ^ ^I^vH^remtf^ftT rlf^ Ifj II 8, '^ g^\fr ^ 

»h: ^ ^rjm^ ^i^ Tif^ jni II 9, 1 g^T^t ^i^ ^^ pT,: tj^^nn: 7rf^?T 'nf 11 
10, 1 ;g^vt ^% *i^ fr^fjrflT TTf^ jRt II "grrer '^'^ f^»i^in: 11 The last words 
sliow that the commentary in M is a later addition. — 1. 21 seq. (58, 12.) The 
separate mention of the q^«T1 must be supposed to lie in the words i^ '«raT^ 
^^% I. All the MSS. give irt^ as a neuter. 

P. 171. 1. 8. (59, 1.) f^j^fTr: uTOt^nn A. B4. f^r^Rr: TiTttr^gm Ca. f^j^nj^^m 
B I. M.— 1. 9. f^-^TTt Ca. trft^fW A. B i. M i.— 1. 16 seq. {59, 2.) gfti^i ^riT ^ I 
^rrr ^: n ^^t^t^: wkj^: A. B i. 4. -sf^ ^tm ^ wrr^ Ca. ^t ^m ^r^r 
^?j: R— P. 172. 1. 8. (59, 5.) o^j^ a «^^ A. Ca. B.— P. 173. 1. 5. (59, 8.) 
^5^11 'H'^JR^M. JTWT^Bi. ffiigA. C2. ff?rf%Ca. %wr^B4. 

B. 173. 1. 25. (60.) ^v^f^rrrsT^^i^ ^yiTH A. B4. g^^jt'^H wtf^Trrat 
5T^^ ^ ^^m I Ca. g^^t^ffftmsTT^t'^ ^m B i.— 1. 26. '^ pm Bi, 
'^ ^m A. R. .^ Ca. ojj^ ^ ^^m?— P. 174- 1. 7- (60, 2.) ?rer after ^: 
deest m A. B i. 4, and Ca, which reads H flril*< < < if^<^ 'gg ftwij. Possibly t^raf^pr 
"I'ly be a marginal note which was intended for fSranfipf, and meant to be 
inserted after the first Riip^t^ . B 4 has indeed f*RTfiH (sic) between f«ntf^ 
and x^.—l 22. (60, 5.) ^ * l '*i'5(*) l &*<^ f^Ttm'$^ tS[ II ^I'Wr t TT ^ TJ^WTWiJ 1 t^ 

• '"'JTre^nfTig ^^RTw^ t? M. ^^R-qTOwrrfTTg ^?wto€ % t? B i. 4. '^n^ i;^^ 
^^ ^ y\ VHm^ TPTT '^^rrftr etc, Ca, n*i t> 'R*<nmfi^ ^r«wnK^ ^ T^ R.— P. 1 75. 

c 2 

20 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 175. 1.4. (60, 7.) 

1. 4. (60, 7.) The extract from the ^atyayanaka is again corrupt, '^sr^ ^ A. 
B4. B I. C 2. ^?r^ M^ M. ^nianM^tM Ca. v^r fwf^ R.— 1. 5- HT^rl^wyi inn- 
7t:trtT>ftws^ ^ m w^mtw TrfwTTf I ^ ^rm Ca. ^g^ara^ TT'TRr'^t'mT Trfsrrr? 
w^ ?rnn A. CB. C 2. g^^g^??m^«i, vynii- ^ ^whim^ cwr^^^ftfTi •afwm^ 'nrn 
B 4. g?r#g^^^?i: cT *< i <Nr* < rd i rftlnaf w^ 'HfiT B I. H'rtg^amk ?WT^^^»rt?r 1 

II.— 1. 7. »i^Miq« H^ II 'Ttm» A. Ca and Bnh. MS. m^TTPi: B i.— Ifq^T v:mf^ II Itrt^ 

^f%^ A. B 1 . 1^^ ^?J^f^ B 4. 1q«i ^nffff^g Ca. Tlie two MSS. of the Brihadde- 

vatu read \^^^ ^WTf^g. Cf. Rv. V. 24.— 1. 9. nlm^: A and B/ih. MS. ?ftm« B i . Ca. 

P. 176. 1. 12. (61.) ^WT^f^^^n^ %ST Ca. 'ITHT^f^?^ A. M I. ^ITHT^f^ B i.— 

1. 13. ^mrm^ iTHi^f^ ^ii'if^ %^t^ TTf^ II HH i PM'^wifH B I. CB. wf(mf^ A. C 2. 

^WTftraiT ITHl^f^ ITT'Rt ^^g^ clfi[ Ca. ^rTTTf^raiT TTHT^f^ ^TVH^ %^ 7T^ 

B4.— 1. 15. ^|3i '^trnt ^ B 4. ^ ^ A. ^3^ fw CB. ^■^ ^Vt\m ^ Ca. 
'3^'q^3^^C2. ^ - - ^ B I.— ^% <HiiJ< ii<ui I A. Ca. B I. 4. C 2. ^^ %frr(^ 
m^nrf CB.— 1. 1 8. ^^aii< gitf^ 1 CB. B 1. ^« i gi*l Miiqa i *) wt^ A. B 4 pr. m. ^^s^- 
■HT^Ft^ gifft C 2. ^gj'^gsT^^ifTfHCa.— 1. 19. ^ip^^ll ^^'^^A. ^4^ 

B4. Ca. ^ ^j^ C 2. :^ ?t^^ % CB. ^ ^ J ^ B I. ^ ?ra^ ^ B.— ■^^ST ^: 
^o II ^f^W[: ^» A. Ca. C 2. ^fijHt ^n ^^ CB. B i. ^arftrsT: «• B 4. Jl reads ^firer: 
■H^4^»i<^i4 i m ^^PtftfTT-— 1. 21. ■zrrrirrtwTxrani ^rsnt 'nt ^^^ A. C 2. ^r^T^nci 
Bi. ^smt mt UT'^^ Ca. zr^xiTt 3rn?i CB. •?rfiqT'ntmti^B4. ?r^ tit: mt irn^ R.— 
"^^ m%: 1 1! ^ <\^H -^ *i 11 '^^^ mf : % '^ <T?rrew -A.. «>^f^ mf : % '?r Hwt^f^ Ca. 
B 4. o^ifi^ in^: % ^ cT^rm^-m C 2. o^^ ^^gntrw B i. CB.— 1. 22. mw^ »t^ B i. 
Ca. 5^i^tii*{^<\<j A. 3rrw'!i'reT^ 11.— I. 23. *isj^ii<i4 sn^ A. ■^^T^rni »rR Bi. 
^^<<ii(nm< ^ T Ca. -1. 25. ^nm^f^ Hi. sn^rf^f^ ^ w^ A. Ca. M i. R.— 1. 33- 
(61, 1.) HPiH^f^ ^JTRT A. jrriTT^T^ ^ ^^in'n: Ca. maiTr^ iT^T^^nTT C 2. B4. 
iTPT irst^TiT CB. B I.— jfranTOTtR^i B 4. jft^rnrorvM^^ A. liWnTOTvi^ Ca. 
jfrnrrrerti^KT C 2. mvswm mv;^t^ B i. CB.— 1. 34. ^ ^rwi^f^: 11 ^ T^rm" A. 
C2. ^?rann»Bi.4.Ca.CB.— ^^^^^Ait.Br. % ifB^^ A. B i . R. ^int^Ca.- 
P. 177. 1. 10. (61, 2.)^r!n'«R: II ^i^ v^ A. Ca. C2. ■5i^>Enf CB. B I. ?nTrB4.— 

P. 1 78. 1. 6. (61, 5.) ^'K^^'tn (MS. has x:?t) TW^: from Ca. R also has it.— 1- 10. 
After ^!i%: firfq B 4. (la mark a lacuna ; not A. B i. CB. C 2. It should liave heen 
w: f%fq 5ff^ ^nN ^ 4^nd l ^m% ^^^jTf^^ ?^:- ^'^- ^v- X- i49> 2. R has 'ut: 
f^fti^.— P. 179. 1. 2. (61,8.) rTg[<i;^im^ A. 7ri[ri: %twTsn Ca. %mrRtBi. 7m 
m^^ M I. — 1. 3. As Sayana would hardly refer i^H^rn: to Vastoshpati, he must 
take it as the subject of a new sentence, connecting it with ■^•. ^f^rsM^^- The 
reading of the MSS. seems corrupt in the passage which follows ; and after 
«f»T^, 1 should either be added or uiiderstood. — 1. 4. ■^: ^agf^'^V^m ^f^TWr^'" " 
^: ^fm ^twnJTTt B I. ^ fi il R ) <Ru il4M(A. ^fwr ^' 1^- Ca reads ^»^^: ' 
THT^nrgi: 1 f*^ h ^fsm ^ rm [iw-—F- 180. 1. 1. (61, n.) % t^ ?J ^ Ca. B4- « 
g»4 A. C 2. B I. CB. 1 ^ ?_nT^^n!n!r A. C 2. B 4. n^t^rstti! B i. CB. Ca.— 1- ^■ 

p. 187.1.38. (63-)] MAiVDALA X. 21 

Before n^1<4l all the MSS. (so also R) repeat ^m^rTf. If this were kept, it 
would have been necessary to write <n T^ tr^T^m.— 1. 11. (61, 12.) ^ ITOiBTW: 
A. C 2. ^ im^KC Ca. B4. Bi. CB. R. Nitmakarana used in the sense 
of nominal suffix.— 1. 12. ^s^ ^m^ Bi. Ca. ^s^ \ tjitr A.— 1. 14. 0^ gpf^ 
CB. •'tPT ^TR Ca. <>\pn »J wr^ B4. A. C2. ysj gRT*Tf?r Bi.— P. 181. 1. i;,. 
(61, 16.) ^ nmfM etc. It SAyana seems to have written ?r l?^Tf*r: and to have 
continued in the nominative ?fim«flinir: ^. Thus we have ^ xprTf^: ff%^- 
ginnfi: ^ -A^- C 2. ^ tnnf^: ?f%ff^»niw: fl»l,CB. B1.4. ^t»T tjtt^ ff^raff ^»tm: 
?I^Ca.— 1. 29. (61, 18.) ^^qrr Ca. ^f%RST A. B i. M i. R. ^!||T occurs in Gawa 
prekshadi. But in p. 182, 1. i, Ca also has ^fV^IiT. — P. 182. 1. 11. {61, 19.) 

I fiiwr: fwr: ^rf^ ttoj^t: «?5S|fT^ w^iJi: ■R^jftf^ (sec. man. m:) B 4. 
lfl[wr - - - ^tTT^i ■Jiv!(fl<j|i: ^(injtr^ m?rw: H'sm'^fMa T Ca. 
\^W(' ^fT'^ f?^ wamm: ^rar iw?^: ^ai^Ti^ w^nn: H 'ilti t fq g T A. C 2. 
Ift;^: 'sfffj^ 3i^iT^: 'frsrei Tn^rrm: ^nirer ^tm ^iwa- uiiHlr^fi v . CB. B i. 

—1. 18. (61, 20.) tfiH ft[^: ^M^^: ^^ II %ftr: ■!( fti^: »i%%»t B4. ?jftr: si fij^: 
v(^^ A. C2. Srf%^ fi[^: wll%«T CB. Bi. ^f% sn wSt'^ Ca. %ftj^ f^ipj; ijgsft^^ 
Mi. R.— p. 184. 1. 5. (61, 26.) ^^m^^^TPi II l^m^: |^^«f A. ^?iTf«: |m*i. B 1. 
«t^<nf»T^^^ Ca. ^fi^^TfH^^^Tn, R. One expects llfiT:^nmf«^«. 

P. 185. 1. 6. (62, I.) ^WW^ I. This is the reading of all the MSS., instead 
of what wc should expect "H^^^. Sayana may, however, with regard to the 
iiiiinediately following verses, have considered the second person plural (wilf) 
irregularly put for the third person plural, and in that case, the reading of 
the MSS. might be explained. All the MSS. have mrn: ^, but B i and Cl> 
liave '^ti^nfl^, B 4 "-iiMfaj^ sec. m.. which reading occurs also in the Nitima/lyari. — 

K 186. 1. 26. (62, 7.) mmn^ ^ ^m 1^ I. CB. Ca. <v^m^ =? ^tPk A. B 4. C 2. J!. 
llie passage, though apparently taken from the Bj'/haddevata, is not to lie 
found in any MSS. of that work.— i:?sNihh<l. Ca. ^f^ifiH^fi: A. Tf'TSR'H'ITf^ B i. 
^ ^\^^ R— P. 187. 1. 13. (62, 10.) ifri^ftT!!^ »ftm: 11 qftW^ ^itm: A. C 2. qfr- 
wmrj jfrfn: B i. i3 4. Cli. Ca. jfrqfTm^ tjfx:j!iiq^ jftm: R. 

B. 187. 1. 27. (63.) '^tfTTtn 11 ^trRTIT A. *hTl<,*ll Ca; lacuna in Bi. See 
Anukr. M. p. 40. — 1. 28. gwrHSr^T^^l^iffl %^ Tlsl^ %^t^ f^f^lT^ II 

I ^«rrf«5R^f^ wi%?t% ^'y^ciu!^ xiymw ^y^^rf^f^rrr^j 1 Ca. 

I- i»aTf«5fTO5f^'^^?f^ %^% T^HwtM B 4, ^<n^7R %^%^ in marg. 

j?«rrft^^: g?f^?f»T %^% Tpn^ ^^^rW^irn A. 
l^wrftyeiift: 57ft%ff»r %^% fmrn^ %g^^rfsTf45[ni C 2. 
f ^^f»T5(wt: gTi^ffir ^'sr|% tptow %^ f^fslrvT^ B i . 
1 ^wtTh^i^: gnltnf*! %^ nn?^ t^ f^if^iPt CB. 

* THE RAM«KRtSHHyi M|«|OH f 4 7 55*1^ 



22 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 188. 1. 3. {63, i.) 

—P. 188. 1.3. (63, i.)'«I#8iA.C2.Bi.CB.B4. Tn%: Ca.— P. iSTg. 1. 22. (63,6.) 
Ca reads g^^ «i?t n: ^^ etc., omitting all from «ii^«ii^ to ^«vr^. Siiyawa 
seems to have read ^ m^ instead of ^ ^it^. — P. 192. 1. i. (63, 15.) With 
regard to the Viniyoga, see Rv. Bh. I. 1 89. 

P. 193. 1. 25. (64. 3.) »i<i»nn^ MSS. ^fg?nr^?— P. 194. 1- 2. (64, 4.) gfw^ 
ft an gt ' qTti : A. C 2. » m*t^ i aiO JumlN: B 4 sec. m. ft^nJra "Tt flW^ff^: Ca. '^i^ ^ff 
iTtT^fN: CB. Bi. Cf. X. 64, 16 ; 99, 6. S&yana takes tuvlravjln either as de- 
rived from tuvi by means of two possessive affixes, viz. ra and v^n, meaning 
' possessing many,' i. e. praisers ; or he takes ra as a possessive affix, attached to 
tuvi, tuvira meaning 'possessing manifoldness,' and referring to the gods, to 
which a new possessive suffix is added, viz. v4n, giving to the compound the 
meaning of 'united with those who are possessed of manifoldness.' It is not 
possible to read pratyay&vriti/i. ; first, because the MSS. are unanimous against 
it ; secondly, because ^vritih is never used as a technical term for loss or 
disappearance. See also Aufrecht in Zeitschr. der Deutschen Morgenl. Ges. 
vol. XXV. p. 232 seq. — P. 195. 1. 29. (64, 10.) ^t|J^i: 11 ^fhJ^: Ca. Mi. ^fhPf 
A. Bi. — 1. 30. <t7t: 7 m*< i « i <a 3i*i«i*i ^^^i^rpng 11 titi: 7ni»rm^ ai«*<i«i ^tg Ht- 
m\'mq A. ?m: i i i ti^JM^a w^rni^ ^t^ •Tl^i'Mig B4. tjct: ipttt^ »i*i*<i*i ^ it 
^Tpqrg C 2. 7i7i: nipfrR^ tr^tot^ ^^frg 't\^T«ii<j Ca. nn: imiTR^ n-n*\\v ^\^ ^- 
wpqrg B I . CB. nn: ^ nm^ ^m it^mri ^g 'ft^Rm. ^"rg H. It might be if^mrTR:, or 
»i*l*< l * < *a Wtf^:, if governed by -sf^:, but the corruption begins even with n^:. As 
it is, s;at4l T * 1 <g would be first explained by the ace. sing. iffl^rR, and this after- 
wards by ^#H«i,in order to have a plural for ^:.— P. 196. 1. 1 1. (64, 12.) ^ «r^ etc. 
There has been a mis])lacement in all the MSS.: A begins with \ \^Jl % ^:, 
A sec. m. and C 2 with ^ ijj- ^ ^:> Ca. B4. CB. Bi with ^ tsi^ ^'n:, and 
they all continue ^rt fv^ "tm^ % n^ <igr*4'*«l ^ ^K^W. \ t^ (is^K*^ Ca) ^: ^ 
^^W % tint tRJ ^.^.^id etc. There probably was a lacuna, which was supplied in 
a marginal note, and this note was afterwards inserted in the wrong place. 

P. 197. 1. 29 to p. 198. 1. 4. (65, I and 2.) ^^rt^^: ^W etc. || No pratika of 
verse 2 is given in A. B. Ca. A. Ca read ^^«ra: it^m ^Trf^ ^ etc. ; B i reads 
^nrt^w: gmf^ %1 etc. ; R reads H^mi i WTTTf'. ^: ^Tfft^ ^^Ttf^ ^ii^[^T?^!gTn:^ 
^v: ll<=lll and begins the commentary of verse 2 with f^S^ 5^«i"^g ^t^ W 

m^ WP^^' wiLT^Tfti wvx\ v^ '^^f^ jw^sn frrf^ ^ etc.— P. 200. 1. 4- (65. ^■) 

^TTSP^ from R. '^n^n^ Mi. w^RPm. A. C 2. B 4. CB. B i. Ca reads ^Rn^^m, 
fqg^tra: ^is ft tm: fii'^ ^•. The same MS. has ^yvMr«(«Ri,«lt^*I instead of 
the '?iT¥Wt>raT'!r^ of the other MSS., and ffn: instead of f^^m:. 

P. 203. 1. 16. (66, 5.) f^Nw. Although all the MSS, read either f^r^ Ca. B4. 
or f^: ?iw A. C2. CB. Bi, and though the same reading f^pjinR occurs again i» 
X. 66, 7, I have ventured to print f^m^ as the nearest approach to what woul 
otherwise be unintelligible. 

p. 237- 1. 20- (73. 5-)] MAiVDALA X. 23 

P. 207. 1. 10. (67, 3.) n|^ A. Bi. Ca. C 2. iT|Tf^ Mi.— 1. 28. (67, 5.) »H f^ 1. 
This is the reading of all the MSS.; either jH should be omitted, or at least m 
added after ^. 

P. 209. 1. 24. (68.) ^^ A. Bi." Jirg (!) Ca.— P. 210. L i. (68, i.) ?tot by con- 
jecture.—!. 19. (68, 3.) gre^: B4. graftt«r: A. C2. gm^: Ca. gif?g^: Bi. 
CB. ffw^: CBsecm.— P. 211. 1. 23. (68, 7.) M4<n j)id r< adl Ca. ^^nnmT A. 

Bi. Mi.— P. 212. 1. 7. (68, 9.) q^i^ q% 'T^m Jn Mhtt I ^%^ f»Hffn: 11 ^r^ra 
tri I ^T»i: Tret fM^JTTt «r%«T f^^fir A. ^^r^ vM\\ vrmt f^wTK ^%*i fsr^frr C 2. 
^^ q*[(r: I v^m^ ^ f^T^rn; ^r%«i f^fpc B4. ^^rt ^mv^ f^r*m: ^^^^ Ca. 

qffTTI^ MhTT ^Wm.f*I^r CB. Ex.— 1. 23. (68, 11.) ^h^TT>if A. f^q^ io j Bi. 
^i M ti HNi Ca. 

p. 215. 1. 28. (69, 10.) Tfisn^n ^n^m. A. C 2. ^?^t^B4. Ca. CB. Bi. It may 
he «m^, but it is more likely that it was meant for 5t^T^. 

P. 216. 1. 19. (70.) h^mVh a. Jm^fif Bi.R. Xff^Kwf^ Ca.— P. 217. 1. 18. 
(70, 4.) oTK^JlW^r II "m^^^+iRR Ca. 'ii^^JTfirf^ A.Mi, « a|<^^|i||RR Bi. See, 
Paw. VI. 4, 154 and 1 57.— 1. 19. "O^k^cmO etc. u TrarT^TTT 'Txt^TRBn ^TSTT^wt^: A. 
'Wtm: C 2. ^wrr^gRT'Ct «(«J<=tii>J«<i trgT«[^: B i. ^mj:m ;^rrfr ^ srnmr Trgr^q: 
Ca. irarpc^^iTTt ^tJararfW^fT^m^: B 4 sec. m. ^^tr;^ i^irft ^^rnran q^T^^Pm: 
CB. ^raiT<^<*K^grnmT: U^T^^: M i. All the MSS. clearly point to the read- 
ing adopted in the text, whether the explanation be right or wrong. — 1. 24. 
ho, 5.) ^f^rar Pada MSS. igf^RT: Sayawa. 

P. 219. 1. 23. (7i.)^tf7j:tjxTT A. gsiftfn: qr^ Ca. gsfrmgqtBi. ^tp mH^K^H 
and 0,^ l3?'ih. MSS.—l. 24. ^^fmiJ^ Bnli. ^^^ Ca. ^sj^nw: A. ^^t^H'sm; Bi. 
Cf. Amikr. M. p. 154.— P. 223. 1. 6. (71, 10.) iTf<|^ A. C2. B4. CB.Bi. x^^j, 
Ca. Though xrfnjj^ might be defended, yet it would be more unusual even than 
ff?r^. Silya/ja probably wrote uf^I^J^, or simply ^f^jj^ij?— 1. 18. (71, n.) 
^^ M^ U m^ Tf^ A. C 2. B4. Bi. Af qi^ w^ Ca. qs^ CB.— 1. 22. 
1 f«mT?j: II OraTTf: A. C 2. B 4. B i. CB. Af. Trfmnn: Ca. 

P. 224. 1. 14. (72, 2.) ^ i f<<ia iR <«l' J : A.C2.Ca.CB. Bi.Af. ^ i r<rf ) <ja if%gr^: 
"4-— 1. 20. ^^rfwfra" u ■'^rersn: ^' A. C 2. ^httt: ^» Af ^rf^rem.^* Ca. ^f>reT- 
1^' lU- ^ftwrMiJOTi" CB. ijt rf^o CB sec. m. ^frt Tm' Bi. The end of 
l^ayana's argument is not clear to me.— P. 225. 1. 30. (72, 8.) In the TA. I. 13, 3, 
where the same or a very similar passage occurs, the list ends with ff^-q fi(^- 
^%^i.— P. 226. 1. 8. (72, 9.) ^di^ft^NSifi: II ^-?Tt^T?i: A. ?7rr^?T^^3T?(, Af. 
?^^Tff^Tf3T Ca. ^mn: ^^^ l ^^a i ^l. B i . Cf. liv. Bh. II. 38, 8. 

^- 226. 1. 15. (73.) r*lR^N A.Bi.Ca. Af v^m Ait. Ar.— 1. 29. (73, 2.) 
'''^''t t^n?%fn H "Ti t^ fipjtfn A. Af. •7rfii?[ firn%m Ca. •n^OnnnTfTr Bi.— P. 227. 

^ ^: tot: vt^ ^ m^tfw^M^ft f^: m^^cl gHTir^rf^w^: 1 rmf^ Af 

24 VAEIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 227. 1. a6. (73, 6.) 

^ f ^ twt: vii5?m i^fmt^iftf^Sfr f«rr rrerr: K i <mrai* i ni *<f <W ' J : 1 Ca. 

^ ^: ?Rn: ^ra^%f J^rnrf^rftf^^ ^: «T<?M<jft. 'OHis{«<f<«»«i: 1 <fmtftr B i. 
^ ^: ?mT: w^^t i^rprtM^f^ j€t: jn^Rrrmftt f'wnnif^TJr^: CB. 

— 1. 26. (73, 6.) ^'^^ II 'sr^: ?^ A. Af sec. m. ? (It is not clear in Af, whether ^ 
is corrected from something else, or crossed off.) '^l^^ Ca. Mi. R. '^ff^ j^ ^ 
Bi.-— P. 228. 1. 8. (73, 7.) ^hr Bi. ^^A. ^Ca. ;p( Af,— brwt 11 ^^ A. Ca. 
Af. B 4. CB. mi^ C 2. JRTfift B i. In M i ustan ^ TT^I: was left out ; it is like- 
wise omitted in R. But the explanation seems to be, 'Quick goes the way, 
lovely goes the way.' — 1. 20. (73, 9.) The commentary to verse 9 is left out 
in all the MSS., it may be seen in Si\ya»ia's commentary to Sv. I. 4, 1, 4, 9: 

^^'sJ.^ '^?R*rrgv»n^<Tf^ ^ ^^ f^rarf f^r^wrr#%vif »p(rr%<Tt ti^ '^^rr t^nj 
^T^vn: I '^iT^TfTi II R gives tj^TOTflj^ ^'RT^ ^[^^t%<T: ^siftqi "vmi r^va »Tf^i^ 

R 232. 1. 4. (75, 4.) f%^ f^r^TTR^ Trit ^n^^f^^ ^rsr^ 11 fs^ Tm^m\^ w^ 
'TOfH ^a^^^T^r^^ A. flr^ f^rsmr^ h^ ^vf^ ^^^^t 'i ^ra^T C 2. fli^ ftr^wr^ 
»T7t «i^rf% ^i^^iK 'i^r^ B 4. f%^ R(^4n*n fRft 'T'if% I ^^^T ^ra^rr <^a- f^ ftra- 
JTpft' H% «naf^ 'at^sR gT:?j ?J3|^t CB. B i. f%^ ftr^iTRt »t^ 'raf^ v-ij-^T R. 

P. 233. 1. 24. (76, I.) ^T«rr of the text is left out by Sflyana. — 1. 32. (76, 2.) 
f^^?^ Ca. — Y<T^«i^ II ^; -^rg A. 2. ^?rra Ca. Vf^ w^ B4. CB ; deest in Bi.— 
P. 234. 1. I. f^sjfWt Ca. igtftTft A.Bi.— ^^^?t^ II ^^rrfn A. C2. B4. Ca. Mwrfn 
CB. Bi. •Ji^might be a technical term connected with horsemanship, in which 
case H'Xy&na may have written ^^. 

P. 235. 1. 24. (77.) On the metre of this hymn, see my Translation of the 
Rig-veda, vol. i. p. xcviii. — 1. 31. (77, i.) «) ^q -qq A. C 2. Ca. B4. CB. B i. Cf verse 
7 — P- 236. h I. «r ^TR^ff^: gf n t ^<ftf^ x^: gf A. C2. CB. Bi. ?r 

Th: T^: if B 4. «i ^ ^rrfn gf Ca.— 1. 26. (77, 4.) Tif<««h<fK T^ 11 irf^HTT T^ A. 
C 2. B4. CB. Bi. xjft^ Ty( Ca. — After ^f^ tliere begins a lacuna in A and C 2, 
extending to fl^mft in X. 78, 1.— P. 237. 1. 4. (77, 5.) Jffw«rm: B4. iff^ ^ 

w. Ca. uflrrnn^ Hfi i i< i ' ii Bi. CB. H ft i^q'l m Af.— I 29. (77, 8.) ^mran'Pifl^ 11 
'n^ m^nnpt Ca. 'trm^ ^TPPTH^ Af ^sTnT^^-mfifr jm%Bi. i(m.*im fqjm^ Mi.R- 

P. 239. 1. 31. (78, 7.) fXTt^^fNl II ■§ ; \| t »tTfi m t A. Ca. f;x:TMjt?|^ Bi. 

P. 241. 1. 16 seq. (79, 4.) From ^ n%m: to ?[ Ti%rrr: deest in A. Af Bi.— 1. 18. 
iWTrtJT II HTrfil A. Af. Bi. Ca.— p. 242. 1. i. (79, 6.) -g^ f^rfifv ^^iTtf^. As all 
the MSS. give this reading, there can be little doubt that the mistake is due to 
Silyawa himself, who mistook '^qsif for 'qtinj. 

P. 242. 1. 12. (80.) Shac/gurusishya, too, says, itn^')i* t ^^ l * 1' 't fM-^if q: I Trf^' 
iB^ra ^: I. 

p. 249- 1- 8- (H 70] MAiVZ>ALA X. 25 

P. 244. 1. 4. (81.) ^ f^ «H# ^ift^ CB. u 1^ Tnft^ t^jfN A. C 2. B4. 
Bi.Af. ii:^fii^^r?Tt^'^i*t^Ca.— 1. 5. awT^^%:A.C2. B4. ?nirT % ^s^: Af. 
Cii ; the passage omitted in B i. CB, Weber's edition gives 3|^ % ^^. See also 
TS. IV. 6,2,1; VS. XVII. 17.— 1. la. (81, 1.) r^ra^ A. Ca. C2. B4. Af. n^^ 
jftqsf: Nir.— 1. 24. ^y: A. Af. ?nr Ca. B i.— 1. 26. ?rar: « 5^ A. Af. B i. Ca.— P. 245. 
1. 5. (81, 2.) After •gr«i=tn<im,^inifl^^i,^ B i adds TfsfT: ^t?q%: gi^T^rmT^^nt^Rj^: i 
undim^m^'T i:f?T t^: I. It should be ^^?»t%: ^<>, but the whole m clearly a mar- 
ginal note, and there is no trace of it even iu CB. It occurs, however, in B 2. 

1. 7. Instead of the simple f^ f^(^mlr<Pl in A. C 2. Ca. B 4, we find in B r ^^tjt 
fej v^ ^ M ^^f^ irar^: 11 1 ftit^», in CB ^^n^ f^ ii^ ^t ^^^ ir?n^: fw^n *» 
f^go. It was probably meant for ^^rtf ftm^T^^^^^ Tnai^: 1 ^ f4f^. etc. ; 
or we should write ^ f^iT^^iM^fn I-— P. 246. 1. 7. (81, 5.) The comment to ^^j^ 
is left out in all MSS.— 1. 9. ^w'. A. Af Bi. ^y Ca. 

P. 246. 1. 33 and p. 247. 11. 1 and 6. (82, i.) ^rewT^ Si. S2. S3. S4. Pi. P3. P4. 
P8. A. Bj. Af Ca. ?ram% Aufrecht.— ^_ ^ Pada MSS. t^_ Mi. B.— 1. 2. ^ 
Pada MSS. ^ if^ Aufrecht.— P. 248". "l. i. (82, 3.) 7RW|%i Ca. <Tfq^ A. K. 
JTTTrq^ C 2. Af ^jm^ B 4. TTfrfq^ CB. Bi.— 1. 2. im A. Af Ca. Bi.— 1. 18. 
(^2, 5.) '?f^: qTm?(<fjrPT "^ ti^ ?ifi; Bi. o*^ ,jp^: q ^tm^ ^ ^ x^i A. M i. R. •'^ 
1T*!il^(?*ti«t Ca. — 1. 30. (82, 6.) The ({notation from the Smn'ti seems to be taken 
from Maim I. 8 seq., but it varies from the received text, having ^qiP^^ t^ for 
''^l^^'l, and ^^tfe» for ^jf^'jo. In Mahidhara's commentary, VS. XVll. 30, 
wliich agrees very much with S4ya?ia's, but follows nevertheless its own way, we 
liiive 41<si*<«llRHf^, and ^^^^JtfZ'.'^P. 249. 1. 6. (82, 7.) €#'%^ni%5f. The same is 
tlie reading of the MSS. of Mahidhara, VS. XVII. 31, for ^iSrr^n is only tiie 
very common Bengali spelling for ^li^^m , which Professor Weber has changed 

to 5#R^.— 1. 8. 'm^Tfi wtm ^ °M » Miq i <mr4<)rti*n^H<njt<tm<t: ii The state of 
t lie MSS. is as follows: 

('2 "^mfi: qnaumtuiTf^ ninxM *i^^*)«i'\<iit ^T ^ . 

U Ls only by a reference to Mahidhara's commentary on VS. XVII. 31 that 

' ayajia's wording can be restored with some kind of certainty. The general 

Conception in both commentaries is evidently the same. Nihilra, fog, is meant 

''^' Ignorance ; and as fog is not altogether nothing, for it impedes the vision, 

101 altogether something, for it cannot be perceived like wood and stones, so 

oi'orance, too, is not altogether nothing, for it covers the essence of the supreme 

'*^ ' ^'^^ is it altogether something, for it can be removed simply by under- 
'VOL. IV. * o 

26 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 351. 1. 16. (84, i.) 

standing. Supposing that Mahldhara wrote *iaa*<lf4<l {0^1*43*1 *n<y«flK> ^^^> as 
Professor Weber prints, i H8IMlfH< » !0^f^3*<*<'^^^*^'^ ' ^ 7®* ^"^^* unable to make 
anything of the '^nrisr, which is, however, supported by all MSS. There may 
have been an addition, to express that fog could not be perceived without 
something else to which it adhered, possibly SAyana may have said, that it could 
not be perceived except as clinging to stones and wood : anyhow, we can go no 
furtlier in the present state of our MS. materials, and must wait for help from 
other sources. In his commentary on TS. IV. 6, 2, 2, S^yarta says : •^T^Tf^ 
srnjreff! ^fl. ^TammuilfcC^MicHi!! ^'°<^*<<nJi|g=)l< - This is better. I retain the 
neuter ^ and w^c(^, because all the MSS. have it. 

P. 251. 1. 16. (84, I .) In some respects SAyana's commentary in TBr. II. 4, i , 
10, where this verse occurs with slight variations, is better. 

P. 253. 1. 30. (85, 2.) ^jft T«RTWl^^ I T 'Sf ^TSm X^ 'T'^RT TIf^?reT^: H 
A 5^t^ »<ii | MHU I * | t(i T 'g ^T^ Tf^ T^^T ^ ^ ^'% etc. 

C 2 ^fWt T^^TWlTf^ 't ^ ^Fm Tfn Tg^T xm ^^ ^"^ etc. 

Ca ;«Wr TsrrrxiiT t ^ "vifn x^ -f^R vmnny^n: i 
B I. 4 ;^t»ft T?nrRn%^ f ^ "^rran x^ Tsr"^T ^t^iji^^j: i 
CB ^iwt 'ramin^m n VTrwrq n \ff\ t^^ ^"^jmr^: 1 

I doubt whether the text, as I have given it, is right. I have not been able to 
trace a similar etymology of nakshatra anywhere else ; at all events, it is not 
more absurd tlian other etymologies of the same word, proposed by native 
scliolars. In the commentary to the 6aiikhi\yana-sAtras (MS. meum, p. 1241^), 
at the end of the fourteenth Adhydya, in explaining the Nakshatra-stomas, it 
is said, ^^^^ftr f ^^<sM*«lR I tpr VW X^^-—'P- 254- 1- 3- (85. 3-) ^: 'rf^TT'l,^- 

mm^ f^^wu^ II ^: v^^rm % ^ g ^rrTnS A. ^: rrfq^si % ?t ^ wr»rni C2. 
V' n f qqT'f T ^tvii^^'wr^ Ca. ^: qf^TR. 1 «n5*i«iiT*»i«J f^fflBwra^ B 4 sec. m. ^: 
trftr^T'^ f^RT^ ^\5^TwmTvJ rMf*t«i<sivi CB. ^: fi(WT^ 4>5^ 1 m*rnJ f^f^stOT^ B i. 
trfq^T^ %^ ch wivT fM3B<HT^ R.— 1. 26. (85, 5.) ^ xgnw^ «f»Tt?i irRr:^ra% A. C 2. 
Ca. B4. ^ ^mn^ ^(^ B I. CB. Cf. Ait. Br. VII. 33-— "i^- 255- L H- {85> 7-) 
of^qgiPTTT?^ I %1 %^gi^Tfw«t?raT<ft^ t(^>n W3I^ II 

0^ f^^^ti\mi^ I ^ %gix;^g|%ii ?racft%^ "^ITBirigrf! B I. 

ofi: Trf^fWT^nJ^ TTIT TfT^ T^gi|r»iatl*|il ^^T^ T^H '^l^rfWr TcT Ca. 

o?j; f ^^B ^ grtiM^TT: I ^ ^^f^Mkl«5JT<f^M ^^i^^ A. 

•f^^isfm^ni^^ I ^T ^^gi^TT^ ?fwnft^ '^^ ^^ M i. 

See also TS. VI. I, i, 5 ; /Sat. Br. III. i, 3, 12.— 1. 22. (85, 8.) ^t^TmHiTt ^H iim- « 
%^ M> ^fTT ^ #TTir: A. C 2. -TOT Tm: ^tn ^ ''St^: Ca, iNlmi^ft « ^n: B4- 
?r T ^ ^: ^11: CB. 'Ug^; B i. Nothing remained but to restore the text con- 
jecturally, and chiefly with reference to Rv. Bh.VI. 53, 9. — P. 257. 1. 19. (85, 16.) 
f'lfSrf^ M f*tf^'^ A. Ca. t*lfir m% C 2. fTTfrnt B4. ftini% CB. fm^ B I.— 

p. 265. 1. 30. (86, 1.)] MAiVDALA X. 27 

P.259. 1. 8. (85, 22.)wnf*i?NJ«Rrfii -«Tf*T%ir^Rit A. ?nmfji ?»ij gput Ca. ^mrm 
^ «a[(f B I— 1. 9. fff^Tm Ca; deest in A. C2. B4. B i. CB. The lacuna is 
indicated in A. B4, the position of Ca is very exceptional here. — 1. 17. (85, 23.) 

|m ^mm Ca. ^ w 'a ^^ A.- ^ ^j?nf B i.— 1. 19, (85, 24.) ^f^rmr ^w 
f?r^ II ^rar ^ f%|?» A. C 2. ^mrar ^frf ft^tii: Ca. '^m^ 4i ^r< ) f ^<t: B4'; 

deest in Bi. CB. Cf. Indische Studien, vol. v. p. 384.— P. 260. 1. 2. (85, 25.) 

HTm m ^ram A. B I. jHiJr '^refn Ca.— 1. 13. (85, 27.) o„%^ „ oj^^ftf^-^ a. B i. 

M I. 'Tj^ipf I Ca. — p. 261 . 1. I. (85, 29.) inf^ ili?T5TfJT3nt: Ca. in^ aii*j^r*<«'i?: 
A. C 2. CB. ^^ imy^fi{«i«|: B i. TRff^j ^i^r^r ^ttHt" etc. B 4. ^^ sng^rfiraT^; 
Mi. K— H!0<:H^d«a A. ;uO<,l*tJ«a C 2. -siftu f^w^ CB. f^^^ B i. tt^- 
TTTiTO Ca. irftTTfww^ B 4.— 1. 1 7. (85, 31.) .^f^ ,ra[T 5i?mi; ^mi^ci: B I. o-jjrgjT 

oRTfC 'Jlri: Wrarrl A. "1113^ ^HT?j; ^TWTft C 2. "ITT^ ^WT ^TOTWRi: Ca. ^mTci; ^mrwRi; 

B4. 5RTrt; ^mriOT CB. 't^xwj ^^m^ ■m*<h^k li.— P. 262. 1. 8. (85, 34.) '^gq^t^ir 1 
B 1. 4. Ca. C 2. CB. '^gxmtJJf A.— 1. 14. (85, 35.) g^vnf B i. 4. Ca. CB. gjnvT^ 
2. ^TjnJTH A. The commentary is difficult, but it is quite clear that B4ya)ia 
takes a.sasanam, visasanam, and adhivikartanam as parts of female dress.— 
•HTMnfMf^^ilW II OJTR f^m^ A. B I. Ca.~l. 1 5. Iff^yjj TTT^ II ^rf^yir :^T% A. XIVS 

gT# C 2. ^Tfj^vT ^T% Ca. CB. ^if^vT ?rr^ B 4. ?rt^vT ^ B I. This I do not 
niiderstand.— P. 263. 1. i. (85, S7-) Sdya^ia's explanation is very extraordinary, 
hut the MSS. leave little doubt. All would be right if the word gj^, apparently 
used as a feminine, were simply left out, except where it is the dual. Even 
after ^rtid*ifl5i^f, most of the MSS. have inserted this gr^, reading rrf gf% ^ 
t;T5^^:A. m^-^irt?^]^ ^:C2. m 11x71^ w t^: ¥^: Ca. mgniw 
IJT'I^ ^: B 4. m ^^ '^m inf ^: CB. In B i all is left out between m and 
31^ 'aimt. One might conjecture ^s like ^rmt^', but such a word would be 
too unusual for S4ya«a to use. I have left the passage as it is, because it is 
just possible in yasyUm iirau to take llrau as an independent locative.— 1. 30. 
(85, 42.) Tft%: M uq^: A. Ca ; from ifl^: to tt^ wanting in B i. 

P. 265. 1. 13. (86.) ^mnn^ A. C2. Ca. ?rm^ II. ^fr^ B4 ; deest in B i. 
t'B: cf BR., s. V. The Bnhaddevatc^ makes Vrishakapi the setting sun, Vri- 
.^hakapayi the gloaming.— 1. 20. ■^rf^r^: ^tji;. One expects iifM a') *)^'*^: ^mi:. 
One MS., A, reads ^if^irN '^TRl, which may have been meant for an adjective of 
^1m«V*t:. 1. 30. (86, I.) As this passage is important (see 'Academy/ 1874, 
31st Jan.), I subjoin the readings of the six principal MSS.: 

• 'n>wifTi^ f% tif ^^TnfrSm '^fif^T^ TRsnfi^ 


^'^ 'nvWfT^ ft f| ^jfrf^^frn ^BtStstT^ 'TT^5rf»^ 

A^rr!r^^ ^ ? *n<nr<,S>m ^BtSi^ror ^TOftfn ij^ 1 7m ^ ti^i^ «iif%m fft: 

*D 2 

28 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 366. 1.7. (86,3.) 

^i^ T^H^"?! f^Tf%^ ^^W [ W . 71%^ ts^fii^TTsf^ 'T^ rrf^Ti^ (3^17 •=«m"\<4*i4: II 

qi f iai'«tT!i > l Jf^ ' <fi,<i;(H ' ^«a fMi<iim: f^^ <^^*<M*?i%^fii5^H!n ^flr frf^i% wreiT ^'«ri««'i: i 
—P. 266. 1. 7. (86, 2.) '^f^: A. C 2. B4. irf^: Ca. ^smn: CB. B i.— P. 267. 1. 17. 
(86, 7.) v^ A. B I. Ca^— 1. 23. (86, 8.) ^^ Tf^ g^«^"^ P3 pr. m. P4- P8. 
5^.J^P3 seem. ^^^ ^f^ -g^i^ P i. — 1. 27. After ipis: fsinir^: something 
is left out, wm^: or ^^rfnu^fwWtJTTr^:.— P. 270. 1. 5. (86, 17.) The last para- 
graph ■^•% ifiVUM^iKi, ls( l <!n ^<fd is left out in all MSS. except Ca. I have 
inserted it, although it is against the Anukramani. The Anukramant, however, 
has been several times disregarded in this hymn, and there is no other way of 
removing the vyatireka, and establishing the avirodha of the two verses. — 
1.13. (86, 18.) ^3TR II '3^ A. '^^Ca. 'a^ CB. B i. ^31^ Ca. g^B4. ^ is 
explained by Manu III. 68 to comprehend five pasiivadhasthAnas, the kitchen- 
hearth, the grindstone, the broom, tlie pestle and mortar, and the water-pot. The 
question is, which of these is meant here by Stlyawa. The MSS. are of little use, 
but as KulKika explains the first stind, the Z;ulli, by udvAhant, this might seem 
to be the word intended, though not in the senses ascribed to it by the dictionaries, 
but in tlie sense of /i;ullt, hearth. There is, however, another word for hearth, 
which comes nearer to the MSS., viz. uddha,na or uddhmtlna (Am. Koshall. 9, 
29). Still nearer would be udflhava, if it could be proved that this word, too, was 
used in a technical sacrificial sense. Even musalam would be possible, for this, 
too, is one of the five silniXs. — 1. 27. (86, 20.) ^?re» II ^ m: ^^ A. Ca. C 2. 
^iflTfreo B4. CB. ^^» B I. — P. 271. 1. 17. (86, 22.) '^iprm B i. Ca. Nir. ospmn: 
A. M I. II. — 1. 23. (86, 23.) At the beginning of this verse the MSS. have "% t? 
fq<i3t<*) | .i*4':^^ ?i^t!r gtngftfqi^Tipfi 1 A. C 2. B 4. CB. B i . 1 t^ f^i^raimT^ '^nnr't^w 
an i cjif TT ^ T Ii l ^ Ca. — *ra is explained as a vocative; ^f^ ^«s|(fl'^<> A. C2. ^n; JnaH^" 
Ca. ^J^TH »mf?W« B4. in: ^ nfirfn %» CB. B I. Now ^Sarabha is the name of <a 
monkey in the lidmayana, besides being the name of a strong fabulous animal, 
and this might refer to the animal mentioned in the preceding verse. But bhala 
does not lend itself to this interpretation, whereas by taking bhala for bhalla. 
Silya/ia might explain it by ^ara, arrow, and derive it from bhalati bhedane, if 
in Dh;Uu-pd.;Aa 32, 66. 

P. 27 1 . 1. 29. (87.) '^PlTTTfiTf^T^ II 'HflTTfHfT^ A. C 2. B 4. TrfTTT^'^W Ca ; 
the passage left out in B i. CB. — P. 272. 1. 12. (87, 2.) «T^^5*]T^T<Tn,ll TTC* (? ) 
graifn. B 4. inXTR ^nmn. A. ?mT«^I^TI»l. C 2 ; from flR^ ^ to JTTTf^mT left out in 
B I. CB, from •'^wt^: to «^?5T^ in Ca. ^JK-^^fKII .? See verses 14 and IQ--" 
P. 274. 1. 19. (87, II.) ^ ^<» II w ?n« Ca. •m* A. M I. R ; from ttto*. t^ TT^= 

p. 295- '• i8. (91, "•)] MANDALA X. 29 

left out In B i.— P. 275. 1. 4. (87, 13.) 'iirJivjt Ca. oujiwi: A. B i. o,jj ,^ i\^ 
CB. 'tlMt C 2.— 1. 1 2. (87, 14.) * ) i<cuim<^ i n A. B I. * < Kf« <d't|i n . Ca. R. 

P. 278. 1. 8. (88.) if^rqTrrirf^tfm A. B I. Ca. Cf. Kv. Bh.VI. 66.— I. 31. (88, 3.) 
^ttftftr '^frarfH Ca, ^ft^fw A. C 2. GB; lacuna in B4 and B i. Probably some- 
thing is left out by which Sayawa would have traced the theoretical form ^"^ mfa 
back to ^ftfH. The form itself, an imperative of the aorist, was probably un- 
known to him. R reads ^^iftr ^fftfiT.— P. 279. 1. 17. (88, 5.) ft^m: Ca. ■^' 
fl^: A. B I. M I.— P. 280. 1. 3. (88, 7.) ^iTtH^^M ^iff : 11 '^JTm^'^^^f^: C 2. Ca. 
B4. -^H^l^l wgflj: A. '^JifH^^sj ^: CB. ^^m^sji^; Bi. In verse 9, 
A. Bi. Ca read ^ntw^T ^?f:.— !■ 27. (88, 10.) ?j ff f^^f ^^rot Ca. f? ^ A. 
tf 55 ^ B I. See Nir. SS. vol. iii. p. 429. — ogft: gxTJ fW' A. B i. » c<|l i <,i^<th*< » 
(k— P 281. 1. 23. (88, 13.) TT^ < i n« tii<1 II H i<d n < « ii<> A. inu^iirTfr B i. n^nrfii- 
77^ Ca. See Var. Lect. to II. 5, i.— P. 282. 1. 17. (88, 16.) ^ ^T^i?^ ^44« i <nff II 
^a iT^^'W'nftft A. ^ 4^g | ^ *l*i ti i * i <nr^ C2. ^ jRi ^ »m ^iT^ Ca. ^grur^T ?^M- 
jK^tf^ B4. g[TT% f^ ^fig 5RT'fl% B I. CB. I cannot find the passage ; if metrical, 
there are two syllables wanting.— 1. 27. (88, 17.) After %f^ one e.xpects ^. 

P. 284. 1. II. (89, 3.) ^: before f^ by conjecture.— 1. 17. (89, 4.) ^Ttf^^ R. 
iin^ ^ MSS.— 1. 18. Ttxysnf^ MSS. "^^^nm M i. R. See Pfm. VIII. 5, 7,0.— 
V: befoi-e t^: by conjecture.— 1. 30. (89, 5.) RtiHtjiO A. f^THfrft B i. Ca. f^- 
TlfTf^ ^THTfrd M I. R. Nir. Roth. See Nir. SS. vol. iii. p. 66.— P. 286. 1. 6. 
(H 10.) TrrtTT^ II n^jTft A. Ca. M i. R. uwRt B i.— P. 287. 1. 6. (89, 14.) ?nj^ 
Ian— ^J3r^ '^ iiwf 11 wax lacuna "^ T^jm A. ira^ ^ iprar C 2. CB. ?w^ ^ nyfuj 

B4. ij^ ^ ^I^RWJ% B I. Ca only has the passage, and reads ^l ^ q t^glT <«<*iiq*j| 
ti^^^ ^ I ^»J(T%M4|^ni*{HI^s(^"t fmff fJTil^: ^^^ ^ IITEIT. 

P. 288. 1. 8. (90.) As this is a liymn which has been much read, owing to its 
Ijearing on Vedanta doctrines, the MSS. are full of corrections and marginal 
iu)tes. S;iya?ia's text, however, is not affected by them. — 1. 26. (90, 2.) ^^ nm 

^^ A. it^ 71^ ^^fiw Ca. Ti^crer ^^ B I.— P. 289. 1. 25. (90, 5.) Ji-rat^fn 11 

'J^ B I. CB. i|?t %tn A. q?r^ C 2. 71^ wmfn Ca. zi t^^ "^^ B4 sec. m. 
'mj^ M I. R— p. 290. 1. 2. (90, 6.) ^qfli<(1ni*<i ^ ir<f%^» A. Ca. onT^smimT- 
fff'»^» B I. 

1 • 293. 11. 25 to 30. (91, 4.) Thalacuna at the end 4 and the begin- 
ning of verse 5 occurs in all the MSS. The fifth verse occurs in Sv. 11. 3, 2, 7, 1 , 
'•lit the commentary there affords little help towards restoring the original 
reading of SS,yaria. R supplies, ?toT ^ <j<K M ^ : 'TPT^^Tn f^'IJTT T^iT^t 1^?!% Ti^ 

^^^ ^irsrra% n 8 n "^ -^ <!^ f%pft <:a*<q>>iim ft^fraftj^TW^^ jiwi^ (sic) i tj^ 

^^^' I ^V^M<Sl<jqriiig4iiM4^ etc. — P. 295. 1. 10. (91, 10.) llftwT'' 11 '^if^ 'TT' B i. 
"^f^v Ca. M I. R. ^ijfq: j^' A.— 11. 18 seq. (91, 1 1.) ^ m to i(ti: « ^w m ^srftj ^ 

^iTiJl CB. B i) trfiH,^ , llf^pjT^ TrfllP,^ ,ifffi, ^^T?ft^ 

30 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 296. 1.6. (91, 13.) 

^f^ CB. B i) <T3i^^Tgf?re«ftf?T ^: A. C 2. B 4. Af. CB. B i. R inserts v^n ?lf^ 
n^mrrgfTre^fttn after g^^^rfttn.— P. 296. 1. 6. (91, 13.) ti^h^ct «%fn A. C2. Af. 
'^^"%trr JT^f^i Ca. 'fli^H^sY *f%fn B 4. ^f^irf%^ *r%f7i CB. B i. 

P. 296. 1. 28. (92.) ^Tgf#fii%^ gtfti£i^nR 11 ^Tgf^i!^*T g» A. Ca. ^ffifasf go 
B T. See A6V. VII. 6, 6. — P. 299. 1. 22. (92, 1 1.) ^^^ wt ^ etc.ii ^^^ ^w\ ^^ 
'^ 5fT^ ^m"g f^'g TI^ B I. ^5[^ q# xjTsft 'g JT^ ^rra ^^^ H Xl^ Ca. From 
<^(ht) to 1^ left out In A. ^^t^ qj^ iTjaft ^ JT^<fr ^m^ f^W^ TJ^ M I. ^^ 

TTjcft =? Jnjfft ^^ '^^rg ^ R. — »fJTgTB: nf^ Trnmt Trr^^Km^ ^ inff^ 
'?r'9rrf«: '^t^: i?a^ A. ofH^wr: rif^'j.etc. ^^Tf«: ^Rl B i. "tH^alfM^sif^ri^ij^ 
snmt^TTW^ ^ fWT^rrfHTfft ("^rrfK: ^tgf«Tff^ R) ny^yTj Ca. 11. — 1. 30. 
(92, 12.) fvi^j g^rrei II ivn A. Cii. fwn ^^^n Bi. R. ^%it MS8. — 1. 32. After 
g^ A. Ca insert ^vn, B 1 gvji. — f^<t 1 ^^»r^fTf»T» II f%f I ^I'mrfl" A. om '^R^i 
'^^o Ca. o^it ^sn^ngpTTfw" B I. ^'rVTT f^ ^^Ifl'ifedfil' Il.~P. 300. 1. 7. (92, 13.) 
The same lacnna occurs in all the MSS. I have only changed grr^nsTfrT'l into <>^, 
without atteini)ting conjectural emendation, though it would he easy to do so ; 

^a^rfH mi^ I ^snuwr^m ^TJT«i*iT*if*«fff ^: 1 ■^n 1 ^ 1. — 1. 14- (92, 14) 'ifgT^ngtfT^^o 11 

^Tr^T'^H^'rr'' ^- ^Tigr^'T^IT'' C 2. qogi.rtJ^Tr" B4 sec. m. VrtJ<.M(«iri ff^Jg CB. 
q^^rl^^'' Hi. T|(gTi;tTSJfH %«n» Ca. qfgc.HfgH^'JT' M i. R. H7S'52. 

P. 300. 11. 27 and 30. (93.) As Silya?ia evidently took the name of the author 
to be m^: W^', it has been left so. He derives Vil^i from gg:, and even in tho 
last verse where m^'. VJ^: occurs, ho takes iTTsS: as a separate word. The 
Anukr., however, reads ^^^:, and the commentator explains g^fr^Tjrgr^ mtf.^ 
See, however, Anukr. M. p. 156. — 1. 30. ^T^S^ft Anukr. M. ^T^Jjft A. Af M 1. 
^»ft Ca ; lacuna in B i. — P. 302. 1. 17. (93, 7.) ^J^^ A. C2. Ca. B4 pr. m. Af. 
^^ B4 sec. m. B i. CB. — 1. 24. (93, 8.) ^rflnfht B4 sec. m. B i. wffllft^ A. Ca. 
B 4 pr. m. Af. R. It may have been ^ ufn ^ts, but jt for ■^ is a very common 
mistake in MSS., and ^srf^I^ifVsT is appropriate on account of the intensive form. — 

K. 303. J. 2^ (93, 9.) ^ T'rer ^* rfxA f I 'mr ^^wrf^ fT^f<«i'4: 11 ^ T^^n?! ^ Tf^ 
W^ 7raif^<«n?* I A. C 2. Af '^^ x?!rer =^* ^^1t»t t ^sm Ttt*?: ^^^nif^ 7i?f^^: Cn- 
5^ -^m 'gsB j^f^ ^5*ilf<«* fTff^<?M: B 4 pr. m., ^ t^th ^ inserted after xft^ sec. m. 
^ T^^ ^ XfxM f TfTJTfim ^^wrt^ (TfTTfiT^ '^Wtf^ B r) TRffi^^: CB. B i.— 
1. 24. (9^, 12.) f^^prrarjft^^if?! n^fs^m^: 11 ft^cTH, tt^ ^^^ ?»ff^^: A. f^- 
<n«i TT»ft^ Tt^ Hf^?5^: C 2. Af. f^r^m^'fK Tt^ Ti^f^wi^: Ca. f^^m^ tt^iH 
^^5^ <[tf^^'- B 4- f^m«l. T^l 'f^f^ TRif^M^: B I. CB. The text is corrupt.— 
1- 30. (93, 1 3-) <^rd<.nii<i ^im n ifTT: ^fnj w^i^ A. ^rr: mr^ tt^ ^'^^ -'^f- 
^: m ^'H ^ %^ Ca. ^: ^4^% ^^ B i. ^7i: -wfr^ ^^ ?mt R.— P- 304- 
1- 2. -qtz^mhnnwr A. Af. i ^lf^ « * M «i ^ ^^ qT Ca. v ini<iM*i>4n i t ji B i.— 1. 16. (93. 15) 
qmf A. Af in«5f Ca. M i. R. xnwf B i. — g^^-rair^T'sii^ B4 sec. m. CB. f^' 
siTfl^ A. Af B4 pr. m. g^ TT^rer C 2. Ca. ^q*(T^MI«'**SJ B i. The text is 
corrupt. — gvft:g^: Ca. ^g: g^: A. Af. ggg^: B i. g^: g-^; Mi. R. 

p. 310.1- 14- (95. 4.)] MAiV^DALA X. 31 

P. 305- 1- 27- (94. 5-) ^»i after ^ and ai^ must be taken as an independent 
gloss.— P. 306. 1. 3- (94, 6.) ^ ^ JTTt Ca. ^ ynt f^Wr: mt A. ■gt VTt Af. 
^: ^4t B I. ^ JTTt M I. Cf. Ev. Bh. X. 102, 10.— 1. 27. (94, 8.) n^^ ^tf^T A. 
Af. B r. Ttm^ ^fwK JT^TT ffn Ca.- ir?m^ jtfln: x^ R— P. 307. 1. i. (94, 9.) 
um^ A. Ca. Af. '?r«rre^ B i. R. It may have been ar^rfv '^ifv^Rnu^ftr. 

V. 308. 1. 16. (95.) iffftmri; A. Ca. Af. ^fffw B i and Anukr. M.— 1. 20. 
?(T '^ft^ A. C 2. Ca. B 4 pr. m. CB. Af ; deest in B i. ^ ^f^; B 4 sec. m.— ]. 2 1 
^^Ti^ A. ;g^ Ca. ira=^% Af. B 1.— 1. 22. ini^ »Tg^»TtJ?rT 11 i^i^ i^HiJiti 
A. li^ H^swtiJit Af THRTft JfgwJm^ B i. Ca lias m ?r^7ft Jrggrwtisrt ^'t 
H%f7T clfl ffr.— 1. 23. v^^ Ca. B4 sec. m. CB. gffi'g A. C2. B4 pr. ni. B i. 
g^>i3 Af— ^4)«1^ A. Af Ca. B I. |^1?b^ Mi.— 1. 24. ?r A. Af B i. rf^ Ca. - 
Wf^l Af Ca. B I. '^SRTfiTiifi: A.— '^Tf^in^ A. B I. ^^^^jf^ Af Ca. vrT^Wi 
n [.-1. 28. ^^?mi: A. ^Jig^Tci: Af Ca. Bi. R.— h^i^ii^ g II ng^if^frT A. Af B 1. 
n^^Mi Ca.— 1. 29. TT^n^^R II ngrr^juw A. ftwr^^ C 2. n^^^ ^ Af Ca. H 4 
sec. in. B I. ff^T^ 'q CB.— ^pen'm Ca sec. m. B i. mim Ca pr. m. Trmtrft A. 
Af-grjT ^TW# A. Af Bi. ^rn^nrT Ca. ^rnfTW^"^ H.— €#tj A. ^m^ Af 
vm Ca. ^q B I.— 1. 30. 'ar^^?^ II ^^iir^o A. Af Ca. B i.— 1. ^i. -^ Af Ca. 
|a B I. ^?i A.— jn^ii^^q srg^^tsirr: Af (rrarr^^^ {'^^ C 2) w^cr^"t:?icT: X. 
('2. ff T^ Ji T^%^ ^rai -ranr pr Ca. mmir^^^ ^Rc^jftaiii B 4 sec. m. m^^w^ 
ot^tam: CB. 3i^^^ ^^Wt: \ii. ^ »n^%^^ ^^n^^jgw: M i. m^iTlr^^ gr??^"t 
fi- U. m^nra?^ <ramti5?m: ? See Anukr. M. p. 157.— 1. 32. «TfSH»I^ w B i. 

^niH^w^Tgo A. Af ^ffs^riTOT w> Ca. m is^r^ w; M i.— 1. 35. ^rrsi ^iWf jrt 11 
«T^ ^TPTOf^iT A. wcm ^nmi" C 2. ^rarerq^f b 4. ^^: ^rni^rf^x Af ^ 
MVm ^ (Ja. ^to: ^ng^^iT B I. CB. «t^ ^mi^f^ Pt. ij^tici^^ifi; soil. ?f3- 
WTO:. The same Itihasa is also found in Sha(/guru.slshya's coiumentary, sw 
Anukr. M. pp. 1 56 seqcp The story of king Purftravas and tlie Apsaras u'rva.s. 
iis told in tlie B)-thaddevata VII. 11 20-1 126 is different. Tlie passages tlicre, 
ilioiigli very corrupt, may be restored conjecturally, as follows: '^~f ^5?- 

H^^ TT^^T^T^T^^ grj I if^?n?ff%^ sf^ iffw^i^ wT(t: =^ 11 ^^o 11 

^ fHfr^ f%^[frimJ ^t^ ^^?mHi ^^ f»T^ ^% jut %f^^^f% fm n^^n 
^^m (mt: rftffj ^"tif»T^^3Hi5n?jT I tTtrenn fw^^ '^^fr'm^q: 11 ^^^ 11 
'^^^^fT^ «^-f tm^fir^mfirat^iff 1 wtf«Tt»nFiTfH: it^ft: qi^Tfr |(Tt 11 ^a 11 
H^TTS'm: ^^ f :^T(^ ^^^^ 1 '«iHiuiif wm^ ^ m^^fli m h^: 11 j^m n 
^5T^ ^w 'gn§rTnfjjtfx;?ix:^ftft^ 1 Hmri »t«i% ^n^ ffi\^i^ g iftT^: 11 =?$ 11 

~^^ ■ 309. 1. 2. Professor Weber's edition has ^instead of 5jfr»r.— P. 310. 1. 14. 
(95, 4) 'T^^x^ II ^: ^^x^ A. M I, ^n^rarw Af ?i^ ^ggi;^ Ca. ^^^T^ B 


I. — 

's line IS unintelligible. Tait^maha may refer to MitrSvniuwaii. giaiidfather of TurOravas, nlio 

lovfi u-i*k T' > 

"1 love with Uivasi. 

32 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 310. 1. 36. (95.5.) 

1. 26. (95, 5.) TTHT^ tn^ ftsMn 'amrd Ca. CB. m^m^^ jyt^ M*rf?T ^smft A. C 2. 

Af. M< | *<mi qT: ftifiTfTT < M*l<ft^O B4 see. m. M <.*(««< f^«f*tt7I **l*<«flO B i.— 

P. 311. 1. 2. (95, 6.) '^sfnmvi Ca. ^r^K\^ A. C 2. B4. CB. B i. Af. R.— 1. 29. 
(95, 9.) fgnrfHTiraf^: ^:arr (^rarr: B 4 sec. m. B i) n^nm: C 2. B 4. B i. Af. firsT- 
fi«ld?l« ^ JTsnin: Ca. CB. ftijT^TT^^^fn^: ^51!T vnizm: A. I cannot guess the 
original reading. — P. 312. 1. 16. (95, 11.) flrf^JtnTWftff II ftrf^rfPTPrf^ A. Af. B i ; 
lacuna in Ca.— P. 313. 1. 13. (95, 14.) "^(^ qR-pt: Ca. ^^ vfK%^: A. ^^^ qftfn: 
Af. ^ijraTrfT^iEi. 'frairft^tMi. Cf.>Sat.Br.XI.5,i,8.— P.314. 1. 18. (95, i8.) 
All the MSS. read ^gnUr ; in B 4 only it is altered sec. manu to y5«lf«. 

P. 315. 1. 28. (96, 4.) w^: ^m^' CB. '51^: ^fwra: Af. f^: ^i^nn^: A. 
C 2. ^fTTi: ^wt^: B 4. ^^: ^^'fU: Ca ; deest in B 1. — 1. 29. •'imTfihft AT CB. 
It is difficult to say what Stlyana wrote. B i writes simply ^sRTf^Tft ^, but all 
the other MSS. show that there was originally another derivation given. A. Af 
read -■j|^T'»^T^<^lO ^- C 2 intended to give the same, but the writing is indistinct, 
('a could not make out the text, and has the corrupt reading ^ror^ilT ^% ^. B4 
strikes out whatever preceded ftrft and puts in ^, like B i. I have given the 
reading of CB as the most difficult, and therefore the most likely to cause mis- 
understanding, but I am not certain whether ^^n^Tf^: is ((uite correct, and 
whether ^^rn^Tf^R;: may not have been Saya«a's explanation. — P. 317. 1. 13. 
(96, 9.) H?7i: tttRI 4n*4<j| iftwT '^raTi: II HTTT^ Tn^^ ti\*i*s ft^ W^ra: A. g^: iTrrei 
^t^ref frrar '^^t Af. gT7J:Tn^rer^^^tiw^^ra:B4. CB. Bi. gxTi: tttT^ ^^'m fimr 
^m\: C 2. gr^r: ^rensr ^t»T^ fn^ '^^m: Ca.— 1. 21. (96, 10.) ^ t^ w\. These words 
seem to have been added afterwards, with reference to «ff\j%. B i has % t^ ^• 

P. 318. I 34. (97, I.) !gf?n 'sSt^v^ -^tmvc g^: II ittwi ^^^ym' ^^m^ra; g^: Ca. 
^t«n ^^St^^ira: g^: A. Af. ^t«n ^t^ra^: B i. — P. 319. 11. i seq. From ^jm^: to 
^#T wrm left out in A. Af. Bi.— 1. 3. ?T^ Nir. ?i|% A. Af ^ B i. ^ Ca.-- 
9n:t!rm fTTSTRTf^rfH A. Af. jntTiTRt ^i»gT ^ i f*if 7» B i . frrrRTfiTfn Ca.— ^nr %t7J Ca. 
^ '^ Af B T. ;Era A. See Nii-. SS. vol. iv. p. 45-— P- 320. 1. 2. (97, 5.) jft^f^ra 
A. JTntnrai Ca. C 2. B4. B i. CB. Af. — 1. 3. ^sr^T etc. n ^nj ^<^^: ?R ^ 
n «t|.<.tuai A. -jRfT ^<<jPltB; i!%fn f^o Af. ^nr ^^^^^: n n^f^ f^<» Bi. ^rti 
#f^^: ftl^fn ff ft <* <.m<< l Ca.— 1. 10. (97, 6.) -vr^ B i. ^^rt A. Af. ^^wHt Cu. 
M I. — P. 321. 1. 13. (97, 1 1.) ^jg ) » n4)«ti ^rrfgfiTHTtrr^m ^^ i^fn 11 gsiprr^^ 'nf' 
^TRiTvr^mT w^ T wftT A. ^vjn«Tt ?T?^Tr>ijTaraT ^J^ ^mfn B i. ?jg>«ii^»n 
^Tf^r^-- wt^ren^Vr'T^rf?! Ca.— 1. 14. whfmfs^ Ca. ^^YeftPia^A. ^^ft^^ 
Bi. R. 

p. 326. 1. 28. (98, II.) f^fSraTTTRftJ II ^fTTf^mT^WfT C 2. CB. Af. gTngi^^TTfWft 

Ca. ^r<ij,H i ^m*(rM A. B4. ^7rrf'!i3rra?ft B i. ^swjwsnTTOft?— P. 327. 1. 5- 

(98, I 2.) c[3lfT f^Tftr f :%^ Trff7T3lTf»T Af. ^fT l%Tf% ^:^*llflf<rt«*llf^ A. f^ 

fjhftr ?%^ TtffTninfT B i. ^%t ^frftr V^ arrf^ Ca. Cf. Rv. Bh. IV. 18, 2 ; 
V. 4, 9.—^ ^TV^ rmx A. Af. B I . f% wrv^ f^ ?V^ ^>^ Ca. Sdyawa omitted ^■•- 

P..337-l-*3-(io^"-)] MAiV^Z>ALA X. 33 

P. 327- 1- 27- (99, 2.) Mw^fi » KTfn 'iJTgf^: ^ A. Af. E. in^n ^^\ ''b^ B i. 
iftm '''ngrw^ Ca. S^yana must have read wuu instead of Jntrt:, for though 
some MSS. read ^irgft:, which is of little use, they have w^. — P. 328. 1. 3. 
(99, 3.) WI^ by conjecture.—!. 32. (99, 6.) nx^^ A. Af. B i. ^^jfroit Ca. M i ; 
deest in R. See Nir. V. 4.— 1. 33, 51^ f^r^irm^ MSS.— P. 329. 1. 17. (99, g.) 
^^pi. A. Af. B I. T^ Ca.— 1, 18. w^'ITf^ll 5i«z[(T Tfn A. WH^ »r ^f7j Af 
5i^^?^ Bi. •^RWfT M ?:tw Ca. M I. R.— P. 330. 1. 24. (99, 12.) ^w^rfg^ A. B i. 
Ca. »^flf^ Af '^^ M I. Silyana seems to have read tj^ for f^. 

P. 332. 1. 24. (100, 7.) ^Ji^ irrfa ^nfti: m ^ ?7t: xit mg^"^ m ^:f^w^: A. 

^jrei TiTflr 'nfti:»fTJj7rTH:Tri;»TT^^^»TT ^jf^: C 2. 

'^^ MiMif^: »n ^ ^: irt ^n^ ^ 'tt ijf^: B i. Af. 

^JT^ TTT^ qs^T ^ ^ xn: Tjt Tig^ '^ m ^J^snS: CB. 

^«i^ JTrfHif^: TT ^itt: trt ?rr^ ^ *n ^jf^wr^: B4. 

^J^f mfH mf^ gti; T^: '?t »tt^ ^ m gf^^: Ca. 
I have restored the text according to the MSS., but the reading seems to be 
comipt in all of them.— I. 29. (100, 8.) Bt%g|^nni'in^ A. '^ ift^n^ Af Ca. Mi. 
K. ^^'TtWT^Bi.— P.333.11.ioandi2.(ioo,io.)^J:S2.S3.S4.Pi.P3. ^7^| 
81. P4. Mi. Aufrecht. •^r^PS. See Rv. IX. 5, 10 ; X. 156, 3.— 1. 15. 'ip^ll 
^ Af ^ A. fln^ ^'^ Ca; deest in B i. 

P. 334. 1.25. (101,2.) ?Tgf^ is not explained by SAyana.— P. 335. 1.3.(101,3.) 
5rf^^: A. Af Ca. ^rfrw B 1. — 1. 16. (loi, 5.) »n ^ ^.4 i^<! ii <!} »; >m q q T V i 'li(*)*<«M l «m T- 

•Ti^t ^wr^ ^Wr'reTvn 1 - ;;(*)* < i<iiM M N i <^^^ M i. 
•i^^u^Tjrn} ;atTr'reTV«i^*Tfl^m«iqT^T^'5i% R. 
"JT^il^^^r^ 'ftm^rartH ^HTn^T^mTPa^ A. Af. 
<'H^ii^^i!nv!jjn<<M*iiy<i4jTjxi?wT% qr^ Rti ' g i ^ Ca. 

•IJ^ ^R%T^ then lacuna B i . 
—1. 19. The explanation of ^ ^rtT JV!\^ is left out in all the MSS.— P. ^1:^6. 1. 21. 
('01, 8.) <^<!i«(*4. This would seem, according to the dictionaries, to be the very 
opposite of ^^14, but the MSS. give no various reading. — P. 337. 1. 13. (loi, 10.) 
MffJ II n Ca ; deest in A. Af B i. M i.— S4yana seems to have read ^. Ca only 
lias ^, but for the rest agrees with the other MSS. — 1. 19. (loi, 1 1.) grnnfts^- 

''H ^fqir^in^ ^tr^#n^ II grrmftir^TrT'ft ^^^t^^R^ Ca. ^ ^ ^i r M^*<T«<: 

wMr^jRt A. Af ^ ^ ^ifinr^»rR: ffMT?«wt B i. ^ ^srrff^iTT'r: ^ i! H »<*»r^ 

^fg^f'Jt R. Cf Pv. Bh. VI. 46, 6.— f^wrWl^^: 1 TT^ttri^P^ ii T^ff^- f^^rra^i 

^^^Tfii A. C 2. fit^TTf?! f%gtT^»t, ^rmin^Tftr B I. f|[gnOf f^^rr^ ^ ^^mTr^Kfn 

^ '■ %Tf7(: t|[^T^ %x,TJi^rgf^ Ca. ff^rrf^: f^^rr^ ^^TRTt^grfii B4. f|[3rrf«t: t^nrR*r 

^TJTfrgT^ Af — 1. 22. •m^t u mi ^^ A. »tT wr C 2. 'm ^ ^ CB. 07, :^^ 

'• "HT ^i Ca. 'JT « aft B4. '7i\ m\ Af— 1. 23. 'grr^ft^TRtiftir^JrRt « 

^^:t^ ftirs^mt Ca. «p^ ^rfrj^^n^ a. ^ ^rfqus^iunt Af ^^^iftui^Bi. 
Vol. IV. * R 

84 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 337. 1.3a. (ioT, 13.) 

^H«in»*i(.Wt: ^i*<*{ I *i1 R. — 1. 32. (loi, 12.) 'd^vin*! is not explained by S&yana. — 
P. 338. 1. I. » «n<r<rd : a. C 2. Ca. B 4. CB. Af. o^m^: B I. .ojsrt^: ? 

P. 338. 1. 4. (102.) w« S ^a^i t II w!^^^ T^ Ca. Ht#9H^ A.- -^f- Bi. ^'^nPTTO: 
g^ ShafZgurusishya. Jn^T^ft B.- — 1- 6. 'Wiei^ ?[^t A. Af. B i. W^^ f^^ 
Ca. Mi. R. ^'9%^ ^» Anukr. — 1. 8. isiR 'WtTTpftrg'' II "^fn ^ '^■<,*nm<l» A. "stii ^ 
^tTTrr»ff»io Af. o;?!^ "^tTTnTT^' B i. "Jint ^<*iiH(iy Ca. isini ^ "^rrTnafTg" M i. 
See Sha(/gurusishya in Anukr. M. p. 158 seq. — ^m\ Ca. *^\m A. Af. From 
3 'my ^o to the beginning of verse i left out in B i . 

P. 344. 1. 1 1. (103, 8.) ^^<««r*<T^ Ca. B I. '<i m<^i <( i« ? A. Af. -vQlt^riTaiT^ ?— 
P. 345. 1. 10. (103, 12.) if^;ff is left unexplained. On Apv4, see Weber, Indiache 
Studien, vol. ix. j). 482. 

P. 346. 1. 29. (104, 4.) «iu*)<s^i*iii: I ^!(fSi» H ^ ♦»u-^fi«if^» A. Af. xrt ti^- 
lifffTo B I. ^ Jrsj^rf^^nMtwf^o Ca.— P. 348. 1. 12. (104, 9.) •fm'it ^w^ ^rfrft u 
•fWTq%'%%^ ^RTtf^ A. "IWT^T^^ 'SRT^ A sec. m. C 2. Af. «>i^rr«Tt ^ fi ^^^ 
nrftf^ Ca. o^m^ - - '^^ ^iftf^ B 4. <>f«rR '^^ ^ftt^ B i. v^m^ % 1 'tjt ^^^i 
qiftft CB. — Rcaifir: ?i#t^: ^f h^ A. Af. ft^rfir: ^#rf»m <^ B i. ft^aiH^: ^^ 
W^ ?T^ Ca. 

P. 349. 1. 10. (105, 1.) Ti^MTsi^ A. Af. ?|«rn5Rt Tra?t C 2. <(i^»n«ii^ Ca. ?i»msiTt 
B4. ^ B I.— P. 351. 1. 4. (105, 9.) TT^ V II f^<ft V Ca. •?R[^%»A. Af v^ 
%<>Bi. ^T^" Mi.R.— 1. 22. (105, II.) giTf»?<TTrf*lW^: B4sec. m. «iirf*lfn^Tf»lw* 
A. C 2. CB. B 4 pr. m. »<nr*<dqir«l(«l4; Ca. 

P. 352. 1. 21. (106, I.) ^"?:Tf^: Ca marg. <f|-^Tf^: Ca pr. m. A. Af B i. M i. 
R. See Dhp. 33, 56. — 1. 26. (106, 2.) ^g^: ^ m^v! Ca sec. m. Af "gs: <n>n4<>d A. 
T^ I 'S^^ «liT*i^^ Bi. ^ m^r^ Ca pr. m. ^3^: <*i*<Ufl1 Mi. — P. 354. 1. 7. 

(106, 5.) fit^TfiT fit^fft II fw fii<i(i«ft A. fii«fT ftHr^ Af. fwm ttprnft Ca. 
tlf^rnrr ftf^^ B i.— ftj^^ etc. « fH^ ^:wrt TT^pr^i %g^ 'SRTfi ^iHrHHr! ftif f^^i^ 

fJTfn fllf RSJI^ ^^Tti; ftf^f*Tfil mS^^TfBSRfr ^m f^^ Af. ^^^ ^ f :WRt 7I^T%1 

t^TT wf mrr^rfiTfn " ftnrnJ ^^n m-mfiiffi '^T#5i<*mHia«fl gii f'r» Ca. fsr^f f:'fnT 
a ^ i ^i^ ^ ^g^ '^ITfi sqTTlfiTfTI fw^^: ^'a^ 'i^^: etc. B i. The derivation of flpr 
may be referred to U«. IV. 95 and 96. Devar&</a mentions fjf^t^r^fit^t?^f^i^^' 
?nrr^ Tf^ ftpft^JW^ ^ fMTn<q^ 1, and he adds iin?!^^! ^:^nt*t d^gi^-HIwi^J. See 
Nir. SS. vol. i. p. 3 1 4. I had to change %gTnt into ^?[«rrf7nt, taking TS(\fm as a causal 
participle. — 1. 8. '^WT^: A. C 2. ■^owt^^: Ca. B 4 sec. m. Af CB ; deest in B i. 
Silya/ia frequently uses this ^ssn^m:, although the ordinary explanation of 
Part. VIT. I, 39, gives no authority for it. — 1. 14. Devard.(/a quotes, as coming 
from MMhava, a sentence which is not in our commentary, although it expresses 
the meaning of S^ya«a. After explaining ftj^WT, ttl<H,l , and irnrtTTT as g^fT- 
JTrfM, he says ^'^m f ^'i: ^"^ 'g^^rrf'T (i- e. g'l^ii^ift) f^R,fd »TT>W: I «l!Wnr>JT5f^: 
^^rei ft'tf^n^ f^^^^T^H'ncfTIi; 1 . He then quotes Bha<ta,bh^kara : HfWreRt' 

p. 358. 1- 5- (107, 3-)] MAiVDALA X. 35 

^n^ftWr^: (tt^) f^t^rrf^mJi: i .— 1 15- 'g^'iiT^Rr mf^^t ii g^?ra f^^t^^ 
Ca. M I. ^^l^«*( f%'<rf^r?Tl^ C 2, *j«s(«« <<*! *(«M<f^qr^?l?|»T B 4 sec. m, B i. ^^rj- 
xm^{ fW«mft A. ^f^Ht: *jM«ft<«(^ ft^^t^ ^ I CB. ^^iTo^^ggf^icTT^ Af.— 
1. 22. gfH HWi%: (ij^n^: B i. ■^m\H: Ca) qt^^j^tr A. Af. B i. Ca. gft^ pn?t: ^fra- 
■t^ M I. H^ gilTTT*: ^[ITJ^^T Nir. II. 22 ; Rv. Bh. III. 22, 4.— 1. 28. (106, 6.) 
^ ^ A. iTHt ^ B I. ^H ^ Af. Ca. ^>ft R.— ^WTf^^tfl;' Af. Ca. o^iTf?:* 
A. '^ X' B I. o^iTT." M I.— 1. 31. TTOT g*d^ nfcfifiKt Af. Tren ^*^ Tif^mrt 
A. g*T^ ■ ■ 'n^fr Ca. <m gtR<^ t^^t^ B i, cm g4d ?rWm^ M i. R.— 
1. 32. xm^' A. B I. Ca. t;<> R.— gn grj A. Af. grscr fCR Ca. gi?; B i. Of. Dhp. 
28, 27 ; II, 10-17 ; 28, 24.— gi5if)mTTf%W^ B i. f|M>Oft <, i n i (<H ji A. Af. jniw^- 
f^m Ca. g^ftf, TW^ ? — !• 33- ^ "^ I ^sr^ t%^ » A. Af. 'aw %?ini f«!^w Ca. ^ 
1 fT? f*rw B I. ^ ^T^ fi(^ M I. R.— 1. 34. of^BT^o Bi and Nir. 'fttu^ g« 
A. Af. Ca. R— 1. 36. g*(^ n ^^ Ca. g^ A. A£ M i. ^x^r^ B i.-of^,R^. 
A. Af. Ca. of^' B I. »f^^>jf<» Mi. If '^If^ here and in I. 28 were meant 
for •cftifr* at least one of the MSS, would have ^fK.", as in 1. 33 all the MSS. 
read #i!JTf^ ^T^"- See also verse 2 (r^). — t^^ '^ A. Af. Ca. TBi ^ Bi. 
M I. R.— P. 355. 1. 2. ^i^n^'^f'i II ^sranf^ A. Af B i. -- ^^ i r^f* ! Ca.— t?^: B i. 
Af A. 1^ Ca. ti^%: M I . R. In A 15 and ^ are much alike. See verses 2 and 
7, and cf. Dhp. 15, 67-68. — 1. 3, ^^ai%^ "^i^^ l^ A. Af '3^5q%^ ^«^^~ Ca. 
■3^5q%^ B I. M I.— 1. 4. ^d^ai^nj: n ^^^m* A. Af. B i. Ca. R.— gn^ Tt T^ 11 ^T% 
Tt^ B I. wr?! T% ITT A. Af ^ t[% ?;«i Ca. gnrnf^^ M i. R.— P. 356. 1. 11. 
(to6, 9.) The reading of U/i. IV. 207 is supported by all the MSS. The 
reading in Aufrecht's edition, jj^^^ ^, must be wrong. Tliere is no such 
word as'aptas, while apnas is a common Vedic word, and ought to be explained 
in the Sutras. The SiUra is rightly given in Bohtlingk's edition, yet in BR. we 
find aptas, and the same word is repeated by others. The Calcutta edition of 
tlie Unadi-s<itras repeats j {t<<t j jA ^, but T;lr4ndtha rightly omits the word in liis 
great Dictionary. See also Rv. Bh. I. 2, 9 ; 95, 4; no, i ; X. 132, 7. — I. 20. 
(106, 10.) "WRHSlCa. »nm- A. Mi. 'm B i.— P. 357. 1. i. (106, 11.) aff^^^^- 
^^° II jfrsTi: jfr^J^T^j^' A. jftCT: 'ft^ ^51^' C 2. jft^fT: sfr^^JTOfl' CB. jftStlT^ 
^ ft^ft: ^^» Ca. ift^Ji: iii^m^'w B4sec. m. ^t^^: jft^^ffo Bi. ift^: 
'it^^in?rm:» R. See above, pp. cxxxix seq. — 1. 5. f^^'^ means within a short 
compass, alpamiitre ; cf T4r4niltha, /Sabdastomamahanidhi, s. v. 

P- 357- 1. 9. (107.) ^f^m Ca. ^fwr A. Af B 1. See Anukr. M. p. 42.— 
P- 358. 11. 3 to 5. (107, 3.) HTfM\ A. Ca. trra^ Af 15 1. R. If vrm^ could be 
taken as a nomen abstractum in the sense of m^m, ?TmT«rr would yield a 
•»etter meaning, and it would be possible to retain tlie reading of the MSS., 
1^ *f »rtf?I, TjH would refer to the three things, UW^, ^^^ii:, and ^fWT- 
We should then also have to read «[fmrr "«[ with A. Af. B i, instead of ^ffi(m t 

36 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 358. 1. 5. (io7. 3.) 

which is the reading of Ca. — 1. 5. i^fi^ T »Tnfn II i^ T H^ A. Af, C 2. Ca. B 4. 
Bi.CB. TiTl»gt T H^m K 

P. 360. 1. 31. (108.) •fiT'jarr m 11 -f^^ m Bi. of^jt m A. •fimaj^ Ca. 

• f ^ ^c^ l 'n Anukr. M.— 1. 32. ^ Ca. Anukr. M. ;?r A. B i. M i.— P. 361. 1. 28. 
(108, 3.) ^ftf^ MSS. — 1. 31. The commentary is very imperfect in all the MSS. 
^■^^ is fem., like Tj^li^rr:. f-rt|fPrt« rr refers to tm ifT^'.. Cf. Rv. Bh. X. 47, 1. — 
P. 364. 1. 3. (108, 10.) Before ^j the MSS. add ^RTPt,, possibly meant for tjt^. 
Ca reads '^mTT. TR TTWT^. — 1. 6. ^ ^t jilKu l || If^: ^MqT^% A. ^^ W^mT° B i. 
W^ ^N<5) Ca. 

P. 364. 1. 30. (109, I.) This refers to Pr4t. 139. — P. 365. 1. 31. (109, 4.) gWJRTft 
A. Ca. B4. C 2. Af. MraqcH B i. CB. M i. R.— P. 366. 1. 5. (109, 5.) ipi ^mfn: 
?rm^w^f?T Af. Tf? '^ vfy: «i4lfl^H^tn A. tj^ ^ vifn: M\n^*i?ir(i C 2. B 4. ijq ^^f^ 

ffT5rf?PTTlT^»T%f7I Ca. Tfit W^ '»n»l%f?T B I. CB. ff^rf7T^?raH%f7I M I. — 1. II. 

<HK» l ir i: Ca. < i *)i4M<n : A. Af. B i. M i. See Rv. Bh. I. io8, 6.— ^f|?Rf %f?r 
A. Af Ca ; deest in B i. Cf. Rv. Bh. III. 31,3; IV. 4, 2; Tkn. and Khs. III. 
2, 178, 3 ; Un. II. 60. 

P. 367. 1. 20. (i TO, 2.) ^Tf^i^ II M l ^*|>^ A. Af B I. Ca. M I. R. See verse 10, 
and Rv. Bh. I. 119, 2 ; IX. 67, 31 ; 68, 2 ; 105, i.— 1. 28. (no, 3.) ^TT^^n^: Ca. 
<M l <H*n : A. Mi. ^9nft:Af. Bi. See above, 109, 5. — 1. 32. Ttm^ MSS. instead 
of vyrw. — P. 369. 1. 26. (no, 9.) The MSS. have 'j) | 4|<^ | t| : instead of ^d^^ivi:. 
The mistake is probably due to the ^ | <<}(j | Trt : immediately preceding. See Rv. 
Bh. I. 52, 14.— P. 370. 1. 7. (no, 10.) wit A. Bi. Ca. ^T^ Af. ^Tf M i. Cf. 
verse 2. 

P. 370. 1. 17. (in.) The poet is called the first time -^ig^^ in A. C 2. CB. B4. 
Af, "^(^iyi in B I, f^ in Ca. The second time, -^lei^S ^^ ^- ^ ^- CB."B4. Ca. 
B I. Af ; yet the right foi-m is ^J^T^. BR. give the wrong form, ^Bl^^, so 
also Anukr. M. — 1. 24. (in, i.) ^[^gr^* 11 ^WT^* A. Af. Bi. fsng" Ca. M i.— 
P. 371. 1. 3. (in, 2.) ^fwi^ A. Af. B I. '^rffliwit Ca. R. Dhp. 24, 31.— 1. H- 
(ill, 3.) The end of the commentary is left out in all the MSS., but the omission 
is not marked. After j^rrf^^: a little space is left in B i, the other MSS. 
do not indicate the lacuna.— P. 372. 1. 15. (in, 7.) TRTT'ff II T^wf A. Af. Bi. 
fl^ Ca.— ?Trr: from Ca.— 1. 23. (in, 8.) '^IStsrfjrfTI iJ*<M«ll^ ^S(% Af. •girH(»|M<ll^'S'^ 

M I. R. ^Tfs^qfirw^Ti^l'g B I. <m,cn f i<rd ^iq<(i^ '^ir A. ^m^ x^ 'v^m.K ^^ ^^• 

See Vkn. III. 3, 56-57 ; Rv. Bh. I. 113, i. 

P. 377. L 10. (113, 3.) HcrfTT A. C 2. Ca. B I. CB. B4. Af.— P. 379. 1. 3. (113, lo.) 
?i^ f^« S 2 sec. m. S I. S4. ?tKf^» S 3. S 2 pr. m.— 1. 5. fl^ I f^» P i. P 3- ^4- 

Jilf: 1 1^« P 8. 

P. 379. 1. 25. (1T4, I.) fvra WTtT'^fT^ Ca. f^\nT%^Tn^A. Bi. fvg viTt 

-STT^: Af. See Rv. Bh. III. 8, 6 ; VIII. 96, 6 ; X. 63, i.— P. 380. 1. 31- (iH, 4-) 

Ca reads z(^ ^^ ^Nhft anft I'm 71?^ imwrrmrf^re-^T^ '?fT tt^tt^ vif^t^ 

P.388.1.i<5.("<J.7-)] MAi^DALA X. 87 

a^; I VT^^ 'tT W l f^V^m ^f^ ^' Xt t^' This looks more like part of the original 
commentary than a marginal note, though it is left out in aU the other MSS. 

,ra[T?R^^T^^t^«^A-C'2. B4. ^ra[T«^'im^trrf^%iiCB.Bi. ■^rar^Ji^ 

-ra^^ fj(%ll Af. What is intended in Ca is evidently a distinction between 
the Param^tma and the mere VAyu, frequently discussed by the Ved^nta 
philosophers : cf. Ved. SAtra II. 3, i seq. For that purpose ^^ was explained 
as ^[^ ^^ 1'T^ I ^^?^ TnHWnWTf%STri:i. WIWT^ might, seem better than 
aro^^ or q i Mlf^^ W. because the Paramfltma is never b3,hya, the b3,hya 
world beginning with ik-lsa, which itself is still vibhu : AkMdisarvaprapa?7^a 
etc. See Ved. S6tra II. 3, 7 : T^f JTHTtw <*IH^I<i: I T^'H^iTftRf^nTOrn^ TT^- 
^?rf^n:ft H fdHlf^dl »nnfW5: 1 '?JP^^Tg[Tgfttn -^l l. But in that case we should 
expect ^TU, and not ^Tinf^.— P. 381- 1- i4- ("4. 6.) The number of Grahas 
f^iven by Silyana is 33, not 36, unless we take the trayo dvidevatyagraha,/i 
as six. Other Grahas may be seen in VS. VII and VIII.— P. 382. 1. 6. (114, 8.) 
Here again Ca has its own independent reading, <t^tvTT^ f^^^tt 7!^T^1[: 
'^)l<*li!l<l'MTf^ y r«»<*)p ^"1 ^ I <*) I ■* I i! ^mOSF etc. 

P. 383. 1. 1 1, (u 5, 1.) wirret^rerRT: f^^ffls^r^* 11 ^WPfrirrer 1 ^s: »r ^nfts^T^' 
A. Af. ^nrratn^ ^: t mf^recrr^' C 2. ^mretfT - fsr f t^trrfiTs^^» Ca. H»n^- 
'OT^: fw'nfjrem^'' B4 sec. m. ^in^ff^^ f ^nfts^^" CB. B i.— 1. 13. »rfi| 
wmffT^ f JiT^d lfd II af? TSfHTHT^ T w^in\n[ Af. ^ ^ni^rmra 't *\^n\r<\ A. 
'aff fjsTxrmzi ^ w^^tTn B i. ?ift ^RtmJT^rfn Ca.— t^t 1 »nrfn 1 Ca. ^isn g h^ 1 A. 
7m g H^fTj Af. B I.— 1. 14. ?imfq ^ vjfn ii nmf^ Trarfn A. Af. rrmft fFiTfq B i. 
<mn g ^rm Ca.— 1. 23. (i 1 5, 2.) ^ A. C 2. Ca. B4. B i . CB. Af. Cf Pm III. 2, 
126.— 1. 27. ^T MSS.— P. 384. 1. 19. (115, 4-) H f^^' ^^^ ^^f^= ^' 'I ''^'^ ^^^'^ 
ft» A. B I. Ca. -ff n.^r{: wk^ fsm- f^» ^■—'^- 26. (115. 5-) tfs^T^T^WH^' 11 ir^- 
' il< ! tia'^> A. Af. »TiT5M\« B I. n^T^^ftiS r Ca. See Rv. Bli. I. 9, i ; Uh. I. 
151.— a^f II ^w Ca. J^o A. Af M I. "^siiio Bi.— P. 385- 1- "• ("5- 7-) I* ''^ 
clear that Siyawa read ^ t^, as he could not otherwise have quoted Pbi. 
Vlll. 3, 106. The Pada MSS. read ^: ^\, but the Sawihita MSS. ^^ s%, 
wliich, however, may represent both ^^\ ^ and ^ 'St^ I. Though I have 
always given the Visarga, even where the MSS. omit it })ef()re ^ etc, yet 
ill this passage I felt obliged to make an exception. Cf Paw. VI 11. 3, 36, i. 
!• i8- lfwn^T^V5^ i^ Ca. •€ g^I^ Tf?t A. Af. 'm gi^I^ Tf^ ^ i. The 
<]uotation is not in KtU VII. 4, 45. — 1- 19 seq. The words from gftJmT^ to ^irx% 
are given by Ca only. 

P. 386. 1. 10. (i 16.) ShaJguru^ishya gives Sthaura, the son of SthAra ; Cole- 
brooke's MS. of the Anukramanl gives Sthauva ; SAyawa, Sthaula in A. C 2. CB. 
B I- B4 ; but Sthaura in Ca.— P. 388. 1. 4- ("6, 6.) ^ ^A.Bi.Ca , as in X. 
131,2. Cf.Ilv. Bh. I.13, 2; 18, I ; 31, 8.— 1. 16. (ti6, 7-) C^iMlfluR^mWI ^Bt^- 
«mT%i^ A. oirfx^m^ ^PraRTTirg^ B i. ^f^nm: uftm'nm^f'raraT^^VTg^ Ca. 

38 VARIETAS LECTIONIS. [P.388. 1.17. (1.15,7.) 

See ParibMshendusekhara 85. — 1. 17. ^1^ '^<q i ^<nei<<< II ?[ fv "^^IW I ^^ I ^Hj tf A. 
1ft ^?nTr^[^rTm C 2. g%(irrg^rtm Ca. ^: f!i^T'3«rnfw B 4. f : ft % ^ <qi*^.^iM<ff 
CB. ^: f^^r^Tg^Trw B i. 

P. 389. 1. 10. (117.) 'Timtr II '^m t Ca. o^m ^% A. B I. See Anukr, M. 
p. 43-— P- 390. I. 15- (117. 4-) 3if?i^i!r N^TTTf II 35f?JTi%n f«i<i( m Tf Ca. arfn^iirR- 
^T«n»m A. C 2. CB. B 4. xffn' B i. Cf. verses i and 3. — 1. 27. (i 1 7, 5.) if fi^tfto 
Ca. f[ xrenft"» B I. fiTRre^' A. M i.— 1. 30. •^mf7nBT%m» B i, ?mfTraT:%9n'' Ca. 
•♦i»Ifl<*<5j«>l"» A. Mi. Sdyana evidently reads with the Kiis., «^ fi i <ft<,i ! ifi< - j^^< ^(ij- 
trflrfferfW, not with the Mah^bhAshya, » ^» i n q K. i!l ^ :. The reading of the K^. is 
also mentioned in the Mahabh. (apara dha, etc.). In X. 119, 4, Ca. Bi read 
•H'rf^W^", A again owi^HT^". 

P. 393. 1. 31. (119.) ^R^ II ^^i^A. ?R-^Ca. ^raii^Bi. ^r^o M I. 
R. — 1. 32. ^*I^MT> A. ^R^jn" Ca. ^^o M I. R ; left out in B i. — 1. 33. isrw B i. 
Ca. Amikr. M. ?nr A. Mi. R. — P. 394. 1. 29. (119, 6.) ?rfl[ etc. it ?ff^ ^^sr^tt^ 

■3<.l«0*"f*»«HUifl<'HiH«?(K WT% gf%: Bl. ^ '^RT^^ ^<.|.^ * IT f* ( ( W <M 7|y m.^-H Tin^JTT^ 

gf^ A. ^f^ ^^x^ I grr^Hrfirfn ig^mr^TstTi^^ Ca. Cf Rv. Bh. III. 9, 7 ; 

12,3; X. 108, 10; Dhp. 32, 41; 34,27; 35, 80.— P. 395. 1. 25. (119, ii.)'?jg5T'iSll 

^sraiT^MSS.— P. 396. 1. 1.(119, i2.)^TT>frii ^n^Bi. ^^A. •sijftCa. «nfrMi.R. 

P. 398. 1. 3. (i 20, 3.) Ti^rrm \^ 11 m^TTJWT ^ A. Af. Ca. M i. R. irwrarRT xpi 
B I.— P. 399. 1. I. (120, 6.) ^: ^-w^^t^ and 2Rr^iT(q^: 11 ^: %an^.^ff» and 
%?5TT» A. ^: %^^ and wsnr» Af. ^ef ^^^'. jf^fftr and j^tit?!^: Ca. ^q^a i: 
W^ ^mf^^ ^"snmn: B 1. ^: %^'» etc. M i. R. The U«. has ^^, if indeed 
the reading there, as explained by the connnentary, is cori-ect. 

P. 402. 1. 5. (121, 4.) m^Tt*rr ^n^^rr^: ^mf^s! frrft^T tt 11 ^nt*iT: -*i ^l^ |gti: 
^rtwf^ti: if^»i=*<i: A. C2. Af; Ca leaves out all except ^ijrRrr:. irrt'n ''sn^^rnrt: 
^W^: tfim^T: B4. intm '^m^T^n: ^"Wt^^ tsiH^rr: B i. irr^rrfn ^ i ^^iii ^: 
^BYwf^: i;?IT«*)«rti: R. See Preface to the Sixth Volume of the First Edition, above, 
pp. cxxxviii seq., and Prof Peterson's remarks in 'Tlie Academy,' June 23, 1888, 
p. 434, and Hymns from the Rig-veda (Bombay, 1888), p. 247. — 1. 11. (121, 5.) 
^3f?J ft^MWI^'I^M ^ II «T$ftt^ JI^^^HT TT B I . R. Peterson, o^j^ TTJT A. Af. 
•X^T ftHm'I^M^MT Ca. — 1. 33 to p. 403. 1. i. (121, 7.) The words ?m^<l to rf^ are 
given In Ca only, which reads tnT'H^: W^ ? '^ ? W^ TI^ ^ ft^«l*J^ ^ 
^m^rgi^r^ ^m: ^t^ttTti^ n^nt<fr: ^;^^n^ \^-(<(\*[\ wrt inftprt ^ UTttrjj^r; ti^: r(wt^'- 
^m^([ MMdimr\ I ^?T I ^ ^ 3nt ^vr^: ^m^. I have adopted it in the text, 
because it seems required by what comes l')efore. A. Af. B i have MTTTJar: ^inft 

f '^tnixR r<iH)*n*(»i ^ tn^iai^ein^^^ aril ^vnrr w^. 

P. 405. 1. 31. (122, 5.) ^i^rrfw: MSS. 

P. 407. 1. 22. (123, 2.) There is a lacuna between ^Jipirnj' or Sl | qtlil<a and t^ ^ 
in all the MSS. In A. C2. B4 the lacuna is mentioned in the text, tJfTff^ 
anftrftr ; in B i there are dots to indicate it ; in CB and Ca the commentary goes 

p. 427- 1- 30- (^30. 1-)] MAiV^I>ALA X. 39 

on without any indications of an omission. So also in R, where we read 
,„j^nt^ lit "^ etc.— P. 409. 1. 5 seq. (123, 7.) Tt^ in.^ ^ Tf^ and mr\' II »if% 
jj ^ ^ Tfn (»ifv»^ 'm f^ pr. m.) and ^mn- Ca, a |R|»i^i>ft ? j^ and JWl» K 
jlft V ^ n tf^ and wr-" A. »ff«r ^ 'T i;fit and afm* B i. See Rv. Bh. I. 22, 
14; III. 38, 6. 

P. 411. 1. 28. (124, 7.) ^n^^wf A. B i; lacuna in Ca.— 1. 31. ^ gpSinn: A. 
Bi.Ca. %wwiOT^:K. 

P. 415. 1. 16. (126.) fii^^g^f^ irasreRf^ Ca. faiMM a^ijt a^<^<ji' ! )r|M<ji a. fir^-. 

^pgraw% B I.— 1. 18. ftw^: li^rawfHt Ca. t^: c|>^M<i n jq1 A. ij^ ^<iwmirj<n 
B I. See Anukr. M. pp. 43, 162.— P. 416. 1. 17. (126, 4.) ^(t^ %% CB. Bi. B4 
pr. m. •?!%• B 4 sec. m. ijgf^^tt A. C 2, ^ g^ tarq ^ l Ca. 

P. 418. 1. 17. (127, 4.) ^t^; Y^ g^. See, however, the explanation in the 
next verse. 

P422. 1. 4. (128, 8.)i[3^jrR: A. if^uTPr: Ca. Mi. ^jrR:Bi,, Seeygii^, 
Dlip. 24, 27. 

P. 422. 1. 21. (129.) ^ftM^rr^mrfW 11 <irsnart < if<H '»i «< i 4\' ii A.C2. Ca.B4. 
^rsRSKOlf^: H*!l*<r<0*»t B i. CB. <*fansi«llf«( may have been originally an explana- 
tion of irsmr^^.—l. 29. (129,1.) n^^^r> A.Bi. (WTO^o Ca sec. m. ?ra^^ Ca 
pr. m. mrm. 1 ^^ Mi. P.— P. 423. 1. i. '^m srrsr^rfl^reim A. ^^ '*i< » jK ' ft* <'< i B i. 
"v^ xiiq^iRsR^T^rer fj^rt^ <*i^firi<**(<ii Ca. -^r^ grr^frft^WT^^ 1 fl<ifM ^ i < » t; i R<ft^Tt T 
M 1. 11. —1. 4. ^«sjT^^» B I. ?rr^o Ca. mUT" A. Mi. R— 1. 7. Mr ^ M*i%^ 11 vt^m- 
^ Ca. ^^g^n A. C 2. T^TM'dl^itl B4. B I. CB. Both ^ ^ ng <^«i , by way of 
objection or irony, and 'g^^T^%«r, by way of disdain or dissent, would be ap- 
plicable. ■?(T%tj'> is confirmed by SAyawa's commentary on TBr. II. 8, 9, 3. — 1. 38. 
(129, 2.) ^ II ^ A. Bi. ^PK Ca. — P. 424. 1. 8. HaftiHrt|<< | ti n. I can only 
explain this as referring to the prak^-iti of svadht\ which was given before, and 
to the pratyaya, the instrumental, as inijilying both imion with and dependence 
on the real sat.— 1. 31. {129, 3.) TT^VrH TR^raHt II fTfTHft d<l(tifli A. B4. Ca. Bi. 
•fTlflT fJ^rarr tit C 2. Hj^HJii 7|<^|(j(<ii CB. I do not see how this sentence comes 
ni here. — P. 425. 1. 18. (129, 4.) ^y; ^ A. ^ir ^ Casec. m. ^yHrt Ca pr. m. 

■^i.— 1. 19. ffii ^mfK^^im^Uf^i^ II x^ ^isrraHT T?!m^3rf*^^ (written 'rumr) Ca. 
y^ ^f^JTramr i;<«m^nrf*T 1 Tralr A. ^11 ^jfiirrai^w^raini^ Bi. jfn \ gtwaHT 
T?TO^»ifiiW^ R._p. 426. 1. 34. (129, 7.) iTOt»^ wrdviii g idiTiMOvTrci: CB. "irafntn 
^^''Tg^Crvrn; A. C 2. na d tH^g i rnqO MTti; Ca, with fir^u in marg. Hftfd q Tmj%- 
^^'^H^'^flJ^ B I. P4. See on the whole subject the commentary to this Sdtra. 

B. 427. 11. 27 to 30. (130, I.) The passage from tti<nji^i to xrrsT^: is preserved 
in CB only, which MS., on the contrary, has its own lacuna afterwards. For 
^"^f ft'tlK^Tn, it adds ^ipij: «^^T^t^ ^n%: ^ ^ graf^^gi%«r an^:, while the other 
*loS. give all from imrarr: to arrg:. I have added ftTn;: conjecturally, as the word 
explained by vmm:. Though the passage in CB is far from correct, I have 

40 VARIETAS LECTIONIS, [P. 437- 1- 30. (130, i.) 

given it as indicating at least how the words of the text were taken by SAyana.— 
1. 30. ^prqit^ II JH J^^ ^ A. C 2. Ca. CB. B i. ^nig|% B4, with ^ in marg. ^rh^? 
— P. 428. 1. 1 1. (130, 2.) Bi. CB. B4 pr. m. add after •^pn^, ^^ ''!rf^lM?T ^fh4 
WTnuT^TR^.— P. 429- 1- 3. (130, 4-) ^ "^Tf^r A. C2. '^srni %!i Ca. B1.B4. ^ 
^Tft CB. Cf Vdn. IV. I, 4, and Gana a^adi. — 1. 20. (130, 5.) ^nr^f^vrtf^ A. C2. 
CB. Bi. B4. ^qTJTTf^Ca. 

P. 432. 1. 23. (132.) On .*ie|iyif\i5^ etc., see Preface to the Sixth Volume of 
the First Edition, above, p. cxl seq. — P. 434. 1. 15. (132, 5.) From Tff^m^ to ^ 
^•. H a ffi"^ <.«*<■ all is left out in A. C 2. B4. B i. CB. — 1. 1 7. fjrft ^^^^ 'TT II f*i^iq<t ;iit 
m A. C 2. fli^T^^iifr ^ Ca. ffl^Hi^J^t B I. CB. fir^T^^ (marg. m) B4.— P. 435. 
1. 9. (132, 7.) Again from ^^^ to ^aJTSR all is left out in A. C2. B4. Bi. CB. 

P. 435. 1. 20. (133.) oarfrri^" Ait. Ar. o^jgo a. Mi.R 'iff ^<> Ca. ^m^o 
Bi.— 1. 29. (133, I.) w^pmt A. o^tn Bi.Ca. 11.— P. 437. 1. 12. (133, 5.) ^9V(i* 
Bi, ^iraT' A. Ca. Mi. 

P. 439. 1. 24. (134, 5.) fq^d i A. Ca. C2. Bi. B4. CB. The explanation is 
unusual, but not sufficiently so to require conjectural emendation. 

P. 440. 1. 15. (135.) tl^ A. Bi.Ca. ff Anukr. — P. 441. 1. 19 seq. (135, 3.) 
From ijiM(Ty<L4l(M^ to 5jO<.I*^ Ca only gives the text, viz. grgj grsT^RTTrapi! mn fis^ff 

has 4(!jimm(t|cti for gwrgwr". — P. 442- 1. 7. (135. 5-) f^^^f^ 11 t^r^" A. Ca ; deest 
in Bi. — 1. 8. f^^^^^f^: h twrf' A. Bi. Ca. — t«i^?^«ai^^ it fsT^^nsrei A. f^^^^ 
WT^ Bi. fwrf^'^sg^ Ca. 

P. 444. 1. 28. (136, 7.) In explaining the tr#t, the reference to Vhn. II. 3,62, 
is taken for granted. See above, p. cxvii. — 1. 30. W^t^^rffT II "'sn'^^wf^ MSS. 

P. 445. 1. 4. (137, I.) The first half of tlie connnentary is imperfect in all 
the MSS. A. Ca begin ^[<nfn ^ % ^t: '^JPI: etc., B i ^smfq ^ \ ^: "■^Jlf^Jf 'amft 
■^ 1 ^^: '^RT'i: etc. 

P. 448. 1. 14. (138, 5.) '<im<T%^: II Had^«< : A. C2. ^i^7»%t^: Ca ; deest in B4. 
B I. CB. 

P. 450. 1. 31 seq. (139, 6.) From gfTTrfK to grTTrfTI lacuna in all MSS. except Ca. 

P. 451. 1. 5. (140.) The quotati<m from the Aranyaka is here, as elsewhere, 
omitted. Bi. 4 give infr fWf^'ffi: II — 1. 32. (140, 3.) fairer H One might con- 
jecture T7K^. — P. 452. 1. 6. (140, 4.) wr^mt^afttt^^f^: A. C2. Ca. ^rgnTt^rrai^: 
53tgm:Bi.4. CB. 

P. 454. 1. 12. (142.) situi: A. Anukr. ^^: Ca; in Bi the quotation from the 
Anukr. is left out. — «rR<*W^<» A. Ca. ^nft^fi: ^^ Mi. irfr^gf: ^' R- ^^^ 
Anukr. M. p. 44. — 'i^Trerg f^" A. Anukr. ^Trerf^C' Ca. M i, R. — x^ \ apff f^rf^ra^' 
from Ca. — P. 455. 1. 29. (142, 5.) Lacuna in all the MSS. — P. 456. 1. 7. (142, 6-) 
«mrr %^ Ch. ^twx: wn: A. C2. CB. ^tst: B4. Bi. In the old writing ^^'• 
(t^TT:) and ^mt: are nearly the same. — 1. 11. nirarT «inN: II ^RTT m^i A. ^(V ^^'' 

p.4<59.1.3o.(i5o.4.)] MAiV^DALA X. 41 

C2. ir^ TJ*^: Ca. w^: Bi. 4. 7^ m^-. CB. Cf. nn.YIl. 3, 78, where the 
change is made dependent on sit, 

P. 459- 1- 3- (144-) The poet's name is given as grslwjrnr by C 2. A (once), Ca, 
as 'ar^lwir'I in CB. B i. 4. Colebrooke's MS. of the Anukramawi has long ft, and 
so has Shac^gurusishya (once). But as the text of the Rig-veda has the short a, 
the name must be spelt with short a.— 1. 23. (144, 3.) ^ from Ca.— P. 460. 

1. 19. (144, 6.) ZR[T etc. II ?re[T ^r^prraf^T^Tfir^ grr: ^fra: % f ftaRR: A. j^j 'vm 

7{H'^v\(^'<m '. Ca ; deest in B i. 

P. 460. 11. 24 to 28. (145.) From ^ ?rTip?rf% to -^Jif^hHtiifTi there is a lacuna 
in B I. CB ; B4 adds on the margin the words from T(f^ TT^xdlj to f^rwhTRtfTT.— 
1. 26. ^mw^ A. C2. n^i^raiTtCa. Mi.R.— 1. 27. '^rfirimr 11 -jt^ A. C 2. Ca. 

P. 462. 1. 27. (146, 2.) wr^ etc. II ^UT^ fm^'^^f^niK^ irgrn:^^ ^Ht?r- 

5^55T% 'S^ TT^nrfTf ^ A. ^m^f^ |^ni% ^^55^ TngrR:^!!! 'q 1^1tt=^.»r< % ^MJlT^H t 
^^ '?T5raf?T ^ B I. yMrqf!l vrr Ca, omitting everything else. '^Mj^ fmr^T^ 
^Hs^ tt^tTT^^ '4141il«<*r<«I "S* M 1. R agrees with M i, but has "ii^^jtt^. 
The emendation "H^^'^ seems to be required on account of nqTl<V)U! - It may 
bo pTTTT^ or f^T!% or o^, the reading of A seems to be meant for fm<,«n w <g 
K^^.— 1. 28. wvifafflft^ 1 w^ire^ ^rr^f^rair: 11 ^tii ft f iif ?;^ ^| ^ | ^q T ^rafl i^i: A. 
"sinfrftfiCT ^iMiim tf^rm^n: B i. i n m r^ n<4<.n ^ ^mnz -^iini^R i ^t : Ca.— P. 463. 

!• 3- (146, 3.) ^4n\^ W^^ Ca.— 1. 4. ^^i^ ^ B4 in marg. ■Hurgj I ^ A. C 2. 
il^^fj Ca; deest in B i. CB. 'ij^^ ^ Mi. R. '^ftf^ would be the easier 
reading; see also TBr. II. 5, 5, 7 (p. 624. 11. 13, 14).— 1. 10. (146, 4.) The com- 
mentary is deficient in all the MSS. except Ca ; but there, too, it is incorrect. 
A reads ^^fjn^; «TRT5'£(fil ^TOT *ll<i*l?l, B i ^»nt: cq*<l^*)rff mj m^^m. Ca 
gives fsret JnsRf^si, ^^ «nft ^ after ws'rf?! ; this I cannot restore. The com- 
mentary on TBr. II. 5, 5, 7 is far better. 

P. 465- 1- 29. (148, 2.) finj: irar: 11 ftn: vm: Ca. f^ni: wn[: A. M i. R. fJnj- 
^TTi: B I.— P. 466. 1. 6. (148, 3.) After ^tw, the MSS. insert «^^ A. C2. Ca. B4. 

P-466. 1. 31. (.49.)',nf7,^l, .,^^7,^^ A. C2. '?r^Tren^Ca. w^B4. Bi. 
CB.— 1. 32. ^,1, Anukr. ^r^ %» A. C 2. B4. B i. CB. 'ir^ %• Ca. '^rf^ 
V twice, Sharfgurusishya, Ind. Off. MS. Taylor 1823. See verse 5.— P. 467. 1. 1 1. 
(H9. I.) After ftj^Rj: , ^7^ A. C 2. B 4 in marg. ; lacuna in Ca. B i. CB. mtf^r. ?— 
^- 32. (149, 3.) '^mt ^: A. C 2. Ca. ^nfV ^^^ B i. CB. Ig^: B 4 sec. m. ^mt 
^: M I. R.-_p. 468. 1. 15. (149, 5.) HT% -(It A. ?n^ ^ Ca; lacuna in B i. 

P- 469- 1. 18. (150, 4.) g^^rra; ^ A. B i. 'mf^jn (meant for •^JiMt) Ca.— 
• 20. f^Tt^Tsrer^trerrft vmn^^ ^^ft^: ^w[^: n rq^Muna i PM mvsi: A. fqVlfi |^ <j) i rM 
'"^^ C 2. f?T^^ ^i^maiPn m'^*s ^t^: CB. B i adds stwra:. ftK^ ^rr^tj- 
^nftw»TO:B4. f^ f^,^^ „T^,,^nfer ^TTifiSr^ 5f^: Ca, 

VOL. IV, * J. 

42 VAEIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 473- L 18. (154, ,.) 

P. 473. 1. 1 8. (154, I.) T^ in the text, not m:, which is the reading of Pa 
only. — 1. 24. «<^l<I^U |i Pn.<i\ n ^[^ rparg.]«ii!|ifin«1 A. ^U^^Ttjf'RTBft: B i, xp^- 
» miiPK<l\ Ca, where a whole leaf (from 153, 2 to 154, 3) is supplied by a modern 
hand. For the >Sruti passages compare Asv. Grrihy. III. 3 and >Sat. Br. XI, 5, 6. 

P. 474. 1. 22. (155.) fi i ift ^ l gflli^ Ca. fiffftm g^VilT A; lacuna in B i. The 
same var. lect. in Anukr. M. p. 45. — P. 476. 1. i. (155, 5.) iT^'NTI 'l^'Wl, » t3%^ 
n^»i?m B I. Ca. M I . R. ir^i^sRi. tnS'raJT, A. 

P. 476. 1. 20 seq. (156, 3.) ^rf|r S I. 2. 3. 4. P3. P4. P8. irf^ P i (where the 
last Adhydya is written by a later hand, and unaccentuated). See RV. IX. 5, 
10.— 1. 23. ^rf|f n ^ Ca. ^irfi^: A. ^rfrv B i. 

P. 478. 1. 3. (158.) The second Viniyoga, preserved in A and Ca, but in frag- 
ments only, had to be supplied from Rv. Bh, I. 27, 13. 

P. 481. 1. 21. (160, 4.) *J is left out by Siyana. — 1. 24. (160, 5.) tsft TT ^ it^H 
tsf^ ^^T^ X^ A. C 2. CB. M I. R. t^ ^TT^wr !Cfn Ca ; lacuna in B i. B4. 
See Asv. II. 20, 3. 

P. 482. 1. 10. (161.) Instead of wqK*9 the MSS. have ^jrfVTrei A. Ca. C 2. CB. 
In B I. B4 the Viniyoga is left out. — 1. 29. (161, 2.) ir^ ^Of*< ^ uHft^'SI'l*!^: A. 
T»^ wtff^ ^ ttnr^«l<«* 1 *n : Ca. ^ qirtfil <JI?Ifrt4«*4l B i . 

P. 485. 11. II and 16. (163, I.) 'aifTT'JTfH M ^ Ht( l («< A. Bi. Mi. R. 'd«<,«Jlffl 
Cainl. II. sij^ t iil l f*) Cainl. 16.— .1. 13. f^^ l g^flMfl^ M fT^^^ t^I^*^ -^- f3^n<l 
f^zBTf^ C 2. f^^TRt. ^f^rr^" Ca. f^mft B I. B4. CB. — 1. 32. (163, 3.) »T7Ti5ft as 
masculine, clearly the kidneys, the form of which in man corresponds to the 
mango fruit. Is Hfi% different ? 

P. 488. 1. 6. (165.) Hraf^ ^ II irr^rf^i^ Ca. Hi«jna*Tlf«^ M i. R; lacuna in A 
and B i. See Anukr. M. pp. 45, 223. — 1. 29. (165, 3.) ^^[T deest in A. Ca ; lacuna 
in B I from m<^f^ to w^tfH- — ^Tsarf^ffflrf?!, probably with Tj^ understood. 

P. 489. 1. 19. (166.) Hi<nu^*<^> etc. II imnsRT^ r*iil*<tiivi ^ uddjRd ^ I ^w m 

WRTTrTrf*T(9f*niw[% A pr. m.]fgrfn A. C 2. H«IT«!I*I*I^ f'I'Nl, ixif «f^ ^f^ ^ I ^W 
»n ^*H* »l »i r r*<rflfii ! m«<fi<ffl Ca. The other MSS. have no Viniyoga. One might 
conjecture something like t|iimm*<t> <H!j *< fi< ^ 1 ^^ f { m ^r^. R has iwniWT^ fMTtT- 

P. 490. 1. 30. (167.) Hf?i etc. A. Ca. In B i all after ifrait ^ is left out. See 
Anukr, M. p. 45 ; Aufrecht, Rig-veda, vol. ii. p. 505, ncte 2. 

P. 492. 1. 12. (168, I.) g^giT ^: A. gf^rar: ^: B i. Ca. The Pada MSS. 
read ^f^rar. Cf. Rv. X. 70, 5. — 1. 20. (168, 2.) S^yaria seems to have read ^g^ 
Ca. ^ig^ A. C 2. f^ B i. CB. B4.— 1. 30. (168, 3.) t^H Tfn B i. t^T l1^ Ca. 
tint'^ A. Mi.R. 

P. 493. 1. 20. (169, I.) irmrf^nft: A. Ca. ifNrflrft: B i. Cf. Rv. Bh. X. 30, H ; 
I. 80, 4. 

P. 495. 1.19. (170,4.) ^?»ST%B4.CB. vnl»n%A.C2. ?»i*wt%Ca; deest in Bx. 

P.505. 1.34.(i8o,i-)] M.ANDXLA X. • 43 

P. 495- 1- 31' (171. 2.) After n^f«iMI<l^f«jlil, A. Ca and C 2 add a quotation, 
which I cannot find. ^ f^ n^fsfT ^flr^?!l v^pirmfsr n^^ i^ v»I TTf^ fijT 
^ffff^ I « Jwrrerr »T^f^ A. <mT»rflf ^ ^ ?^ v^ *iTTfT( fip; -3^^ etc. C 2. ?t?i% 
ff ntf^ 4ft^ v^js^ff*!^ 7TOT ^^ ^ >« WTt M: fin: ^fi«^ « iT^r^ wil^ 

Ca. The story is told in different BrAhmawas, but not in this form. We have it 
in the (Sat. Br., at the beginning of the fourteenth book ; in the Taittiriya- 
drawyaka, at the beginning of the fourth PrapdiAaka, with the explanatory 
portion in the fifth Prap^i^ka ; also in the TAwc?ya-br4hmama VII. 5, 6 ; and 
Aitareya-brAhmana I. 18. I have restored the text conjecturally, but I feel 
doubtful about Rudra. • 

P. 498. 1. 28. (174, 2.) The commentary to this verse is wanting in all our 
MSS. R gives the following commentary (on what authority?): ^ ;^t^ wmtK 
iri^^B^Tfw ^rfwfr "wfirarr *friWT^ vj voro: ii^ i MiD^ T: Trar: ^ m '^ift ^«^ fire 
^rfiw^ ^r[^ gwm: %^ wwTTfirafTr ^^ "^ ^ft»T f!re a< i * i iaj*< i r<wR en.<)M<^ i jH« i ^gifl - 

^Nlw: n— P. 499- 11- 13 and 15. (174, 5.) pt Si. 2. 3. 4. P3. P4. PS (P i gives 
here no accents), pt Aufrecht, Index Verborum of M i.— 11. 16 to 18. m^ A 
(thrice), Ca (twice), ^j^ B i (thrice), Ca (once). See verse 4, and X. 159, 4. 

P. 500. 1. 10. (175, 4.)g^ll TTO^Ca. iTJj^fgA. ng^Bi. 

P. 500. 1. 13. (176.) f|[^ »iT?ran?n^ Anukr. fi[?ft^ 3iwr*ft A. fijcft^n 

IT^I^mHt *RfTr Ca. fl[?fN JIT^n^TJH^ M i ; deest in B i. 

P. 501. 1. 30. (177, I.) ^^ 57t^ I fTT7?!!znr?TT^5^ II ^B^ cnn ?»W 'rft ^Rf A. 

wr% 71 Trm^ 'rfr ^ ^ C 2. f^ f#ii mw\ tt f^ 1 Ca. j^ wr%^ m?wr 1 m 5 

^ B I. fr% cim TJ frerrrlW^ CB. 5^ f% ^ ^TTa^lT B4 sec. m. See above, 
p. cxli.— P. 502. 1. 3. ffnTTPfT^ A. Bi. B4. gf^trrm^ C2. ^r-riTl l ^ l^ CB; 
deest in Ca.— 1. 18. (177, 2.) See Manu I. 21. 

P. 502. 1. 35. (178.) TfT^^fg^^ A. Ca. C2. B4. B I. CB. Cf ShacZgurusishya 
in Anukr. M. p. 165.— P. 503. 1. 8. (178, i.) On m# to Ji^TT^: etc. see Preface 
to the Sixth Volume of the First Edition, above, p. cxl. — 1. 18. ^nwra: n ^^wara: A. 
T^irara: C 2. B 4. B I. CB. ^^nrara: Ca. Sv. IV. i, 5, i, vol. i. p. 675, ?ni%^ 

P- 504- !• 12. (179.) A reads filf«r:, Ca fiif^:, in B i the whole introduction 
IS left out. Anukr. M. reads fiif^:. SHyana read ftff^:, Shaci^gunjsishya 
^ntr^:. See Anukr. M. pp. 165, 223.— ^^ipEi^ « jfvtmS^ Ca marg. ^fv^ Ca 
Pr. m. A. M I.— 1. 1 7. (i 79, I.) uinnn^o B I. '^iTOTf Ca. w HJimf" A. M I. R.— 

• 32. (179, 2.) ^^rtwjTOTf^: A. irmm» B i. ^^rmswrorf^: Ca.— P. 505. 1. 8. 

("79, sO'n^fl^Ca. »TT^4f^A. Ml. R. 

^- 505- 1. 1 1. (180.) "^ i;fn A. Ca ; introduction left out in B i. irf|;: Anukr. 
M.— 1. 24. (180, I.) ^^p^T^ A. Ca; deest in B i. See Kiis. VI. i, 176, i ; Rv. 
^^•1-79.5; 92, 14; 95. "; 116,18. 

*F 2 

44 VAUIETAS LECTIONIS. [P. 508. 1. 4. (183.) 

P. 508. 1. 4. (183.) -sH^: II '^iWT '^'^: A. CB. ^sn^^ETftCs. %fn\n\ Ca. ^rg^; 
B I . ^w^ : B 4 sec. m. 

P. 509. 1. 3. (184.) of^ A. o^o B I. Ca. Mi. — 1. 1 1. (184, i.) <^ | qm ;T T q mi qt n 
^Bm m «i mn fi<ii A. C 2. «^i«imi?iim^<4i Ca. «i«mi?»Twn B 4 sec m. ^rPTtrnnwRrt 
Bi. m -«<U! d i M «^q i CB. jj^Trnntnre^ M I. K 

P. 513. 1. 14. (189, 3.) ^^fi5: ?r$rTTW^: 11 5^ ^ ira^ VK^'- A. C2. %^ 
xm^: Ca. ^^i^ ^ '^r^Ti f:3ii: B i. B 4. ^ ^^^ x^' CB. 

P. 513. 1. 18. (190.) •^TTrrr?^ II <>^T?i: "^Sm^ A. C 2. •««(T1^1 Ca. o^jT^ ig^ 
Br. B4. CB. — 1. 27. (190, I.) o^q-nrrarR" 11 <'^mt^t«i» A. B i pr. m. •^rnvrT" Bt 
sec. m. In B i the whole verse stands in the margin. Ca has JrrTrfwnT^Trft '^ 
etc. E, reads « ^MI^M I «^M^d l t(. - — P- 51 4- U- 4 seqq. (190, 2 and 3.) From finnft 
i 11 verse 2 to the end of the hymn, lacuna in A. Ca. 

P. 514. 1. 17. (191, I.) ^r^^rr^rrerrat A. Bi pr. m. Ca. ^: ^TRrrert Bi marg. 
Cf. Rv. Bh. I. 33, 3 ; 71, 3 ; 121, 15 ; III. 43, 2.— 1. 19. After f^ there is ^: 
A. C 2. f^ T B 4. f^w: CB. f^ it; B I. It may have been meant for i( ^, or 
<T^ f^mtift, as Ca reads f^ f^nft^trrar: g" etc. 


II ^int 't'w (I 

*],> 3 

II ^^ J^ II 

^ifn^ I f;3j^ ff I '^i^ i^n^ pfwwBTsiTgTroTffWTftref ^^7:f^fn %s»t I'^'a.'j?. i i:f?T i 
xTfTTTTRWi^ H^ ^wrer^rei ^rwT^JTJfr^t: ii%?i: i ^^ §. q. i TfTi ^ ii frrrnf htj^jt 
^f^^ Hriyt*iiiM5{i^ 5?frfJT^T?[T!j^nf^^^frwr ^rrf^t^: i crt^ ^nwt i gf^ii ^ 1 1^- 

^!M^^Tfl[fl%i^^ I ^^*j<ii«i II 

^wr^TT ^^ ^ w ^1^ fw ^RiMin: in II 
^q I ^^1 ^W I ^«l: I ^mviii iki$wr^j^^\in^', i wtfi"^ i wi 

^: I HT^tI I ^rTT I ^SWi: I ^ 1 5nrT: I fW I ^Rltf^ I ^ut: mil 

"^^j^i TTf^'ntfTfi: I TT%f^^'P^Ttsr^: ii t^: gh*iif^««T% ^ ii f^i^ f^rarrfni^ ?ft 
iftrsgffim ^^iT ^^^ 5if%7T: Ma\m<i i ^nl^aiTf^^f^^nnff w?^^ Trani^efTf i ^fit 
'^i ^■•i*)i<!iNq(ft mri: gs^T^ H^fira nfti^ ^m ii -d^^^^rfTT^Tir i[^ ^ ii w^- 
'n^f I ^TT I ^nfnff ^: I rmm ffa^ i w\^ ^^rer f^i 'B?nff 9^f?t^si: ^ifr «^*iiN 

'TilJi^midWT: I WJ'C'rf?! II m ^Tt I tfTS^ t^^ WaRftfTT fTiq: f%^li: 11 ^^ ^T^«»>«J^ I ^ 

«?n«nn i[7f1% % m\m fwr *i^iR m^ anTr i(i^<,i<(7i i ?n»"* §•'«• ^- "Ho. i ^ ii 

« 5n^ Tivii ^% ^;^^^ ^T^^tff wH\^ I 

f^^: ftj^: xrft HwtawH wnjv^ ^ ^f?l^5^: iRii 

^: 1 5fTfT: I n^: I ^% I iSi^: i ^ i ^^: i f^s^n: i ^t^ifti| i 

%: I f^: I ^ft I THFrtftl I ^^ I II I TniIS>ii: I ^ I ^5^^! »n; IR II 


»nqiiii<«i'^i f«rf%v ffl«*<m i ^firt^ ^rfm^: « w 0<^*«n'«}miar«)4f\Jij?f«f% I 'wf 1(^f^ \ 
f^ an: I Tm^sf^ \ iwra% ii 

f^i^fp^ 4pn4^ f^sT^Ht ^f ^ ^rtfrr ^f(H( i 

f^: I ?fan I WT I w^ I f^n^ I ^- 1 ^fT I ^ I ^^ ' ^»^ I 
^^T I ^1 ^a;^ I ^^' I ^i^ I ^ I ^s^ito: I ^rfn i ^^ i ^^ ii 911 

rn %J^if^ ^x!^^^l ^ iq h^ ju^^^ itirt 11811 

^: I ^ ?Lfii I i^ I f^s^jfi: I ^'sft: 1 ^s'^ 1 nfrf 1 '^ 1 ^% 1 

in: it I ^ I irf^ I ^'T-i ^^s%m: 1 ^f^ 1 «^ 1 f^^ 1 'ir^^ 1 ftrrt ii«ii 

% ^ '?r?!: I '3! TW^^TT^ I ^ren^ ^rrrwTci; ftg^: fMg*ii§i ^f^ ^'nft vrrf'rai: 

♦jqm'jiirdti I fmr ^qi«<i*<i^ifii ^1*{rMu<K«<fl 'nftr 1 »n?f^ 1 ^jg^ t%^ T«r^ ar^nn t^ 
rr^ ^^ xfH v(m^ 1 w» }{• m- 1 tf^ « 

^TTtt I f^TSt^i I ^«IT^ I ^^^s^r^^ I %^ I ^^ I 

Trfirs^v I'^^s^^ I ^f( I ^331 1 g I ^ I ^f'i 1 ^Rtnt iimh 

T^ <.'C\R<\rt}fi i fl<a wtm ^^ TfRi %g ^mr^ Mdi<*t*9Mlij 'tt ^itn trwaf ^ 
^mr^ ^^r^ ^f^ ^^ H< (i ^i*<f^ f^ Trf^ w^ I *<ftf?m*<rvir*i{( inftf^ sfTOT 1 ^nfil 

^ f^ ^^fTjftr^ ^ ^ e^t ^ ^ IITHtI HrM I 

wiff i^^^jf^?f#i^^i^H?fi*i«^ii^^:i?ri?ipTTiirm^i 
u I ^ff I ^ I 'f^: I ^^ I ^ I ^ I ^ I «f^ I ^ i|^T^ iisii 

\ ^ ^^ ^rrrrgf^ ^ir^rgf^r^ *r^ €#5[t ^m i w^m i M^;a^fi<r<i< dKi< R i iig ii 
^^ mt^ ?rf% ritjTfnrr: ii tr jsim i g^ i 'sm g^t »iT7fa ^J i d i ftaO ^^ft v%^>f7i 

I «?^ w«t ^^rei g^ ^ ^ wf»?fT^^'\^ ^ ^<) i Ry i (0« !T ^n I irnw ii ii ^e ii 

'tft^wgrrwr i w <i. §. i ft?J ii 
f^f "^t ^^flt ^f^ f^lf ^f^gi?^ ^%5 I 

^%«it ^^^wftti^ j^ ft^TniTOFT^: mil 

^litTf I I^T^ I ^^', I ^^ I f%iT^ I ^^ I ^sti^ I ^i5ri p I 

^ i%«rt: I ^fki: I ^-54: i ^^ i f^ i fr^t i ^ i ^s^f^ii: inn 

'^^ ^Tiji^NHint ^Tf*w^ ^»i- i )T»Hn ai f^j[i s <i* ii « i <jaf*i^Tf<«» ifr maw I pra I f*^ % 
7^ ^ t^ *nn: 'stM^mif^MM*^ waiMlPm ^iw»t 1%° ^» ?. ?. i xjinftwj v ^1^: 
2* ^Sfi!" ^^Tso^ I 'T?! 1 1^ ^ H^ ■nf^ 'Jii^<«ii<«<«fl w ii ^m a?rTf^wti«t^: 

B 2 

^: ^ ^ f^*i*4 i mi ^ <M*4ii'^ I f^ iTwm ^vr^^r^ «w^1^ 5;f*««n<i '"^ " ^^''^ 
Tj^T^ JTTflr I '«w Tift'srem: i ^ |%*fr f^ft ^rrfr atu«(i*< i ^ttt w^^v i irar^TO i 

<aSa.'!S*<i*< i n < M-rtii4t f%f*r% ui r qgdlfg: 3R^3n i w^ ^<?iHir*4ani irm I f^ ^ I 
■%<«n ^ %vt '^SH'^ w ^< <i *ii*<fM m'«> i * i * i < k I w ?. <<o. I rfn ii m*<«!n<4i<ii«5i^^ ^rn^t^^- 
^T^ flen^qi-feii I ff^ ^ 1 'sq^ ?RT g^m tt^ ^«ranm ^-m*ti«Pi wwn»f i^" 8. ^. i Tf?i i 
f%T^\«rra ^ii'tii'j^ii'Wi Tfir ii 

^ ^^l^prfri xi^T'^ ^i?^^^ iT^^ ll%si ' 

v{z(f{ I ^ ^<<i'mH*< : I (Ten ^ ^n^fr^T^HTg iraf^Tir nww: ?w^ JT^m: fif^T*pR^ iiTt^ 
n^nj ^ «?rrfHVnrt^ ^wsJt w^h i ^'t^ tww wr ^rTTR: ^lifMmci: i ^s^ i 

^raj'ig I ^i^tg II 

?ra HfiiMW wmt^ I w" ^. «»?. I tf^ II 

^:i?Tfi:if^^ I ^ |Tl^lfHif^-R[l^f4: i^^T^l^gsfvi: i^^cRtfH lllJH 

f^?[T^7n^f ^TTTT^if*!: faaa- rifl Tg ^ m^iwnm\ gnrrfTi i ^^iTf?^ i ^ireretin '"^^^^^ 

^TTf^^g II 
^rqk^l -R^ T^Mm ^ "W^ ^^ ''^- ' 

^: I rffl^l ttrftl^sf^lf^51»pT^Rf5t^: I^EI^IT^I W^S^: I^ITlfTT IIMII 

g^T: m: i gf^nftfi^fni: i ^Riaj^fn ^ ^: i '^rt ^«jw^ i ^gn^^ i ^^ i g^rft^: 

gfirif^^rainis^^ fWg^'an: H^'fffmf'T fsratg^rn, m^Wiwif^i fft^^iwrfM tcm^ i 
^«i: Ji?r^ II 

f'^rV ^ »n% i^^fTi ?i iW ^fq^f^mr^ iitwi: inrpt^ ?rf»T^rR: «fi<«j*iiii: ?rn, 
^"^Th^w vyn »T^f?j twt f% mff i f^^^ ^^ ii n^oii 

?^ ^^I^^fiT: ^^ ^ ^lE^ ^TH ^^ I 

\ <itii^uw i * i i^ ^f^ t^: 'HNr v^f^ i ^m irft^: i *<rflir«iiKi«< ^mssTflr irm 
grniTM^imf* Him I m^ f^^ 1 7WT i?m »»im HTO7 ^^rer ^i*^iM^Ii)«i ifinaf TTf^<^ i 

^tN «» R(«^^M^ HTflff*<f*i^«f T^glftsrat ^f^ II 

^^ Wg ^'tel W>q^^ ^ ^^VI^iTf^ )^frT IRII 

fi^Jit I ^rl^i ^^' I ^ I ^^ » >i!H ^'T^ I ^^if I ^ct: I ftg: I 5Tt I 

^^ I HT^ I ^^^ I ^HT^ I f^: I ^^sfii: I ^^: i f^ I HTfk iRii 

w^ I f* 31^1 f?^ »T?n: ft?i: ^t^ ^rnn- ^raf^ig: ftg^«i*if<«ii^i wrwrt ^m^ 
gr^raafjT^^nr: 1 ?» <i« i \* < <. rd <il* i *ian ^^fiTf^ «l^"^**^ ^^fn^^rfii^fii <. i ^ i < % ^^ ^ro^- 

»^: I >T^ I ^W^: I W I ^HTrl^l ^dt I ^t: l ^^ l ^H l TT^Ti^l 

TRTcii ^ N<im I Jii^Mrf<i<i^'ii«n*<*<iJi ^f^ I mr: y^i^iO ^<r<^«i ^npn ^if^: ^^ 

t^sM T^ 1^^' ^^^ HTTli^ ^TTk^^W^% II 8 II 

^^ I ^liRi^: I ^f»T: I ^ I ^^ I iy^' I ^: I ^^' i f^^ • 

t^^ I -%W' I ^: I gs^^: I vnilt^: I ^M^ i wmi: I f^f^ iHi" 

^ht: 1 57 1 ^ I HT^rki: I ^ I ^-^HRW I ^: i gsf^^: i 
^[ft: I w, \ ^1: 1 sftc^Hfisf5^: i -^fWm i Hi^s^: 1 5!#H i gt ii m ii 

^t^flTi^ .{\m*< i «i«ji fpfr »jf?»: gf3[^: ^fwi^lrr^r 'ren^: ^^ wnmt: u ht ^ ii 
ITi^fi^'n ^#f^f^^ ^>iflJ^f?TmfiT "^^ II ^11 

^m I 'TOTt^: I ^|^5Tt%: i ^^HM^ I <j iH ^4 1 f^T^n^si**: i 
m^: 1^: I ^^sfe il^Sftir: if^ f^sf^: i^^h: i mfiTif^s*^ ii!,ii 

ff^TT^T^ ^^htRt T^grfTi^rr^: w^; ^wim: iftiararr f'rgtw: i f^rg^ft <ii*nr<f<i Tratr^r 
r«rg<T: i ff^fr^: ?igm Ti^ra: y*i*in, 1 9|«<i«ft i f^ ^^rnft ^Tr«n ^TijtiTfiT%r f%»m 
ft^T^r^nfWt MW[\ ^if^: 3?^f«: gTT% ^nrfw: %rRW 'T'rfS* Tf^TOTT^IfNWTfi wrfn 
ftftvr^iJi?! II 

^f^: p^: fgW*^^ ?:>4;EEr^'t t:^!^ ^ ifwn: ii^ii 

^: I W I ^^ I Hft I ;t: I ^ I ^ I ^f^ if^s^if^: i ^fff: i fsr^: i 


''wt r*<rH)fi<n<d<t« ! jn^ T r^^i^yr^'in^m a f'i'inti ^iTfHTfiT: i^Tijnn ^m ??m «t^ i 

r^mrf^g^^ gg«^: gn^ TH^fa^»iWr% ftff^r^: *i^«si^<^ T5 ^ T«n: i 
'^'R? II II ?q II 

'T ^ Tf^ ^nr^ ^g^ 1* I ijm i in i: fiNci I IT 7T i:«itj«i?i u «T?j<iifli'*ir^»ii!M*I1<i»li 

IT W ^r% n 7i ?5rf5t TP»T >|^ w ^ ^ ^^g • 
v^^^ vm ^ rtHct ?:^^^ fc^ nr?? u^ni; inii 
i» I ^ I ^% I H I ^' I ^^ I ir^ I g^: I W I ^^: 1 57 : 1 1^^ I 
v^s?j^ I ^stn I ^ I i4 1 ^ I f^ I ft^ ' ^ • ^^ «*^" 

H^rflr rmr ff%: n^ ^ Tf*< ^^ H i "t w^ w^ ttw^ ^r^ ^'nr: ^Tf»ni% ^ ^ ^^flr^nj^ 
|nt "|^T5=ltTI% Tli^irTTiiff^f t^Tftr ^^^'^ II ^ II 

^ I i^ I ^nrt^a: i ^^ i ^s^tfir i nr^: i ^s^ i ^^r i ^f^ i 
|rT: i^^T^ I ^% I i^i^rt I Wff: I i^fR; i ^rfe i ^^%# iRii 

Tf?r ^: II 

^?:f^ W^rrt ^T^ ^^f^'^^ ^^ft^T^^: II ? II 
ftl'3 I ^ I RT I %^ I "^^ I THrn I f^^W I H^^TltHT I 

vnrf : I ^4 1 TTS^Ht I «nf^ 1 1^ i f^»ft^^ i ^^: s?^ i ^^s^: ii?ii 

^ '^i^ %5q gpti^iW ^[\ ^ ftrj f H^finr 'N^nft 'fN^ mm gf«j"<ft ^■^•nawH' 

mj', I ^T I ^ I "^^ I f^jk^: I nff si^ I ^ I i^ I ^n I f^i^ I 

T?^ I ^f^fl'^tfff I f^^ I W^ \\fiW^ I f^ri I f^qfH: I «^ "Jill 

% Ai)ij^i4j^ ^TfT 1H n<R>«? ^^ f< ^t)'i. 1 ^ ^ ifi «j^ ?T'? miTrRj 1 m^»T: I f^ ^ 
^ ^^»ni I 'wfTT f^nrm w^ i <^ ^f^ Jiff^ *< i ^ifW f«T^ i ^wf€ i ^Tti: ^^i^ 
%f^g»i^f7T I f*^ jrf^Ti^ ^5mv^^: ^ i ^ i frrefTf i 'H^t i v^^ffrf^ wr^ mtf^rs^^- 
WT<TH?^ ^;^ I W ^q'Tl^ni^l ^W ^M<)l>^ I 'EfTfTf I ^? f^5^ ^I ^KsH^'g'^^ 

4\^mi .t \m ^\m M\ ^rg^Tfw^ i "v^ %f% i ^^r^^iffl ii fm% ^imi<^ i 'rf^ ^ ii 'J^' 

^^m^ ^Ht ^ W ^ ^^rtflt ^ "m-^n Tf^l II M II 
^sNr!^i HT^ I ^#^ I ^: I ^W I H^ I ^<^: I ^s^: i 

^JWWTI wit: I ^W 1 57 I H I %% I ^S^cW: R 1 1TS5T^ I T?iff; im II 

^jf^ jprnr;: ^ Tif^: ^f^f^jRf^^^ ^sn^ i j^ i ^fijzng httw^ ^fMr^Wvt- 

gsgRira: II ^ra ^<^<«ini inwi} it ^ i mi^fn i tt? ihtti: i fwt «t ^im fw^^ifm^i?T^- 
^i«<.<«i*<wi*sii'*i<<«iR M«i^ffl fra[?^ I »nh »igxgT ^f^: «%re: iini*i«<*n^ T: ^ »n« i n tii < iT: 
mt «mf^ wpin if^: Hlmtiffl ii 

i{^^^\^ I rf^ I ^'l ?fi* I T'^TfS: I ^sfil: I ^V{ I ^ifhn I 
1^ I ^ I ^ I ?r^# I H^ftm I f^ k4 I ?r I ^xT^lrf^sfii: I ^: iif,ii 

T^ wgnrej ^ iFf%r?R^ wm^^: rf^ i trar m^: i ?!fi!i^ fi^wirtir '^ q »iJiif *< «iTt;fq- 
""Ht WW ?J**<.i«ii*i«jf«*n^ I f^" ?. qa. I T?«rrf^ I w^W II ^VT^^ ft'ft ^ '^^- 
w^ 71^ w>h»i<j*»?t*i r*T=ii^*ii^7ftmT: II Tnft % ^ ^ c^ si^ra^ iWfM ^n^ 

f^ I ^^ I sfi^ffJT'? I T^ T ^rtrr <.«)♦<%: ^'41^iirfl t!^ ii 
^^^ H^VT ^pqr I w 8. 1. nfTf II 

^\ ^ ^^ irhiTf^ ^^ T^H 5^^5^^ ^nif®^ II ^11 

^ I ^ I ^ I ^«TS%^: I ^: I ^ I ??f I ^ I Jft: I «^ I ?jft.i ^^ i ^i 

'^ I ^t: I ^ I n^Tnf7{ I Ht^T I T^ I ^ I ^: I H^: I ^lis^^^ ii^ii 

^ ^i^rrai TPT^iTfiT yiiifltqiT T^g x^ I ura^j i ^Tft mH^^^fSTwr^i^ ifti^FT* n^ 
^- ^^ Tin ^nrt li^ ^ i ^rwrar: ^^ i W*r?frTg i ir^ T^npri^ ii 

%^[^;tti^h^ t3t^^ t\v^ f^rftw TT^ ^; iisii 

VOL. IV. ~ ~ " ~ " c 

10 It ^J%^: II [^•^.^•M."'^®^^. 

^^: I ^5: 1 u^Tsi: I v^J^ I ^mfl\ -^^ I Jjfts^pqT I f^ I ^ I 

?r^: «<<*i^*«w<^Tf*! W[ fiii^in\V^ niTsfr T^ftwf vtrt 'tnpilr ^nrf^^i^irnft 

Wfvfi ^ftsE ^;^ ^^aki: ?? ^^flt »iff^T ^^fftf»^: i 

^^ I TT^ I ^^■A' I fvT I TnfH I TJ^t I ^ITTTifjT I ^f^\ I Tl^tft! H ^ II 
'^TfTf^ T^\p^_ ^ ^m^ ftri^T ftj'J ^^^^4rft I 

ftr^CT mf^ ^tirr ^^ ^^"^"^i ^^T f^^: II ? II 

f^W I 5^Tfi^ I ^tir: I yi^ I ^%: I f^rf^l rrf I TT^^T I f^j^^i' ii?ii 
^ <ii n!(*n ^mwt ««j^rin ^^m tj^ »nf%pft Tnrm«fr jrh^ ^ ^rnrT^f^isfi- ^m^rrv^ff 

^T^T^fq^^ I ^1^ im trftrig^T^ g^ fxm^ ^rsi^m^^ i f?fft fr^rei ^HNi 'gT«ft ^'"^ 
^»T^i%q »m¥r f^'mt f^f^ i^nt 'R'prr: 'gti gsinr ^[f?i ^: i ^ Tti ?wm ft?f » 

^H^ TW^ ^ft^: «<(■(!<*! T^ifirafttTT^V^TT; iff^: gT,i<i«ir ijfgiu<<ti i nH i: g^rrrmi- 

^Twt ^■=»Hi*jMiifMR'«j4if«(«ii(*i«)i f%^#fc I '^jftf »i^[5Tg^^(T«n 5Rr^ ^fvPr^iKt: 
gfrmnfi[f'T^ ^>at^ 1 ^^Nrt ^^^: 1 ^^5^^: i T^rii^raft ffTfftmfwjrr fg)fi<H Tq: n 

^h: I ^ I ^fTft^ I ^qsin: I ^^^[^ 1 ^f^ I ^?f^i |^^^ 11 M 11 

'gif^HTT I ^^fTT I 'ai^ ITRT^I ^ ^?I^OT ^# W^- I t^lW^ ^ g%«t ^ ^^T^ 

^-4f ^^ nTfPi^rn, i^'»<io.t:c.§.i TfW Ji'^riHr: ^^^Tf^«ii(*iiTfq: ^^n! 1 ^sunm^r: 

W%t Wl ^^^ ^'^35 TT^t f^'H'f "^^ rT^ II ^11 "^^ 

W¥t: 1 1 1 ^)^: I ^sfl^ I ^'^SE 1 W I f^S^jf I v^^ I H^ II ^ II 

c 2 

^ tt i i^-^i i g ?! 'WET aiTsm I u*i^^<*«u "wS^ 7[^i\M\^ rmtm^ i?rr«^*?. '^<l.^l ijfir 
^: I < i ^*i<^ i di4 9R<^ tr^ 'SriTt Tj-fref?^ <*n*i*^*(f*i k*K<!!i*f*i ^flfl^^^^T I yf^: 

gfn*<f*<rd ^: I ^o <10. $. M. ?. I gtn*«jl ^< ; n <*i j) | fa8 lj <im<lf<rt l < j| l ^PirafUfiT I Tm Ipj 

^f?i Hg^i^ ^f5?fr»rrr^#iTf*r|Tf*fT^TNr ^s^^rer h^wt 'ft«twHi ir'T'nrr: iwrwnr: «*irua: i 
%^ T^ f*f^q?5t!if^: I isi{' <\o. i,. ^. ^. f ° 'S' q. q. ^. ;^. ii[fn imnnfl i 'T^T^niT^iT^ ^nft Jj^im 

%^T^ H^T^M 7T»ft fit t^nrpt^ni i y*ivfT^g<t ^^rrfl[5rnfH»TW^: « 

%^m^ I ^i<r*<ft)ri»M II TnnT^qT^ir^*n{%^in<itfr ftf^i: ii 

^^: I :ii: I >qT^sf5+: i ^|T(ot I TTfT:sijfrt I trfts^H: I f^»Trs^ II ^11 
^\fi{: vfxH^n: ^fx^: n'^fn ^<ft i^fa i ^r^ ^r ai?nij ti'^ TnrrafTiffi'ifTj^^TftBr^: ii 

^: I ^T^sf4: 1 f^HTS^t I f^smfrr i ^: i W^t: i ^ws^ i ^^' ' 

— — ^ 

fn 'ifw^'H pT9i^^%T^: ^>^fH ^: ii^ii 

fi^ I ^: I fW^: i^-^S^^: I |ti i f^^^sSf : i ^i I f^S^ i 

fn I ^ftfl^ I H^nTT I f^'f^ I ^ I ^^S^^: I ^^frl I '^I ll^ll 

^iW^^^ ^^: ^#i?r Tu^ t!i: i ^»ift ^ fwrg: ^ImrfTjfn'unT ^^ ^^ 

uimT'^^ 'rf^fw^ »i«n »H^Tt% fffsjT ^Bwfn w^Ttr irfTRvrt?? Hn^vfd i ^ti^raftT^- 

»T^ fmr ^ ^^^ ^f^: ^^4# ^TT fM^fff "1^7^ II 8 II 

^^: I ^: I f ^15: 1 wr: i"|^F( I ^r^ I T^S^ji^ i %TTffT i 
'T?^: I itrrf I ^: 1 f ^t I ^qf^: I ^sf^: I ^: i ^ I fWff il^n^ \\^\\ 

ftft ^f>J<ftif^: 'gpfirtf^^^^^t: 1 ^^rf^ffJTr^fftfiifXjSi^: 1 ^' 'a^^ ^^: *l3i*<i«i: 
^ ^f^f^T^i^rr^ T^?rr ^igtRH: snvifli*n f^irft 1 »raefn 1 'rar ^ »t^: ^ ftm 
%^RTirr5T?tT fmf%^in^^ m ^rt^ ^i|7m: 'ttfira: ^3%'^^ ts(^: ^if^^frRrtn 

M i fWtr 5Rfwf4i|^ 5nH^^ f^ ^^T^ II M 11 

ff I ^t I ^ 1 5T KiTTnTT I ^^ I jft: sfii: I ^Tt:sf^: i ^ i ^^4 1 

m\^\ f^nte: I HfifSfn: I JJ^ I ^TTfTS^ I f^ I m^ "Mil 

^ ^ifwr?q^ -sr^f^ ^rgtii ^^: 5Frf(NiT #': I 

^ ^iftfr^^rffTOT ^H)i^ ^ ^ ^^ II ^11 

^ I ^ftfi^ I f^ I ^fri I w%i I ^T^ 1 5T I ^^: I ^S^: I ^1f: i 

^ ^ I ^fft: I t^cnrrswi^: i ^^r'^'tt: i ^ i ^ i f^ ii !f ii 

S3 II wn^* II [^•^.^•^.^•^. 

^ I fl I ^ HT^ I f^S^^ I WSl I ^^^: I ^' I "^^ I 

rf I ^ I ^T^: I ^^ I ^il I ^^ I ^ I ^^"l I "ff^l^* ' "^^ "^" 

'ran^T TT^r f ^ ?^Tri ■^sn^ffiTi^T^TOjTff ^^ »T^Tt% H^m^rrTwf^^^ ?f^f^ ^ttttt ^f<=(«r- 

^nSTt II II <\ II 

^f% T Tfn mw^ 'firm ^ I ^Tsrrar: g^ i Mtdlrt«n*M* it 'aw: fwf'^f^nfnt: ii ^^- 

I w !?. <10. 1 T^ II 

^^ff rT^ ^^ H^W^^^ ^ ^4% ^1j: II <^ II 

^f% I ^: I f^^: I ^ I Tjf^: I f^s^^: i vff i ^^^i•^ \\^ i 
^^T^ I H^ I ^^ 1 1?5^: I ^^ I ^J I ^sf4: i^ i ^K: ii «l ii 

^ ^g < Mir <JH !rM?rgT^ ^ f^: if^»^ .;j|f|i^ r «i4\: ^raiTJn^i^»^ ft^rg: ^i^tw^ 

*r%?T dviinjii-ff^f^ TT^t^: I ^?rfTi 'g ^ ^%JTff 1 1 ^^ ^'^ ^TT^ -d«vf«-5*f«: ^: 

^^ ^ Tmf ^^ ^^t^J^Ri^ ^^t^ Hfrrfvi: giTTH iRii 

^ht: I ^ I 'Trni: I g*4 1 ^m: i ^Ttf^: i "s?^: I ^v{ \ ipnfn i x}^' • 


5jfti -^ fiTrlt'TftlHTf^ftT J^nit ^fi^^ I 

^TrfNi ^ffT: ^^ f<r^ ^ ^^ ^^W II? II 

^ 1 17^ I f^wt I ^ I ^irf^ I ^^ I ^Ti^t I ^?i I ?if|^l ^^^' I 

^: I ^5flMi I ^it: I WR I f|f^ I ^ I w I ^fe ii?ii 

T:rfi? I fT^ gH^M«*»H<t I f^ g^1% f%rr lotfi ^re^i ^^^ ^^ g^fv ^ <(\fH*<'»i'j<!i 

fen ^ fy^ ^ ^^^1^ ^T^ ^ ^ f^rMfrm i 

^m^ ^ ^f^^: ^^f^^^ ^^%^Tt^ II 8 II 

fmn: I ^ I f^: i ^^ ^ i H^^: i ^ i ^T^^ i ^ i ^ i f^sisttm i 


^ ^^ ^rpft: m^s^ "^stm^ n^1v(^ f^: ^fw: flrwr: finr R^iri ii: i a ^^fl ^T p r: 
^T ^ ^ ■^■ra% <*^^j|«Lais('ijf*( ^if c«((H«i<^iTii<«ig3ti »m: ^^trrr ^m^T'i ^(^r^rn, tt 

^T| «ilW* < R ffS^?rrT f^^ ftntt ^m^^iT II Mil 

^sf4: 1 ff rf I ftr^s^ I Tij-^A i w?t i ^fr^ i ^T^ i ^irt i 

^S«lf I ^fti I ^^: I ^^'TiT I f^^ I tt«Tit I f'T I ^W^iT II M II 

''^m 1 5tf«ifrt7i: I f%^ f?r^ »ig^ I n^rar'^ ^^f^iu^: i itmr'nsTmt «i«K<i<i i f^ra^ 

^1T4^ ^I^>i^ ^^T%^1 ^5!^ W'^ ^^T»T II !f II 

^ I ^^ I fifn \\^ \\^T^ I ^ I ^ I x»T^: I ^^?^i ^S^rn: I 

^ I ^^^r: I ^s^: i "^^ i "^^n^ i ^^ i ^TO i h^ i ^sw ii!, ii 

U^ ^ ^' ^tt f«q^ ^^TT TO'^I ^tI^^s^ ii^ii 

H^ I ^: I ^ I ^f^m I ^rT I ^m: I ^^ I WS^r^i ^ I ^t: I ^:s^: i 

tT^ I ^ I 5t: I ^SHf : I f ^S^fit I ^^ I ^ I 5t: I iT'^: I ^lis^^^ ii^ii 

T^^ »T^ 1 ^mfi '^ <!(*<<^<ti*^ ^ H4 I ^^^ ^ra^ ^T<n »t4 i ^ ^Tf : gj g^'rhn^ ^ 
ng^agfTTwrt^T^ I m^ra ii ii j^ ii 

f^^f^a^T ^5^ ^^t^^m^^^ *Tff^ -^^^ II «^ II 

V i%g^ I ^cn I ^ifiT I ^: I ^ I d^# "sf^ I ^^: I ^■^'VfiT I 

f^: I f^fl^l ^wi^ I ^SHT^ I ^1 ^TR? I ^tjt R^ S ^ I J^ff^: I ^^ mil 

xmm, whrt^ m^^ i r yg5f*iT(W»iTf^3iT3RT tt t^ 'y<H<. i ^ ^iitnni i '^t ffs^^roi- 
^ "^TTT^^^rTTf^ f'J^^l ^^1 ^^ f^^fcT II ^11 

^ct I th: I ^>i: I ^ff^SHH I ^%^ I ^i?t: i ftnfl's^Ti: I ^m^» 
w. il^swifrT I ^rf^s^rnf^i I ^T!^ I #^ I ^"^^ I wim: I f^irfff IRII 

ifrrfti wi!3^ f^ ^ ^ *l M i<j n<> Mi ^«(«n*<if<<a i '^a f^: 'f'^fr ^^t^ i?n%3 ^ 
fgmrft I ar^m n 

^m ^m^^v^r^ wm ^^ ip^ f^w ii^ii 

^ I ^: I ^^ I f^5 1 ^t^T I f^ I ^^1 ^f^ I ^t: I ^^: i 
^ I T(ti^ I ^^: I ^5^: I ^rf^ I ^€f I H^: i ^ ii^ii 

;[T^ ^H^: 1 ^: ^ft^T^W ITTJlM ^^iM^ ?I^ f^I ^fvf^ i Treift fSra%^ V l i.«ifw I 

'5^: irai'q7i%i^fli.iO^*<»'n '^trji tut^ ^ffift ^m^i^prr j^tt?^ '^i ^ i n r vr m m i 

^^^^ ff ^ ^^f^ iq ^iT^vj^ f^m^ I 

^m^ 0H ^M^ TT^Tf?^ -^^T^^ H^^ ^ II {ill 

^^:S^^: I ff I ^^ ^ I ^ I ^ I H I ^^: i w^. I %ns^ I 

WT^ I H?l I ^f^ I T^^ri I ^5^^ I fM 1 11^ I ^ II811 

g^ Wn ^^T7T%^ >|^ |Ht ^ f ^ f ^^: II M II 

^ii I ^Tg: I ?T^: i ^^w^ 1 xitm: 1 >§^: I ^^5: i ^1 ^m^ I ^ 1 

g^: I ^t I ^^Hi ^HS^: I >i^: I |IT: I ^ I f^ I fwftj: 11 M 11 

ITft W' I T^ftr II « ? II 

''^f^ I ^o «). ^. I Tt^ II ^n^ » » i f^<*Mw|f g: I «^T»i'^'? -^n^m 1 ft%n '^ 1 ^sfi^^rr '3^ f^ 
^fj: I ^0 ;^. <\o. I '^fir II 

^ ^^ T^T^i^ ^m ^'^ ^^* ^^^ f^^T^: I 
^^ ^^^ ^V^ ^iir f^5T"»# ^f^ ^5^ciTf II ^11 

g^: I i^ I ^gi^: I ^ I ^ I iH I %f!^si5t: 1 ^^ 1 f^if*^: i 
f^^ I ^4 1 ^fy^ I ^:s^ I f^ I ^ I ^ 1 f^s-qit II % II 


f^'t^i^ qy?tBw ^u^K '^IS^ ^^- ^^^ ^ '^* "^" 

f<^^ i ^ i *ira^rM Hn?a R{ <^i irsn ^ ^^i^ W^ w ^f^: «w«rfam: i ^^nfirg^^ «j««ii*vi ^^^^ 
^H<r«v*4 ^l^r*l*^*^«ll«l ^TRinnw I 'J^ I ^Tft»nTfl[w: i <\^i'ii i haTl^i*!; r^r»{v«gi ^ 

ft^BTT^ I '«M4<i<iini<«i'^: n 

Hi ^g i f^fi HiM^ 'Tt'TiHR^iuKsllfti ^^T t^tt ^ lien 

i^\Jn^\^'l ^S^'fi^'rf I #5t: I ^M I ^^?ll ^r^SttfiT: I ^^vi I 

Tsrm^ f^Tran i ^f^ i »<'«<fd<TrK«>^ is^^ira^ ^ i <1«i*4m ywi ^ i w|H^ *rnnnTH^ 
-^ffir ^fHr ^'^^Kiai^^nu -^ir ^^htt^p^ gpk ^tt ^i q^r^g^g^ ypiffTn.1 faB?>ni^' 

^^HTftt^f?re^;^m1?»i'>^^l^^T»lll liaH 

'^jpit frfn 'i^ 'raw 1* I ^wrd'TO xjx: h^: ftf^ <nrM^^4 < ifiii<rvii wr i xs^im 

^: I ff I W I wsg^: I m: 1 5|: I ^^ I ^?R 1 57f I T^nk I ^^% mil 

^ ^: f^^^ TH^ >Tra^^ ^: I ^if^fN T^Trft: II ^ H 

^: I ^: I ^Sriw K^: I W^ I m^Rif I ^ I ^: I ^'^:s^ I THfTt: IR II 

iTW ^t i^T? ^ ^ ^t^ f^'^ I ^^ ^^'n ^ W' II? II 
rw I ^ I nTip? I ^: I iT^ I W^ I f^T^ I ^t^: I ^tHi I ^ I ^: II ? II 

^ ^ "^*kf>^^ m^ H^*l ^Wl I ^ ^Tf« ¥^'g 't: II B II 

t^ ^^t ^^?IV«9^^t I ^ ^^H ^ II M II 
t?ytHT: i ^T^ I ^1: 1 ^^t I w^: I ^^ji^ ' ^^ " ^ » 

^Ttin ?i r<H* < q r m »nf|q« iT «0»ii 'rati q <.« i n<< i»ri v»iT»ii*niuiiT i^TT^ifW ^rgn^Ttirf 


D 2 

^: ^^ ^tef ^^ w^^ f^ I 5^^^ ^ ^ H«» 
^1 "SIT I %^ I ^ I ^r^ II t n 

tl^i^T^ Wiff H Jq ^ ^^ ^%T II Q.II 

wi: I ^^ I ^^ I ^^qft^ I ^'T I # I ^^n[wf| J 

Ti^^TT^ I^IWIlfflrflTlTI^I^I ^OT II <ill 

I -^o <1. ^i?. 5^0-;^?. n II M II 

'gpg f^^^Tr: gft i<*^fbi<}*D t^T i 'i^ ^m « ^hTm^i ^'^% ¥t t^fri •*ji*ii<i i ^tot 
M^*5rt ffli<ft«iMgvJTii^fdg g^ %^^<ft 'm ^f^r^ ^^m i ■^m^^nrf^'Tnrsn f^g^i ii i<ft 
f«rf»mtn: II . 

fM^jH MlriHI <^ %VT ^f^ ^ imt ^^t^: mil 

# ^jfri I f%»ti ^^■^ i ^^n i ^ffm i fwt: i ^ i %ti ^"^ i ^n^^i 
firg: I fr^ i w i ^^ i %^t: i ^fv i ^ i irsrrt i ^^^^ mi 

anra<ft lift I f^riVri gwr^ i ^f^df*<a i %3f»m^: i w^mi 'n?«ii*ii<i^K«r «^rtJj7T 'JW «wr 

^l<a i « <ii04<it(«'M 4 ^f*1df*li<m« ^ 'TfWt I ^iq<^<tlf*( I '«llf«*J<§l«« f^IWT ?i^ mRwW 

^fr^jjp^qTrftrsnf J i Torn in ^ >j n iui*<M«i ^^jt ftvrm H'a i mrfl^fmi'n 'm«i*n<»i^M«g H'^ 
^PTTr^irnrr ^m«ifl i ^>ittiT i naimfjiviim i^ ^>iJTg ^ i ^» <\o. <^«:a. <^. i ij^wtti: ii 

511 ^ 1 5H^ I ^1 ^ I ^rl^l JHScifT^ I ^1 f^S^^^ [ V^^ltflT I 

«§: I ^1^* • ii^^:9i I %r: i %: i ^M; i ^^ I ^ft i ^n^; iRii 

jf^tf^mrrt ^(^ VKR^diO f^ 'gwtJRT i Jf^*j^ i gn^rft^ Ht^i^ifiirti'! ? : i - -- ii 
^3^ ^ ^ ^PJWt^ '^'H'^'4^ f¥t«T^ ^MW( I 

f^ ^ 11^ f^^ ^^ w^i xif^mj^^m fif^nvfi: ii^ii 

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^ I ?^ I ^ I %># I f^s^isl I f^: I ^ I ^WTfti ff^: I ^'T: I ^e^ I 

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f^^ ^: ^^ iq^^jf^ ^^ ^ left il^ll 

f^^ r^: I gs^^ff I 'T^: i lTf%^ I ^^- « |iEi^ I 'Tift ii^ii 

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d^# tf^ I ^ I 
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filsHaf 1 MHMMlf<*1l *i«5<Sflt II 



Maijfn^« i ^ r^qujiiviipd «<^*<P i inii« Ma^i<un#i ^ -^^ '^ t^r«n^ i «<Wa«*'"-^'^ 

i^ TPT^^'rg* I ^^nj«5 T^T^' TrfwTTf^^ 1 f% ^n^ i?:^ 1 RR<«iM«i"5r 1 ^rm- 
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aifti^ f^ iq^ f^^^: ^^ utt:^ I 

nftfi?!: 1^^: I f^ I w^ii^ i"f^^r^:"i «^% i vtt^ i 

^ 1 5^tf7t: I ^^: I ^ I ^j^ I J^ I i^frf I ^: i ^^l^ h^ h 

fiT^ Ht ^•^nfi%vTiniTHr^rii ^^ ^^jifi ^^ n tii 
3rf^ i^^t: i Wf^ I ^s^fir i ^^ i ^r i ^^ i ^^ i f^ i 
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^f%<n H^ iTT^ ^^ ^5 II 

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^ ^ ^ ^^ %^^ ^fi^^nxt jjf^'^: II ^11 

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^ I 't: I ^H ^ ^' 1 1^_ # %^s^ I Tnf^n ^^if I w\ I 

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Tj^^ ff^nJi'nnn^ ^ ^f^ i ff«m ^ i ^ ^n ^nrnt^ <J^fl*<rvi fli<ft«*in ^3^ «r 

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i^_^ i^^_ ^^^ i^ h^^ ff^^ ^^ mil 
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^ T^tinrnjani. ^wjtpi 'tt w tt^ f^ngrsn i^rtM ^m ff*m gfrrnrrf^ 1^^ • 
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'T^ l: ^ friit: ^in 3tgpn: ^mr^ «^ ^t: iru 

9^ II ^at^: H [^•^.^•i'^o^JJ. 

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^ finn:: ^rg: u^nt^ »n^ T^^ft srtrrm wrm: «W ^rr: ^t^m: ^mi: ^aR<?*»p?^ 

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^m 1 Tmi^T I ^^t I Ti^m I Tm i TOife i ^^o i ^ i^^ ii^ii 

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^ ' 1"^^ ' fTTiJSfit: I ^ I ^5T I l^V^^ I TH:^ I f^S#»T^ I 

ffi^TR I ^^ I ^: I ^^ I ^ I ^ I ^ I iT^^ I ff;^ I |s^^: iibii 

^:sfH: i^sf«:i^s1*t: i^s#a; I w i^^fHi^SWH 1^ iiaii 

VOL. IV. ~ F ~ 

^fit 5^ ^TT^^T '^f ^^^# ^f^^ ^I^^ ^T I 

^^ fxi^^i^^^T ^f? ^H ^ ^W^ il^fT II «10 II 

^fj* I -^ I ^TK^^ I ^t€t I ^^:S^^ I ^55<?if I W^'^ I Ti'H I 

^4 I ftg^ I gsf^^^ I ^it I ^ff I ^^ I ^ I ^STIT^ I ll?iflT II «|0|| 

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^qit^ II II <m II 

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f^^nt^^ t^T'fe ^ WT 'w w%T inlfii 
f^s4|%rvi: I nirfiT I ^7 I ^^T: nj^ I ?a^ i ^^ i 
f^s^T^ I mw^ I w^ I ^ I rTT I ^^ I msfim intfii 

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^ ^^TW^ 'Jfn w^fti m^ ^e^nfli ^ ^!irf?mf*T i ^Bt^rfw: ^rrt^iiirwTf*r » ii <h$ii 
^^HmfJitTi 'qgi^ tm^ f* i v^n^piw^ i -s^^w i^«n wi^^^^rSt^n^ i 

t^^ II TfJ: |Hft1*n!frjr: ii ^l| gq^ l « ^ ^^<^<.<1l*^^< vmrm ^rsifwr f m^- 1 ^ ? i Y^ - 

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f^f^vr: ftnr '3^wt »t«rt '?iwrr%f7T i ^mrfW^ ^ ^i^g^r^ t*t^ tnirr 'aM^rr: i 

■sifq^jvn irfjir<»iM '^vmn: i ^^^t f^rerer ^<0<«ii i ^srnt ff*: mg^g i ^irre ^a^mr: 
JTfTftfJTrr f^^rfr ^^ T''^^ f^i^ Tf^ f^nlOTgiTRr 1 ^ g y:^«n<i«<i i^»?. 

^ HTfq% T^^T f^l^^ ^ ^ ^51 l^^'lil f^'^ II ^ II 

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fqnO t^ ^^mg TTwr^T f'T^TiT: m^f^^WrTT''^TWtqf^HT: 1 ^Yfif^g f^ 1 'gf^rmg 1 
fiu?* Tif^aiTt ^TfT3rH^i%tT» f ^ v'i I ^fm^ f5R ^irot m: ^^imi 1 fn^nfl*! 1 v^re^ 

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imx^: ■qnrff'i ^ ^^nr i jyf ii 
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^1^1 W I ^ I p I T|^g I ^fti I ^g I ^ I ^^ I ^Wl^ II M II 

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T^* f^Tw^ to: h 'ha^ff IT litf ^vm iisii 


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^ hsitoH ^':^ 5^^ ^^ 1^- ^ ^^^* « 

^^ ^Tff ^f^ ^'l: ^: ^' ftfR+^flf^: noii 

^ I W^^: I fr^:s^^: i f^:stiT: 1 1^^ i^^t: I ?TST^ I ^vt^T: I 

^ I ^ I ^f I W I Ws^: I ^: 1 1^: \^sh i ^^S^: i^o" 

^rsnir: wm % frmft gfq<<0 »<«nii«nJ4i*i< if^i'wrfr K^jf^rmrt ff«f^: mT?ft«J« 

^xftx^rrf^<if<«i*tir<RT*r n ncy 

m I f#^ I iis4mf?T I ^|f^ I ^ I Tf^ I ^s^t I ^MTWH II «i<^ii 

sHjfllflq tfetft ^71^^ X^ MM\^ I ^o 1^. <!«>. I ^fTI II 

N I ^ I IfsBfT: 1 5ims%^: I ^^^1 ^^m I ^p^ I ^ I 

^fi I >r^ II 

'firftjg^^ % %%f7T faidl^iti'ti^^ii I f5^ II 

•^ ^1^ ^fk ^ wlfl%^: ^iiTfJ+^^ ^^ f^^ in? II 


"^ I ^f^ I ^fii 11^ 1 5niTS%^: I ^Tf>t: I •^^ I gsfrt I f w^ in?ii 

^: I ^STT^ I ^sHtfw I Tim I ws^'5F I w4 \ ^^^_^_ w ^^ii 

i?mt tt «<*>a1<) <TnrOt ^m^ ^msR-m qs^^i^ i ^w^^^jt^ i ?rm^??r^: ii ii ia ii 

?[fn II ^TSRTT^ ^frat'Twr^iSmr: wft^: ii 
^^T(^ ik i^ TTTf»q ^^ ^Wi R^ f^f^iqt TIT ^ttt I 

^ ^ ^^^ 5nfT%^s^5T u f^mfwij*^: ii«iii 

»?T I ^'fT I ^ I f^ I ^: I TH I ^ I ^"^t I 'n I ^^ I M I f^fe^: I 

^^ I '^ I fC!^: I ^S%^: I ^'t 1 1 1 ^^ I Til (^i«|rili^l f^T^S^i: ii«l ii 

^ 'S^ Tpf "^ci m ft ^: I ftW^ ^ JT^ff^ -m fi^ I irrfJT ^fm: i ^ffwi: li^ 
^rnq^ ^Tfi TT f^ I "vm «^ 'n ^f^: I T<»^nft ftNrri m fi^ i TiftT'ift M^'^ 'n f ^ i 

fMg«*nq Ttvsi II 

Iff I ^^ I ^f% I WTrrs%: I ^ I |i ^5T iT^fi: I f^i f^s«i: i 

•^^ I iradfrT I ^S^ I im I ^^I'^TRlf I ^s^: I »T^fH II ^'' 
^ ^ n tff'irf^ TT'i ^ %1^^'t^ Hfit frl^ ^'^: II ? II 

^ I ^4 ' 1^1 ' ^Tflf I WW I ?jt 1^ I >TtS I TjWf I ^1 \r^;i!!T I 

^q: I ^ I jps: 1^1 iT^ I ^ iffrf I mi^^ w^iijrsi i^fi^i h^h 

^ ^ % n^ ^^ftf^ ^ 1^ I Jmftg I '*mjrr irrwt Trf TTfi 'rr^ »raeg i irftr ^ 
jiKfii v^isrr jp^ Tt?qw jfrw ^ 'q i ^^ ■■ei»i«0 ft^f^? i ^^Prti tt ^WY ^ gftwY tt 

5ITif f^^T^J^ ^nrT%l»n^^|5Ff ^^iT% (^ II {ill 

^it: I mi: I ?nt^ i h i htt^ i w i I i t^: i irow i it i ^ i ^^: i 
^t: I ^ I f^^T: I ip#: 1 5qiTS%^: \ mfrf: i ^ i ^h'i gs^t i ^ ?fii i 

^nfr 3R5n:f?7i: !^^O T f5(^^f<<^l^l°Mr(i^.a ^ it1 <4^^ ^ ^ !l ^^ ^ > ?fr «T^if% "^^^^ c^^^ 

^^ ^^ ^^ ^W^. ^ ^fT^tfrT ^^f>4: I 
^^^^ ^tt ^H ^: ^ »i^5fTt H^ ^TiT%^: II Mil 

^^ I ^^ I ^: I ^ I fgijswi: i ^: i ^ i ws^h: I ^tfn i ^fwlvt: i 
W^.* I ^d^r: I ^ I %H I iH: I ^ I 'T^rft I iW I i!TWS%^: iiMii 

^ftrefl'^r^ ^1^ #?^^ ^t ^^t ^fw^^ II ^ II 

in^i ^ I ^<^: I ^^: I wswwt^ I MtPf: i ^^: i ^ i ^j i ^^. I 


^^I^wtOt J! 7R iBwfv ^rpi vm' ifft: mflBror ^irgrft^ i ^jt^^^ i t"?^WTnt. i ^rar 
Wk: ftnS^f^^ ^ wf ^ mft tt 'STtj^^ 'jmwrflf: i Tt^rmifTmt 'if^ gniiPiW'}: i 

^'"T^ ^^fv^ TT ^'^Oq I ^: ^fWf *iif<ni5f«'ii<0»iir«i"^il lrf^CTT»^ i 
VOL. IV. a 

miAA ^ft. JTt^H^^ ^ flt^ ^^^ M^T -^ I 

^: I ^ nrf(: I 'Ttf**: I ^»[^ I ^ I m ^^ I ^^ I ^^ ' "^ I 

t^ 'Jt'TOT ^%^ ^^^ 'ttIt ^wr^ ift^ I ''srT^i^ i t[^ btt! ^Erfn ^r;^ Wswr ^«uj4^«u- 
sttrt: II 

Tm M' ^m t "^yn^efai^m ^rit ^t^^^ h tii 

?ii I ^ I "^H I HT I f^ I fiTsr:: I fsrn' \'^^i I ^ I li^ff \ 

TJ^:\-m\ ^^: il^snTvt: \ ?[fW^ 1 "^^i i ^^: 1 ^^1^ "bii 

^^s^?i I ^ftr I Ti I ff ^tfifT I ^t I ^TTSTfe: I »T^W I ftiis^?: I 
^f I ^^ I ^^ I ?t^t: I ^5%: \\%^: \ f^ 1 ^f^ 1 i^s^'TT "^" 

f^ T<3 m<iii 4 i <n M H» i iW ftr^ift i^^ft^ mif?i<>4i ' J*ii<'? > {^•^•a.^Bflwi^ifli^^; 
t»T^ I TRTTfrrt <fin* < fM fi: ftrrere^ it f? i^Wt i TT^m^rrfiT 11 fi 'm^ ^rrf^: 1 ftin^Tf : 1 ft* 
mq I Tra ^frar ^ift^ENrnft ^tnR> tt^ ^m TrRmrT^^tfRni^irPT^ 1 ^jpfni ' ''^ 
Tltf^T^i^T^gtrra^ 1[?tt:: ? i >'«iKK'*n ^rra^ aiMMi ^t^ ^T7»>inft ^ umTMn.^f^'W"*'''^' 

rt ^ft! fq?!^^^ \M « ^^f^^rCR% HV^ II «\o II 

if I fuftr I %s w^ 1*1^ I ^: I ^ I |?qTi!^i tr^ I ^ s^ II <\o ii 

jnn*ftw^: i ^wif i ^enrrer ?i^ i f«« f% i TTfJTTrt ^«) i <-t} f^rm? ^mf^ vr^i^ 

H^ fsmfH "^^ "|^«ra fiip^ ^ \\<wi 

w. I ^: I ^s^^: I fir^ i ^^i^^i ^hs^: i 

iri fji;^! ifi ^ I f^mf^t I %^ i'|^4: 1 ^ I fiTfiSwi: I ^ iis«i II 

■^it^T: 5gw% II 

^^: I m I fir I Mlnff I ^5irl: I ^ I f.'M^iT^ I 
^^J^ I ^^: I w I ^1 1 f^T^ I fW I ^^ II «i^ II 

^ «^ ^^1^^ f^^^ ^^: I feti^ trig ^^^f!^ 'ai^irsn n?ii 
^ I f^ I ^^ I ^s^f : I H I ^ ^fi+ 1 f^r: I ^^ i gsrf^ i f^'rf^ i ^^ i 
^ I tjRRSi^T I f^s^^iwn ii<\?ii 

^n«ti^^ ^^tV^ »l*n»inq*ii ft; ira^ !i v* i» {in i «<flii ifmfw t(ffii% i nfi»i i » < <n« i » i «ii I 

o 2 

8. M- ?. I Tf'tii 

j^pqxi g ^ ^m fR ^^f^ ^^ inJJii 
Ti^^^\ I g I H I "pr: I fR I g I ^i^ i f^^ in8ii 

% iT^fTi^ tw^T^t ^ anPttonfTT I if^fTrarr: twg^irr '^\m: i mf*<*d<3iPt % ^if<* '^it^IT^- 

^T^5^ II J^f^ wm^ ^fx:%Mi II mr i*<«fM g sgj ?^?f ii ii ^s^ ii « <> ii 

siHTfl: i '^strf^ ?T^ f5rs«: i ^^^if^g^m^gs*^ i 'rarr i ^^ft^ HT^Tf^ i wf^ 

Tfrar: I ^ift ^^THirtit^n: 't'^ff i^'TJiT^Br: i tr 5('^<aM«^«»i*«Jif%^: ^^jt^^wt m i ^ra 

^gjHT^mwT HTTOTfiwt %fn II ifi: fTRf^f^i^T: ii '^i^fTiTwrr^'g^ i 5!Ta«ii*<*«^ ^^rer 

Tnra^ f^g'^fT: ^^^rr^TTJn?^ t^wit i nK: ^<iR<i(«^i^ ^^^srf^TfTan: fwi: ^"^ 
Ti^anf^ f^nmj «<<<<*< i ^ ^ ?fcifrTT"rr»f^5JTf7r^nrR i ^m f^rsf^tstTn fwi ^<.<!^r*tfn »iw 
7iTiTt^«l I ?T^t irg^ TT^fftr^rnm i m\ f^r^wf^ ^V^^ v{^ntT^ frirr^ ^^mijrat 

c^ ^ff % ^fj ^^^trftrft^ f^^ >|^^ ^^ I 

^R^ WrfT th|^Ri^T 'T^ ^^ f^^^Tflt ^RT^ mil 

i^t I ^%% I ^f^ I ^Totfw I tf^ 1 1^1 f^^ I ^i^ I ^ nrf^ I 
•^■f^ \ mm i TifT:s^3?nRMT i hi : i ^rt i f^^^rr: i ^Ri^ ii *^ ii 

■gg: i^<> <».^q.. i it?J ^l^girai^: ii n sniftf?! i ^rfrfii i t^t 'tg^ f^ ft^ ^^ ^'"•'*' 
orrsrr »tt^ q^o^^^itii i ^mrff^J^rfTt iht i ^ii^fe^t*!^: ii 

^4 I ^f^ I ^rlt I jR^^: I ^ 1 535^% I ^^: I f^^^ I 
^ I ^tf I ^awpH ^r^l Hill W#ll ^^ifTiT^l ^ ?f?t IIT I fR^ ' 
^S'^* IRH 

gtrr ^sv^^^fi^f^: ifiN-^ j^tfr *i<«!g*i«iin«^i f^ w?ft aren ?r^ ^n^ ^ ^i^: i 

Iff ^^^: nft ^:^fFi[ip^sftT|%W: g%f^^vii: h^h 

|5T I i^ I fjff: I ^^^ I n I f^'T; I ^^^sxr^: i ^^m \ Jitxn: i 

w,\^_\ ^wr: I T^fti ^fl^i fv^z>4: 1 ^^: I'^^v^i: i ^s%f^^«i: n^n 

^^T^^ |f^ ^^ ^ Tf^Mi f^\m ^^T <yi^ II 8 II 

m^: i ik^sm^: i qf5t i xq^fw 1 1^ i ^tbjt i m i xqiH nsxt^ i ^rwirti 
^^4 1 ^^^ I ^sfri: 1 11^ I ^ I ^: I rT^ I ?^ i"^^: i ^m i ^vr^ 11811 

fi^ "^ ?fm^if ^ II atfTt 'Trg: i ^ im 'itt m^ i Mft;qTg i a,m^\ i ^ i n^ T«rg ii 'it 
^ 1 %fz ftwTPm: II ini^ jra% irpf ^"Sf ii\«di*1^t win^^ -^^mM: ^ ^^^ m ^ 
Jffim ^*ii«i nig I V(^ 1 ^wtt: tpsi^i^wt ^'^ ^^j^ '^ir^ f^refir ^^ m ^ g?f7ft ^: 


^^'«Ri:i^»?.^.||;fTlff ^f%7ill 

^^HT m^ w^ ^i T^^ij ^ ^mi wi^ijjm^ ^^1 
^%^ ^^: ^^^'V^stI^^?^ I^ Tt^pT^ II Mil 

^^s^t: i ^sn^qj: I Hf s^: 1 ^its^^^^ « 1^' ' ^ ' "ajWr^ iiMii 

gja ^ fTRT ^ ^mn- TTrsrrar fic^x^ ^ i '•bhr^ ^rmfii i trn: ^m *mT 
^ro^m: qf^t^ T^^n i '^•?.^. i it^ r 

nti^ u'm*4^0re ^.^t ini% f^: nx|^ Tjf^i: i 

«j«a<**5wt +j'irr»Hi'»T!n'!i«flftS(<i ft^ HT^: I ff^ f^^ g^t^^ ^ Trfrr^ vS( vr^ 1^% 
»rf5f ^TTfT: I Tmr ^f^j^n: v^ irei% »n»f «*i«jvu!i crfn^rfltni it^t^ ^'^V^ ^^'' • ^^'J 

^itESTrfV ^ffft ^T^TT ^t^«f\ ?^T^^ ^' ^Jf^ WSW 

«t^rfV I'^sTiV: 1 1^ I wh^ I ^5^ I ripmi^ I 

et'E^aT I ^Sfri: I ^^H I ^t^rft I ^^^ I ^ I ^^r!^ II 9 II 

^ ^aifW '^tf^ HI^^Ml'W'^ ^ W "^^ II b II 
Bt^frT I m I ^ST^ I ^T«ir I ^VT^: l'|f^ l fWil$f^: I T?^t I 
W5^ I ^W^ I ^|f^ I »n^^ I ^?^'hT: I ?c^: I ^ I ^ ' 

^!#?fH 11(711 

^ ?wmt^: I wftrr <N: i fl^f«ifli-niO«ifli*i«Ji*nM^im5«it \wpvm ^ i tt^ ttit^ k 

^f^q^ait ^ HTH ^^ q^j^T^i vf^ nail 

^Sf^SWt I ?35: 1 ^ I mn I TH: I -qH I ^ifll^ I i[ff il ^ll 

V. ?. ^§. « ^t^rtn ^iprar ^nR^m^RWr ^f^nft »raf?ft ssrrg^: 1 ^^ ^-ti ir ?iWr^ ^iftn: 
f<^^«i*jM<n*f«3i1f?ra «T»r TT^ ^ii'Rr iJW 5fs ^ ^TaTRf^ ?* v»f^ I ^irnw 1 

'WT'mJiT:: ■Tirag ini«c. <j;^.n^ » 

W^: \ ^mi^ I TTTiTt: I ""^^ I ^5^ I m I ^sx^: I ^5^5 1 

^^ ^q«isn<«T ■^'ft ^ ^ ftw 'mi ii^^fiT (i^t4«qti^i<M<m«iRi 1 vnrsjrftfn m^i 

?^i I "^^ I mjRTfi I ^^ I ^ I f?? I ^ I ^fji I ^ I ^: I ^ l^f : I 
^^ I~%r4 1 ^ I ^s-^t?! I V^ I f ^H I ^ I HH I ^: u <l«l II 

■if^ Tm^TiTTPi, I 'ffJTR ^iviiK«i ^fn ^rrTrgfv!i^l<>ii«if ^uttst^ wt^i 'EnjR'raen ^ 

^y^: I ^T I f>TT: 'BTTfrg^: ftremwT ^wrf*<<i ftrr: i m ^g rr^r^^^^ ^iftfH i vmj \ 

?n?rart7i n j^^w[^^^r^;f^w ^ayr ?Wt: ^irrowraT f^^'. i ^r^ f3[fir f^f ^^ H afdR m: 
^THW^TRiT flpii: I 'irg ^Tcr^rfrfiT i ^r^ ^r^ ^n^ m Tit f^ ^^Qi •srar^rfiT i HfdaiM*« t » ft- 

^^T ^ft ^ ^: irf^^TW W ^ftr 7i?i^ ^fif ii «i^ ii 

^: I ^ 1 5^: I ^^ I ^: I ^ I ^^: i ^|S^rr: i fV^^i: i ^s wtif^i 

w^j^'' I ^ I trft I ^ r: I trf^^i rt i ^ i ^^ftr i ^^H^l i ^^s^ in^ii 

T^rrf^: ^i^ ^fn i ^rrir^nfr^vmf4Tir«rf ■ff^gnr: ^ w^ i ^fr i ^nr^Tmv'ifrn 
xn^im: I %: ir^TTt^mgri: ^ f^mwT^: i fvW^v^tiRi^ra^iT i ir^^rf^r^^^R^^ i 
'*iry<4<nm*H<*4t^M<?iicM*nM<s<ifM^im<'*<-i^ *\^ri\ I TraT«raT#TfJTgtr3r(ftiT^^^ff^rp#^ i 

^^"^■^ ^wTh: ^ w f^^^ ti^% in? II 

^: I ^ I ^i I ^^: I ^: I H I W^: I ^^: I ^ I ^: I ^Tt: I ^^ i 

^ I "l^: I ^Frfir: i ^ i w i f^^ i tt4^ ii «\? ii 

^jn Tf^^r^tMM^A TIT ^^ ^^W ll«|{ill 

xi^^rft: I w^*!'?: I ^erl^ I Tim^ I -^i: i 

^ I TT^^r^^i ?rf^l "q4: I ^'^ I ^ I ^ I ^VH ll«llill 

Xf( TTwrowm I ^ "^jn: ifit^uri: xm^pft: M<(«fl»rt gra<!n i u|^'^((< > in ti i <q«n »T«if?r i »mNi 

gjT^> Tnft ?ft Tra^ I n'iii<.Mf»: gr^t: iPi»?. 80. 1 x^ 1 ^nfr^ gRpft ^gt^f^f^i fw- 
f^|9T: I ?nT^ "^TT^ ^^g^^Tsn: 1 ^Mt vrgt^nrrar 1 ^ft <M^'^nm 1 ^Hmm i^ ftrer: 
fiig^vTftvTf?rf : 1 ^nra^fTT^: 1 '?fm ?!if*»v»<«(i'nnim«fr tt i ttot "^T*pin?f 1 tt ^ 

jrrarnwT wt ^iRi^Hifn 11 

^ W 1^^ ^ ^^t% AT ^: iiiit tff^ ^H %r: II <^ II 
Tit 1 1<^ ?j^ I ^^ I ^t I ^ I li^t I ^: I ^ I ^: I ^t: i"^s^?iif|;i 
^^^ I 'j^^ I ^ I ^ftr mi r: I ^s^ I ftft^: I ^ I ^ri R'ki^ in II 

\ pit wrt *<i<^Hj4m<* ^ qr^p^ iwrt wr«m5gT»i^w ^f? 1 ^rrr^'fr t^ i ^nrm- 
^fa t^: I sRti^ ^wt: i % <!^ ^: ^>j7j: ^^TTTni: 1 ^ ^»%^ ^m Tt ^ T flft ^q« i *n 

^mfiffTf^f^zrfsnfTTT^sn}: 1 % g«r wftf?? 1 sre^rr^ 1 ^f w* inrt fftg^ffTrfarat jtt 
fTft^: I m Ti^: I 'Srrrft ^ ^kr^T^Tftrr^^ ^#: 1 •irm.Mm^'i t^bhJ: 11 

^TJTT4HT7n: Tiynn ^^^ ^v ^m »4^fT ^fg^«: irii 
f^: I TT^ I ^w: I ^7(^1 Iff I ?j^'3t: i ^^: I ^Srft I ^vMt: i 
^s^^HT^n: I ^S5j^ I ^^ I ^t: I ^m: i h^ i ^%n^.* ii ^ ii 

^ '^v'yiRtlfi ^rwr«f«T»fT 'r^JTHTi w. ^tt !« ^ i d <«rii d jRa^q « i ^it k^ i gm 
Ti^^iii^n^iTmrMd' ^Rd^jttra itTT H^ II 

^^iTf^ sr^ i^»y8. 8. q. ifft II 

^\^infmj^'. 1 ^ I w^_^^ i^P^i ^ i^^s^: |5t: 1^ I 
^' ' W^J ^^ I f^ I ^^' • ^t' • ^SHt I ^^jMt: II ? II 

VOL. IV. ~ ~ H 

1^ ^^ ifWn: H^TT ^: fpr»rTfi[ft: i ^ T«nJ: i «BTTf^ i «<ng-n i «^ m^ '^ ftnim- 

?ii 5ft%wi: trftfv ^Tf5? ^^t ;g nr^ ^^kA i 

f.^ 1 5ft%wt: I TTft:sfv I i^^f^ I ^T I w I ^ I np^i ^rtk: i ^ i ^ i 

t*^ g^^S'^m ^inurrr: ipi ijr^ i?<i<M*sHi<*M^i%f\^g i M^mui T'qTiTtg i '^^ ^r^ 
W ^ ^4"^ ^li^ \ltiTTT^^ ^^FqW IIM II 

W I ^i^ifH I ^s^i I ^T^fk I W I ^fi^: I ^gsf>4: i ^*f7T i ^ i 
W I ?! I ^ I ^ii: \ ^ftfw I ^ I ^: I ^Trjf^ l ^^ I iT^t limi 

w ^m^T^ ^TT #g^t ^^?n ^fn ^ i 

P i^ ^^Tf^trn ^iqf ^W^: ^H ^'Hli ^: ii^ii 

^ I %W I ^: I ^ I ^TgirTi: i ^S^t I ^^IIHT: i nfM i W i 

P I i^ I gs^in I ^s^^: I ^'i mi' I ^^_ I ^f^ I ^: ii^ii 

*j<^^i«BT H^w II *i^4<T^i!^?9> irf^: II g^fffSmr ^ft^rn^nrT^^nmra* ^: ?ni^ *t^: 

jm' I ^' I ^f^v^: I '^strKfll: I ^s^^ I ^^^ I ^ I f^^ I 

i;TW I ^»?1^t: I ^S^: i ^ i ^ I 5R^- 1 ^^ I ^ ««« 
5t*ra: I gr»rasniwf*rfn ^wit «t^: i m ^ ^f^ nfm ^m 'ftfn ^f^n ft^ 1 ^wt^ » 

siWi^^T^ ^TTT^ 'frftt^ 1T^ ^V«m^ I Wf 8. !?.<ic. I ^fn K 

-an^i ^ 1 5TTft I ^>i 1 5Ns<^ I "ws^ I im I ^^ I %^_ I ^ I ^ 
I^SXiTH^ I f^fl: I rN I l^i^l x|i^: I ^J^ I ^ I ^ I -^_ llbii 

iiTfftre II t?c ^ si r i( i f^«ii : b jjai*i*iM«»MHmi5»«i vfn^ ^ \ ?ref 'J^^ ^ftft 1 ^wra- 
^ I wra? I 'i^im f^m»rei vjfmxi 3*fr f<[fvrat'M^ f*ivifj«fln*i ^: *i«^*ti<t«i- 

^rm^ vtij« ii ir< w^ « i vg: uira: 1 ff^ '^ 1 vti^«<iKi«i*n iTi^fir vij: i^»y 
a. :. ^0. n:fff II 

V^twt^T^^ ^^J^ W^^ T^^ ^Fji^ I 

^: I f^jirt^i ^s^t: I ^f^ I ^ ^ I ^1^ I ^^ I ^Tyt^ « 
^ ITJ^ I i^ I p I ^ I ^S#d: I f^^: I ^* I ^^'STTtrft: I ^t»T II e II 

^im '«rfT«rer f <fl i ^!i<. i « i * t: 1 f^^ 1 ^ ^'^''t* ^^^ji h^ttwrr^ ^imm ^% 

^ jRi^ i=iTi!t >}r*ii^ai»i^«ir^ ^f^* ^^t i 

^^ na;4 1 -mti ^i-mi ^s^'^ i ^|Wt* i ^sW i 

H 2 

^'i I '^^^ J i;^^ I HT I f^ I ^lym} I ^s^^Tw I ^# I ^ I 

^ TfT^ ^•I^^ ^'^ f^Tli^ m^: w^ in ^11 
^s'^^^^TT I Tjf^ I ^ I fw¥^ I ^i¥ I ffd: I ^4 1 f^ I ^!Rm I 
^ I 'JfT^: I ^H5^: I H-^H I f^^ft I ^^ I m^T: 1 ^^ 1 ^^ m^ll 

^nj I 9?^ I gift^TT^ TT^mr II f*»7i 1^ fwiTT ^ I aR3i^ ^y^=epT€>5Pr^ i ^rrt f^f^- 
f^3j: II ^n{^m ^ffiRTT ^ ^ Jt* !* ^ ! ** !: I mf^T: m^'? 'ot ^reTri 1 n^gri^^m 1 ^ ^^itr^ 

^ kRia i O »T«rg I '^RTf^if^ fq^mr ^'^'^:g *«4<i*«i ^n?r inTsn: ^ 1 ^i«t*<^flT H^g u 
^ ^BR^Tftr TjWV i^rq^T? c^n f^^^il^ ^ ft^* I 

irm T^f^f f^ff^ MTt^ ^s^ wr: ^^j % irr^ m^ii 

^t I ^^! I f^t: I ^nr^^ I ^ I ^^ I ^: I ^stt i ^ 1 fn^ m?" 

^rftjrt fimTt vn:^ I f*nrat gti^ \ inifl' ^^iftR*^ ^: ftfufir: b^ti^ wpnt*i 
UrfH^ I HT I Wi% I ^' « ^S^ I W I ^^: I 

^^i5w>Ti^^i^i]n?'i'rti^ injJii^ iRbii 

f(f^ flit I ^srei ^WH^ JTfefm^ ^Bft^^w^ ^T^r^f^ ht^F^^ppt: i ^ vj^ ffm 

f^i i^_ TH^ mmwiWM^tsnft: i 
^^ ^rR^^^^ vk^ Tf^ mil 

f^ I ^«4 Hn I ^^ I »TTiT I ^w i vi I fe^ i\^: I 

^^'^^^'^ • TI^^^ T^'S^^i ^ ^ I vm^ I Tf^ in II 

^! I irt: I f^ I ^ I tpt: I ^: I f^ I fn I f^ I ^n ^.' i ^» 
^[^ I ^; I ^J I ^'TS^5i^ iRii 

^m ihijTH wmnn nfn>^ i % ««0 *"«•!. '^'^^ ^f^ ^r«nfr*flr«NWT 'vft ^ g^ 

^^: I Wr(\: I fH I ^Wttt i ^^r^t; i ^^ » ^si*#^ i p i it^ i ^ i fN i 
^rnw I ?g I fw^ I 'n I tPi: 11911 

^ I f^S^5^ I f^TS^^ I ^S^'^ I ^ I ^S^^ I ^S"^ I 

f^s^w'Fr I ^: 1 5Tt^T: I ^sftt I rf 1 1% 11811 

»Tt% ^ II f«T^l^ f5 nfTi M i fHi a qui 'wf t|^f% v»^ tt^ i f*ra^ "i^ ^twr fi i?ft 

51 ^ ri^^^i rt n ^^ztcrpN I ^{pi?f^ f?R"p(^^tt T^xn fk ^^ II M II 
^s^ti^ I ^rft^ 1 5Tt^: I f^ I ^m II mi 

^ 0=1^ fH ^ ^^ i? 'IT ?if5 I ^ft^T^'niTTTl II frit 

^ I fHs^^ I f^T I ^ I ^M ?t: I f? I »tt: 1^ I •3ft^Tl5+: I ^^q^ ii^n 

fl«<io,w«^.^»^o.] II ^irmts^'R: ii mm 

"<ift ^ r<v^fii ^ ^1^ ^hr tnNn i 

tift I ^: I f^»^: I ^ I ^ I ^^ I xrw I 

^ i^m: 1^ I ^ I ^^: I ^ I p«n I H I ^^ i sr: it« ii 

^ 1^: frw; ^: f^fl i ^l g»mf*r ^frtWf^wT ?[ fii<J i ^l il n i a»i ^?lwn^ trror ^^ 
^ Tift ^ I iBVTTTrfiT I ^■«*w ffSrifi:'!! JnraBprfiT i n ^ra^jrrarpi ^wa i rflwij : i Tnmrrm ^ 

JJf^lHlriy: Hr<'M«l««T Ttr^ fk i^ lib II 

^ I ^S^^ I ^ I fH I f^s^ I ^ I 

>3«lt: I ^w I Hsf^: I inwi: i ij^: i f'T \ ^^ lit ii 

iTftf^'H^: gi^ I ^*j«fii ^ tr: f*i«i(^*fi«ii: wrt fiT^i i f«cnlM i T^fiY ^rrarr Tni^^ 
ufit 5^?i I % ^'^ ■^ fjft »n f*ifl<^*ii«nRi gnff ^ f'H^^rwf ^T^rranrr "ftfir^ ^: wan i 
fRfi: ^fw^m^im: Trf^ir^i^wrgwr: irerer ^ fl[ii: ^ m^ f^^ror iprr tt fn ^^ 1 1 
^Riw^ *ii^fifg^: gnu 1 1 tt^: ^jsmfq wwt fl[T>^ f*raTNrf*rfn ^T'sn^ma^ i 'Rfr i ij^^riM^ 
<ft fiitrof ^mr ^re^ ?tot *n<n*ii ^i^ i nil 

>?5'^?HfTi ^rT^H'i: inn 

TO V^^'i^'^M: ^m^ TIT^A IRH 

^1^1 ^ 1^1^^ I wm I fM I |:s^i 
1^1 1 n% 1"^: I iT'fl': I w^ 1 HTf : I ^: ii^n 

Trretn f^ I ^^i f<a ( '<\ ^ '*if*<< t '*^«aifflf?» ^i^?T^nrrf% fl««i<M^*« t^r^^TrfSnir*: 1 1^5f^ 

5«^ M^^1^*< i r<fti ^ t^wTTi %^f^'. Trfnn^T ^sjnnra: ^imw 'S't^ ^rfr^tft %^% i 
^ra-r I ^: '(R^^Bi'rat: Hmi» >i fv<«ft<« ! a i ^srf ^trwra ^^si^O f^i^Trr: i ^: ^"^ ^tt TJi^Hram: 

^TTWT ^tl^ofe VTOT^ ^^fif I iJn5ifl[ ^<l!<^ H9II 

^iff f^^jf ^T^f^ ^ 'i^Mff Tl ^'ttH: I ^f^l^ ^^' II iJ II 
^: I f%^ I TTT^: iiffiT I u I ^ I ^^^ I f^: i ^mf^ i '^Rf^: I ^H i 
$^?r: II 8 11 

f ^^ TH^^^^^qr^t ^% I ftf^^^ ^ ^ II M II 
^T^ I |5qT I -m^^ I ^^: I H^ I W^ I ^1 I ^'f^ I ^^ I ^M 
^ II M II 

■^ m^'t^MR r ^^ l H^: HT^Tfnc^4!Ui<^iii'^1<<ift(un*<«M: ^tfTi i iwf^ « 

€ ff §^ lf^% ^f^^ TIT^ I ^^\^ ^TJfNw lllfll 
^: I ff I ^Tt: I ^% I ^sf: I ^ i ?c^i ^a^ i TT^: i ^H i ^ i"^"^* i 
^nffs^ iiffii 

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^Ti^ <j|ffl< 8i qm«i qiM^'i^fltifM jrf?r ^ '^ jNiTftfiT rc^•. ii ii ^ n 

^flif ^^ ?[^^sftT ^f^ ^^ J ^: ^^Hi^Hlg: il^li 

^S^^ I ^: I t^i ^1 iltell ^^^ I ^: I ^^ 1^1 1 ^J "«" 

qt^ fTf^ ''tirt I vtKf*irti<f*i«i'4: 1 fl*(fM*i (*»«!«!( f^: p R^<,nfi<^ i f^rft i ftm^ i 

fft^nf'f^ srfsirTT 5nn»T II Q.II 

ffljjf: I %rf : I ^^: i iiri^: i ^ i ^n: i ^: i ^Tr i %d: I 'IWT^ i 
f?tl!?IS^ I mf^ I ^rapT IKlll 

Ji ■<«!*»« 1^ <«?!*( ^tf^TrTT ^rf^ ^niTfr yi^ifqjfT inrRfTi^arTn i 'SR^rwre i ^ ^°r^qTf*lil^T^: i 

% ^ ^'^T^WftfNTT ?^^ gfefif fWTTHt: ino II 

^ I ^ I ^ I f^SH^: I ifft^ I 'gsif: i sfinn^i ^^ft: i ^s^«lt: i 

M' I ^ I ^^1^1 ^SHift: I f?nv!: I ?t| I ^ I ^sf^ I W I w I 

^HTfi:5^^T: mo II 

''^*^: ^Mt f%»T^ » tT *<r ' J ^ ^M t ii«ret ^ ^ i Mumw . ^ ^ fnK' ^nw^nrr tht -^ 


Mb « ^»t^: « [«»«.?H<»«.^«>8. 

^1^: i'^" 'W" q. ^. ^. I ft^T II 

^ I ^^fti I ^ I ^^sfJr: I ftnit i rq i ^^| i 

W^ I ^^s^^ I f^ I ^: I Ti^i ^1 tn^^s^f^^ i f^^^ inn 

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fw^ I ^^iift*i<ilM wwrat I f^iff^ I ^^^"^ ^trm ii ttt^ '^g^ ii 'Enn^ i «iftf^ i 
ifhTTrtwrf^ ^rtn^ppf^ tiT^^sftf^^ 5|tvii«i{)fH I f%^^ I *rfm?lfni; 1 1 ^ ^wft 

%fiT HTij^^^vft f^ % iq^ ^iff firoi ^^fnf^^^^ II ^ II 

FIT I ^ ^"Ri I ^ I ^S^>3^: I 'jvlliT I ^s?:tv^: I 

%fii I i^ I ^ S%^^ I ^ I ^: m*^ I ^^flfcT: I ^ I ^ s ^fk: I f^^^ IR II 

^rgn: MH'+i^'i lOwj^iii ^B^STnwt ^iTRvrm^ ^Ji^mRT % ^ ^^ wr^ 'j'Tft i 

t?ft ^ ^ %fn I T^gf?! I ftuT^ I 'RR »i^ *i4f< i f*<v( I jvM'if*<W ' i? : i f^ ^iff^ f^^ i 
TTPw^fftr II 

^ ^^'Ji ^^ "f|ft|: ftt^ft^ I 

f 'JUT ^tnipT^^T S ^ ^ fkw ^ f^^ M f^^^ II 9 II 


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^ f^^: ^: flm: ifWT ^»fv fu«r I ^(fMs vrn H^rfn nm vn:^it% i f^w^ i ^ g^^rr^ 'h^ 

wm ^ ^T^n^ f^ ^ ?7^ ^[gi| f^_HH\ »+q f^^ iiiJii 

fT I fn I 'T'. I ^^SWrT^ I Oil ^: I IT^I ^ I fM I ^ I Ht I f^^^ IHJ II 

^ ^*)flii*<4,««vi4*v ^f<)i« i »*)taqn. ipi^^ ^ ?i ^ Tf«i i^ ^ v^ ti*! q R a fi irti 

gisn^ nf^ ^iiii 'i^gftTit f%ftv€tTrf^lf«t^'«m^f*rf*T% iiT^tg •ii«nH<*K|f^f»?^6ni'* 

)fi|Ht f^^^ f^ ^ H^ fi^ ^mm WRt i^f^ iimi 

i^ii^y If: I f^^: i f^ i ^: iii?t i ta: i ^w^ i ^RTwt: if^^^^ iimi 

^R^: in^^Tt »nnft<ir«: I niH ^ II 11 8 11 

i^ ^^ ^wn f^ ^ ^ f^ ^>nf^ ^'j^ M^ ii^ii 

m I ^^ 1 1^ I ^ I ^S^rT I ^a^\ I 

«^ I ^fJT I ^wW I f^ I ^: I ^X I fW 1 ^^ I '^[^ I f^^^ lltfll 
^ ^ ^ imffT ira^ T^fn ir^n^^n^i'Mt ^ ^i^ ^ml^ ff^t^ifi^g ^rr^^as^ 1 

fli^% I ^ WfPiT^ II 

^rTlifft^ H^% f^ ^ ITci ^^ ^^H^ftf^^^ IIS II 

^ • ^1^ I ^fi^^ I ^1^ I ^1 fn I ^f^ J 

^rTsM^ I iq^: I f^ I ^: I TT<1 1 ^ I %fiH I ^^S^: I f^^^ II S II 

^^^^^rra^ f^ ^ Ti| TT>^ ^f^ wrfk^ W^^ iibH 


^0 II ^nt^. II [^•<9.^«»«.-2I«^. 

^s^Ti; I ^s^ I f^ I T. I Ti^ I T»^ I ^vrftr i ^sqftri i f^^^ ii b ii 

% "^i^ fiw^ ^^ «f^ 'Ftf^Mi ^^rat^ iRPiilf I t^n^V^ ^srar «^ ?nrT u^mft 

TtTI TfWT^T «r^ 'fi^ ?nffi^ (^Mf^r^ II II M II 

f^ q^^irt ^ ^'5^ I M-M<»n f^i5^ M'*i*n<JH*fi» iq w<f<«<in 'iggH' fw: «i<.«i|f«r: i 

wrr f^r«[T 'j^ 'i^i«i|« fifir ii "q^i^iff^ f*i%^^ ti»i<^ i ^f^ ^ i 31^ ^ t^ ^p*Rr n 
Tfn f»t%^^ I ■^<' >o. <»^ iTfH II 

^ ^ ^' ^^ft^i-^'^i ^^ %^ T ^^ I 

f^ I ^: I ist' « ^^^ I ^ 1 5T^ 1 ftf^: 1 5T I ^1^ I 

^TBiW I ^ I ^: I ^^ I l^t I ^ I ^^ I ^ in II 

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^^ I Trerra^ I w^ i^fTi: I fM^ ^ ^ i[^ ?i%^ ^ ni[?^ 1 ^ t^ ^^Wr g'Tr^W ^ 
f^(^m ^!jra5r jrr m 3isi*ji*<<,^ m fw ^^^tprr trt ^^ ^iw^^rrerai^ 1 ^to4 
^^ i:?«nJ: I ^ ij^: ff ^ Tf^ ^ri 4^^: 11 

p ^iT ^ ^^ ^Ji ^ n^'^'H: I 

fiT% 5=1 ^ ^%^T inik^ ^WT«n iRii 

P I ^tt: I ?i: I ^ ffS I ^ I w^ I ^ I ^Hf«R: 1 

^^: I ^ I ^: I 51^ I ^ I ^^: I ^ I ^fn i ^ ii ^11 

TfTf^nmtr tg:'- ^: Trerra: 1 'gt m i f^f^^ i ^ '?r^ '^rerr^: la^ 1 ^^ 1 ^Stvi- • ^ 

^[WT *i*ii*ia«!i TsnJ: I 'T tsft f*nft «» ^ i?? t^»^ f^ IT ^ ^^ftg^ ^i# 'itf'i ^ 
^ ^Ofii I ^^si I ^i*ii«i*nyn,iii I ^ t^i^rrfir: ^m xf7{ ^w ^v: 11 

^T ^^^ ^^: %n ^^^ ft^ II ? II ' 

?^: 1 7i: I T^fH: i ^^: i iwifiT i ^ 1 h?: 1 ^psM 1 ^^* » 

^J I ^1^ I ^«iot: I f^ I ^s^ I fiT^ ii?Ii 

flo(^o.!SI<»?.^«»^?.] II ^rai^s^: II %n 

f^i I »ift "Tftfr jwiRT ^ii'Rr '^ 5jgf%: ^iftgwr: i>xt«: i f^ ^ttft: iiijirT v^^i^ ^!?ra 

9l»Tt ^ f«l^*hirir ^T5T: #^7t: 11811 

^5i: I w^\ I ^^ I ^^ # i1^: i^^ I ^f^s^: 1 

^?Tt I w I f^^^5hn I ^^: I ^f^ I ^s^tt: II {{II 

«iT^»ft ^T^j ^T^ftrft anw'iir*i«iif«i(*('i: I wr^ ^^fhift- tM^tf ) ^nw. wi^ 

ri HTT fxl^Jri^lHIHll ^«n i*RT ^^ I 
^^^ ^ IR^ ^m ^^^^: II M II 

r^ I sn I f^i ^^ I ^Rt I ^ I ^nr: 1 ^wt i i*T?Tt 1 ^ 1 
^^'' i"^^: I 'Ti f\^' I w I tNs: I f^^: IIM 11 

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^T^ftrii ii^ii 

m ^Y* ^PRT%^ ''^^ H?^ Il^ll 

^ I T^nffi I ^^ { Tj^^ I ^ I ^s^^ I 5t: I w I Jji I 
^ I ^Tj^: I iTO^i f^: I ^ 1 11: 1 ^ I H^ II ^ II 

^T^fT^ i^reJUFrnnT^n^ m^ ^«f*ff t^r^ ijtht j^wr irfn n^^ ^ g^ 1^ 1 
3^^ ^ I ^i^T I ^arfstfn fwfwaniRr: 1 y»in*if*is(**J ^ifti^ Jn'f'rfir^ ^ g^ 'am ^i^vrm 
i^ I f^ pmfilfiT ^J^ I ^ ^[^ ^^ f^tscwft ^ 'fti^T^ I w^k: Twtw- 
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5^3p^TftBnJ: II 

^ 't ?5 ^j^s^^n^ ^^shf I rmi ^n^mws^: ^w -ti^^u^ 11 « 11 
^ I 'T : I is I Tj^ I ^5[^n4 1 ?f# I ^s ^ I firt^ 1 1^ I ^"^(p^ 1^:1 
^ I ^1 1^ iiR*rtg^ ii^ii 

%^ II ^31^: II [^•^.^•^.^•b. 

<<M I *<^ I H l »!?^ l *<'^ ITTSTT ^I^W ^ turnip *<Tl«^l<'*i TTTOTf^ ^l ifJT ^T^fg ^^ 

i^ iT^tf*Rf^^T^ ^»=f^ lib II 

^TSR^ I ^^: I ^f»T I ?t: I ^aTRg: i ^s^: i ^mi^: i 

i^ I iT^ I ^^sfF^; I ^: I ^^ i ^w II fell 

«^ '^ ^ 'F "^"T i^i^ ^1^ « 

^^ ^ T^T^i^ ^^ ^^^ n^T iieii 

i^ I 7i; I is I ^T: I 'fi:: I ^3rr l i^S^cTW: I "^t^ I 

^s^ I ^ I f^ I ^i' I H^ I ^^^: I w ii^ii 

»?fBsiT: 59^^ ^rfJH %^ im 'iii^^fn it^ u 

j^fT Ti^"^^ f^^t ^4^^5Rw moil 
jjit I ^f^ I ^^t I ik^\ I ^f^^s^cfw II ^0 II 

»m I m I ^ I ?5 1 ^rs#to: I w^ I ^ I ^f^s^: I 
ran 1 ' ^^''i^ • ^' I ^ I W I ^^T^sf^: \\fW\ 

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^yii rT ^w ^% ^rirr ^^: II <^^ II 
^tjs^^ I % I ^m I ^ I ^m I ^5^: II c|^ II 

^ rTT ft t^ ^g ^Tff^rf^TTW^: | 
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^ ^# I WT I ^ 1 1? I ^n I ^T»^ I ^^rft: I ^SFnj: 1 
f^gr^i I ^wf I ^: i ^^jrft i T i ^s^: ii <)^ ii 

Rnnitsici,!! m rrrerrrs ^tj^: i ^i^jmjim^ ^^. i lftiMiy - n : ^tri: i ^ jht f m i^itMrtji mnv 
^m ^u^fmr^: 1 ^ ^rftnr t?[ ^imrf ^cftirt ?Nf%nfr »j^t f HrfmNft^n^^mr ^ ^»^jfff 1 

^^ I ^ft I irs^ftift^i f^^s^^ I f^ I fw^: II «i8ii 

IJ^J* ^ Jf^t^wt'T^ gfM¥ TTft^ JRjfvif Tm H^ Tmr fwH g^PTft frwr^ 1 

^H ^^ »pqtt H^^ 'Ti^ TT^T'^^'^ ^: inmi 

41 <a'^*'^ ' ^^*^^^^^'*^ ^^^' ' ^^^ ^S^l»^ ^^^ II 
^^pi ^>i^' ^i^ 'SRtS^ T^jStf'T ^HEi^ ^ f^ II ^ H 
^»|: i^it: i^^n ^i^ I ^: I ^^ I ^fi? 1^^ I 'n^i ^"^" 

w^pjT^ 'Tl 'Tgifr ^nwni f^ »nnT i:f?i ^: I mnif ^fT?irt ♦i?>^W*ifli'y*i'*iW f^ 

flo«io.^<>^.^«^9.] II ;Fnmts^: H 


j^ ^mm VT^ 'n irarrt I t:i I ?n[T I njm 'ra ntn q?ii?t i iffmtffi i Ji^frr i v^ti^ 7\m 

^ frl^rT HW ^n=l^ t^ ^Titer ^^^W^lfT^: jj^H 

W I fw^fff I H^s^ I W^s^n: I ^: I ^5rR i ^s^^^: i xrf?*: h^h 

n^P^tH^^T^ftt wf^T^ ^fn: ?ip^ ftT^ Twmn: jrerar y^nrrfiT?;: gftf^: 
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^^l%fffl^S^^I^| J?^ 1^1 ?r|^I^Htfff 1^:1 Wl^^llVll 

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?raf^^ tf^ l^'^^iftr fti^^ ^rof^T ^ ^: iimi 
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^^ ^ Ht3|5lfT?5Rai n^ im ;f »itxn: ifctTHf ll^ll 

Vnr TV ~ ~ - « _ 


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^ Tf^ f^ ito f^ ^ ^ ^ffW y«b<4^ f^^^% ll<lll 

^ ^fii I Tf^ I f% I ^^ I f^i I ^: I Tilt 1 5ff|^ I ^^ ^Iri ^s^JBt I 
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vn:^ I f»mTt «sii<i*j i '«^ i ^nftrut ^^r^^iro^ngw i w»jflf*««^: i ?ranr ^%^ v^t^ iwn^ 

vi-cfl'M^ ^^ f^ ^ ??| ^ ^ vf| ^ f^^i^ ii^ii 

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^ fl^ ?T^ ftft^ ^^?wam^ ^ tl(fr ^: 5wrrWi^iWrf? i x;^ i ^ii^: tmi^ x^ i 

p I w I TqiiTsf^?ii I H^ ^ ^st^'t I fn: I ^^H^ r 
f^zf^^ I ^1 tfcEWT I ^^sn I f'Tts^i^'nf iiti ii 

^ iprr w^ ir^T^nf^^r^ «wf 1 ^wftpft ^n^nfwr XN i fqil mjr^ »l3q'< i * < j^'*ft 
^g^ ^ H^ft-^ xiT^ ^hnft f*nc^i'ml^rftrf*rT'TfWl^lf%m'^M^^^•J^•^«^t:.|^^ 

TT^f^T^^T: ^?TO ^frnf^frf II M Ii 

W i^t: I ^^ I ^st^: I fif:STnii^: I 

^JJJ»^<j<ii«ii*iRi*i«i*i*i% •i^4*< i m«n : ^»fh^: m.<iRn <Hg»«1 <.<.<iflt P^md<tn fl^ - 

I^^T I ^ I iR^STm: I fH II ^ II 

K 2 

jRft f<if*i*n<j: II 

Ht ^ ^rf^ ^»T^ '^ "5^^ ^ • 

W ^ ^ ^^^ f^ ^ T?! T^'^n^ H ^^^ f^-sl^^ 11*^ II 

>f5 1 55: 1 ^rf^ I ^H^ m^: I ^ I ^ I ^ I 

^vi I ^ I ^ I ^^: I f^ I ^: I i=Rt I t;^ I JTT^: I ^ I "JI^H I f^^^H mil 

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^in: I TPfr n ^nT% ^vin ^ft ^rr% t**^ ^Vf?f ^^ n^ 1 ^if^rof^r 1 ^vra: *ri*<n^*ai«*a 

^^ ^m ?:^ Tm f% ^ T?| f^ ii^^^ ^'^^ f^^^^ II ^ II 

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1 ^^ % H^ «flr^: ^firf5Ti3p!i ^t^ 4tRq^1 f%%H >iTsng sa^ «ai^Mi*i^ 1 ^ 
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^WT^ I 'M«*llf^*I'^^ 'TTT'Wfft II 

iwt ft^^ ^?f% f^ ^ li^ ^^51 "^ ^>^ f^Vlft^^% II? II 
^3rT I ^jf^ I ^_ I ^ I H I ^i I ftr^TTf^ I xq^ I 


^WiT 1 TjT^ift <<flft^m ii *t<ia I qrwTft trf^Trasrft 1 MRftfafli'fiai ' ^ : 1 n finnfH 1 iitip^ ' 
if^nr '^ift^snl: I ^iVTtr ^hi i iX ft nt jt^ ^ ^^^^^ "^ ^^^ ^i^n^ 1 1'a'f ' ^ 
fmjvT^T^rg^'r ft^T irqTf«pnin ^ i <«<i'm«! i «irfl ?t^: i in t^' > ^^"^ l?*^ "^ ^''^ 

fl»<io.^o^.^«^M.] II ^TTOts^^J II ^^ 

grnf g^'Jfif *i*^«iiii<i*J^ m^rofrr r«[?t:i ^rarng^nrnr: q ii HW H^Tif T"^ H^:H*i: 'Ert»rtrrt 

1«| 5T: ^HtH ^Nl f^ tr lilt VR^ ^HT ^ ftf^^ iitiii 

;g I ^ if?f I m ^ I ^rni: i «%i: i ^^rii^ s^ i 

gi^i^r: 15^ i3ft^^ I f^ 1^: iTi^iirr^i^^T^s^if^^ij^ iiiiii 

jm: I '?»i*iir«f«r ^mr ^^sm fnr^ f^f<iv«\*i<fl'*ifl^ qi^ijl^ f^fjiTi^ ^iWM'^tf^^ »rfm 
t^fii ^[^ I rm^ 'fti^rNi ^^ f^t^^^m^ flrg ^ ^orrf i 'rar sa^ >t^ twt gji;^ i 
1«^ Vl<l«<4^ f^ % TlX W1! aTt^rtHf^ f^^^ II M II 

fft I ^ I ^H I ^sf>^: I f?rs"^TiTO: I in \ ^%s i 

^ ^ ^ «jw*a ^vrf^'rerWr *j?ft«^ ^U^k i ftftrvr: <3fl1^«iif?( i Hm*ifiT i gpf^VanJ: i 
^ ^ I *(i*<»4i*ii4<i ?ni9^ I lifTf ^ ^^tfn t^: i ^R^^n^ i ^ninf{rT^% ^Rfim- 

^ ^t: ^n ^% i[^^ f^rf^ w\ti\ 

^^3 1 ^: I ^^ I mjm I T|^s^ I f^sf^if I WTii} 

^^M^TI^Tf^ ^ fljftfi, T3^ I ft 'it »T^ g^RTl ^t^ ^^ f'TftVff«f*«igW^ I ^ ff I 

^ "^ H g^ 'T^ ?5l^ ^>5ff flT^qf: I 

jio'^o.w'^ff HJ II ^w=frsT«: II $<l 

^y^ ^ ^^^tiWl^JK^^i ittff^i ^rf^n% ?fTiinN^ J^fl »»^^: ftrj 

m f^irf^ q-"^ ^T^f V^^ ^^' I 

^^ jR^w w ^ f^ tr »i|: my ^ ^ aiRMftcjg^ ^ insii 

m I ^swi: I ^ I ^t I f^ I ^: I T!^ I n I ^ I 'j^* I ^ I mftwi^i 

^ Ht»fr firmer %VTft% ^t^ ff^rt^ ^u^trttto ^frwr: Ti^gwrfiT < i mi«i« i «n«iR ^ i 
iMW^t*T*wgf^ ^r^pji^T%»r ^ ^ rj^ ^nof^^ M<mn< i ^»i TTTigjnf^ v jnfr^i 

n I f| I ^r^ I w^m: i wtIt: i ^ i %sffi: 1 1? i ^ i f%^st»i: i 

_ft ^^in ^Kgimilm ^<««0«i: '^[ft^RTin rn^i'^ ji''H^<S'«^ ' 1''l a. ' ^ui*!?*!*! ! ^ M vfjf 
vim Tr^[^t^'. I wrir: ?r*!piiYq<i<fli^^«!n«ti: fij^: m fsi^mr^ ri<n9n i i'^<i^fl!^q ii 

^ I ^i^ I ^;^ t*ir*«<iiO ^*!!i<iy^Mr*<fliO I nn.^*<mRkiii i ri«i ' j ; I TT^jjTft ^mt^^- 
m HRiff iq ^iTTim^ ^H: I f^ ^ ^«^f7rf»Tf^'^ g^rftTTt || ^ II 

^ I i^i i?f|!j5? I ^t4 I ^ 1 5ffi: I f^: I ^ I ^^1 il^irsf*^: i 
f^^ I ^S^^5Tt II ^ II 
f^Tft ^V T^ ^ ?i^*rT^: I ?r^ ^: ^^f^ HnrT^flr* ^rfifw JTrn ^tttto *fi% ^ 

'"KMwq^, ^j^ljjfi^^j^,,^^^^^ ^ ^,^ ^ ^. ^^^^ ^^^. ^j^^^. ^,^^^^1^ , 

^ ^^^^Tifif^l |m ^ I ^>^ ^t: gm^ W5r ^ ^ ^^n^ M ? II 

^' • ^ I ^S^iiit I i^: 1 5TI |t|T I ^ I ^ I ^": I g^Rfw I BR I 

,9^ H W^* » [^•«.^««.^«<»8. 

Hrqf ^ q^RtHHi^^ v^i I ^^: H % Tgft^ f^^ ^T^^mia: ii ^ ii 

f^itai^;^^s^: II Mil 

'^Bftj: ?r^ ^sT ^ ^ ^raiTt jnqf>5TT5»TnnrPTT*rafq: i f^rfif'Wjra^ i T^xm v^f^t 

^SifH'nTin^T: I ^: I ^^^: I ^ I ^3^ I ^ I 

^v^^TTWnrr ^riwt^ ^^^mrTrar: '^mioi^ «(\h i *<i ^rrrar^ ^: ^Tft i '^ ^!^ 
%j^*<M<j) f^ ^^^ ftirer g^nfm Mr^Rai ^: i xi^: g^r ^i^Wrgrnarm ##M ^ 

T? ^W^ f^ ^<^ ^ tr ^^: ll«H 
^: I ^ nIh t I trfH: I ^: i ^i?t^ i ^a^i I 
U I ^wi I f^ir: I ^^1 f^ I ^ I ^: I ^T^: ii^li 
T^ t^r: ^ iT^n^ ft%T7«(Y»rf ^"erxma i *!! vifH: ^mfN: iig: g^W ^^Nf mftr*^ 

^njn ^W fSRfatrt ^: i t*t^ T*r|ftr g^ i imi^i i Hti^i n "^f;*?!^ vf^ ftrfW ^w* 

n««io.««^.^«»^.] II ^nwts^: II ^5 

^H'tef^^^fi^^i^tif^^nf^t^^gnw^iniiT: iibii 
^1^1 ^ 1 1^ I ^?3n: I ^t I ^: I f^^ I ^5t[: \ ^^ i 

WT^ I ^^ I r?f I f^ I ^1 1 -mf^t I >pnt^i ^nrNt i ^y: i |?f i 
5t:iito^ii^ ii^ii 

"^^^ ^ ^gf^^^^^ ^ I t^H^^ ^g^rari? ^jnSft 1 ttot ^i^pirtn 1 ^rajg 
^^ht^ffi^ n^HT ^WSfflf ^f5RT^flT>j mil 

^1^1 g I ^ I ^fbiftiRt I ^: I ^s%n: I ^1 |j^ 1 1^ 

^^:S^ I m. I ^fe? I TTSfrTT I ^S«^F I ^fi^JTS^lf I ^^j IIS II 

^t^t]M^«ifliV'»: ^»i.^^tTsmVf7ii ^ry I ^ i 4 « M<. '< u<n'<:<*ti»nM^K i 4 i (tir ^ ^i^ i mnnn r 

'Tt'nT: 9 rniifriW^jftifH'w^ iT*wt ff^fftt^i^ I '^rf^ I t^TJm I «5l<iifi)'^ < l<i ^ 

'"^ Tf g «m«4i«iTnW fPnir^ 1 n?iiH«<<fl ^ 1 ?ra[Ti ^mlr^f w «r i * <i gm<ri ^ng^ 1 
"♦aii^prn; 1 T«t»i^nt%'if»?w^: 1 u^nrfw 1 irawnr ffftm >T^Tt*r 1 tiiV{Ti 1 winyi wera 

^ ^ (Pf ^»4 T^Tf?! ift^'^rT A^^ f?r f^ IRII 

'^l ^1 ^ I ^^ I ^S^wtf?? I ^"^^Sffi; I W I ^STHFi: • 

^'^•fsli^wi wfiri rfHi^wi w^^ifirif^ iRii 

VOL. IV. r 

9{{ II ^1%^: II [^•s.^«»«.^«<)M. 

^ I ^5 Ih'i %^l ^M ?.fH I ^^rT I ^INS^ I ^S^lt^ I ^^^ I 

^ \ *^M : I f*w 'T^ ^Tfw^Tlr HTTTii ^uwrr^Ri wn?m •««»«*<« ^wit^r > *ljj i ^«^- 

^i?^^^ ^^issn^ f^ w(t Hq^lnt Ti ^^ I 

3J^I ^5ri^ I ^5f^l I ^B I f^ I ^: I H^S^^: I H I m^ I 

JTI t r^ ?f?f I Tit 1 151^ I ^^Ji I ^ I T^^HW- I 'PI I ^I J 'P!^ ' 

^^: «si i q<rMMir^« < > i R<.rM w^n^ 1 fi^fn I ^Bt^ %%^^%^ w^^^»^ '^'z!!^ Strw 

^^ I g I ^ I »|iTSTn^ I ^Tf%^ I ^|s^: I ^t^ I T^FETTn^n^ I 

^l^i^lf¥i?^:i«TgMi^fiil^^lgi,^,iTc,,J:,^^. 1,^1, 

t ^ I iTW ?frii trfti rf I ^ u^h: I ^: I ^^ I qjt I TsI^r: i f^ ii^ii 

'rfBi^^i ^% ^T% ^^ tif^-V Ri^ft I sTT5?f iT?r4: I ^i)Mr^ < tii^') ^^ n0^r^<al 
uar^kTTjn^ ir«f*<y^"^Jti Ti(sfl«m^4'!(i<wdi<l ^jm^^^j^jn i m J^T^i^iT^n^: i f^ ^fir 

'^^ I ^<«i<(lmir«^<j\i^nmra: i ^Rrfri^r^rTrerK unoa.q.a.i ^ ^rrft ?!^ t iii m i R i iq^* ) 

^_ ^ ^hh: hh^P**!^ ^t ir ri » JL<4tT^ II bii 

^^- 1 1?t' ^^' « ^f»^* I ^ I ^^ I f^R^i ^ I ^s^fn: I i^ff II t II 

^^Tfr ^: n^.. jf,^ fiiftnn: tirw^ ^ ^ «rt *<|r8a i n » floqif<m4»*< ^ ti. i 
TTftTi .'■ i^n* "i ^ ' .L^'^ ^^^ ^ ''^ ^'^ ' """^ ' '^^^ ' ^^'Vf^' T»^m%n 

L 2 

^% II ^^: II [«»«>«. ^•^.^•^«. 

W^ ^[^S'^1RTmtftT53T^ ^T^ ^H!jr|ill«4«CI't IIQ.II 

^ I ^rl^l ^ I ^^S^: I ^Tifrri I ^f I ^S^: I ^S^^ I ^Tfff^ I 

^^4 1 ^^: I ^s^ciTt I f^aipii ^^ ?fH I w^ I ^^1 i^_'<n ^ ii<iii 

'^f^: I ^: I ^^ I ^^ I ^w?^i ^fs: i ^a;^ i f^ i >?5nf5T i it^: inoii 

^{»'»\ ■apft fMm*if*4*flfMfi*a '^f^JTTt <Frt I vif<;««)f?i ^; 1 gTRrr?^, g^ ^^f*i^f?i ^fft{- 
<<^i*nrt<4: II II <^^ II 

^imlqHji ^iTT ^<^ ^rert f^f ^ tNtW ^^t I 

^W^ ^?f Hfff ft ^^ ^ t ^Ift^ ^ t ^ ^5^ ll<i<l II 

^ I ^R^ I ^ffm I ^ I w^ I ^ : I WT I f^i^ I ^ I H'ln^ I ^ I 
^pro I ■nrfH I ufrt I w I ^^^ I ^: 1 1.1 ^ft^ I ^: I |i ^ I ^\s^Tft^in<^ii 

M*ii_m »m ^ r^:i!i ^i !nq f«a d «ji i Mfl ii Ntini <ii ^^'nfNr 1 iB[%?t5t«nJ: 1 ff^ irerarnsrT 
^rrg '«.^if^<m II ^«raMw^ ftrfz ^ 11 +)i««5t*i«?rH»fl«J ir^ ^ftm ^ «^ ^^ "t 
JTwfji fW^ 'T^ ^^ ^uw^, ^mti^ ^yc. ^ nntTt 1 1 j^^^^^w^: i ijft ^vt ^'W^' 
*j%7mt m»rt»T wf(^ I ^ i <i<aim<in - ^ t «>* » ^ ^ifng^n^ 1 ^ht i ^^0<<«*i't. ^rwimw 
*raT ^r|#^ TTRTtng^ ^ ^T*iTfTT I ^sr?^ ^r^: *fli«««ii«(«iH<i^««if*ia***iir*T 1 "^ 

TffA ^^ I g^fH I *a«j')q TT^^iTiSj^rff Tifrn^ i ^ ^ t^ n^ nn^ VffH \ytf^^^ 
f^fptlft ^t^ TR^jh M^* Mf^jfllTT M-^HI ^'^'Sr I 

f%4ift I ^^ 1 11^: I ^Str: I xiftSTj^T I TT^T I ^srf% I 

W5T I ^^: I >5^ I ill^i gs W: I ^'i I W I f^^ I ^ I ^ I f^ i'*^^" 

no <io. w« ^. ^» ^9,] li H?mts^: n ^s 

f^inft f*MR,*<iiiii ^^nr M) a i i f? i 4jfl'\ »i»ii^#itf%rft »4^J i i' ni ^<,<r i v^: ^ftumi^ 
,j^ Tf^m ^ft^ ^prei 58^ lifif t^: I ^rf«r "^ irar ^(^^^ nrarntf^ ^j^: iftnii^in ^ 
fl[sii tffH ^ I TT^ I ts*i«(<,vj*fm irnJ^ i ^ ^ jfl^j^mfr ''R?^i i*l^wf*<m«i : i 'tpt^ 

xr#f WT Hrq-4*<fw ^1^ ft(R: nfH ^ ^M I 

TfTrf^arram^: ^j^ Jt^irmJi: i '«iif<wj^<J¥^; Tift <,ik«juSl: tji^^ak i g fB t ! i^ <!i<ji^4i 
Tjfw ^ I ^yrifrf i ^rfTrf^xnftwn}: i ^^Hmj^^^ ^♦i^ilmni'H wm w^ ^^f^: ^ig^- 

^^^% ^^75]^ ^^t iTwr TqwT Whrt ^ T^^t i 
^^ ^ f^ fti^T^ ^ >fn fir ^ ^^1^: mUii 

''frani: UT^rff^: wiiU^iifsfn: 1 ftiiu^iftn xm^: 1 ^ ?nmimft ?j^ 1 f?ref7i 1 f^ JTiar 
ffeiTTWrw ?i^ Wt f^nSim ftr^at f*T^: 1 tw^4^ liHTJ}: 1 inl^«1*j*9 ^^ 
^im^i)i^ I fifVft HtrafTT I 'trad 1 ^I'f^ ft^mpr ?niH% 1 MiMTfn ijn«jff! 1 f^tTRrat 

S^ t ^»^g-<<g'<<rMi<*^fl^w<j : I Him ^^%n Hf^Tfinn^nr 1 wmn h^ ^w^: i ?»t^'5?[^- 

^t II ^^: II [^•«.««»«."ai»<)t 

^^ I Tm \ ^fey I HHR I rf I r^'^Tri I ^^ I m^ i 

ImIi TRm I gsfMW I ^ gj^ll^ I W^^ I ^T^^rft I f^W ll«i!( 11 

^^lT»n < i mi<^ 1^1*1 i ^qi « iMi*^qiPK^i >nan?^^ ^M^*^drii*<H' ^ HRi^^Ri^i^ii 

^WN «?li I ^f I tl l *4tiilft<<»INrd'l l I fV^ I ^raftrST 'lifSfT^: ^T^ifn I t^T^ I ''S^ T5T- 

^T^T ^1 ^ii i f<<<i*riti^ai^i«i<w»S : I TTfiT nasju^n '^ T^wrg i T^wr Tf^ f^ ^^^ • 'nf«- 

iftTTT ^ f^^ I iTwrn^^frTrnTT^m II 
xft^^ ^^TRiNrT -^U ^T ^^ ^^ ^ W^ « 

^ M^ •^fTflHi^'^_TT: ^f^^m ^^tt: ^rft insn 

trt^vi I ^^ I ^^^w I ^'ki: I f^s^w: i ^^t: i ^^ i ^% i mw[^ i 

wTi ^ I ^frflf I ^sg I ^frirfi* I TTf^^s-eim I -^vv. I ^t IIS>9II 

iwm<i<.i i i<4i Ts5tM^" iratTi^^ti: TreffTremsri ^T^H!H*i<*ftT^ tSt '^ttt: • jrar^JWitW- 
Hu i qm i « 1 i i <ni«i ^f^nfmftw^: h 

f^ I ^^^: I f^^: I ^n^ I ^^ I ^: 1 ^ I ^l^« ^' ' 

^fnJ^sTT^nfr^^rqrrr^TWT % 5^«ii*inJ\f?i '(^•ti«fs(V^«JMnsifl^ vmk^ wi^ w^ 
•^ t%ffft ^p^ n|^: Trt^nr: i T^fs^ii^ i fl^*<<j[? l 4'#*<\ ivnv(^'. i 'tt: M<.<a i << i R. - 

^0 n ^^: H [^•^.^•s.V^o. 

^ ^ »3^^ W t#« ^^;^ ^ M?l «^^» 

^ar^: i ^: qf^roi^n 'imft ^rsn: v ^m^i ir|^ iroifTT i 'vyt ?T^T'ftf»i?n^f^ I'^rot- 

^li^^ TjMH^ ^ i:^ ^f^- ^ »^9" 

^qrji I %^pn^7i<T: i tt^wt w^ ^^m i ^^nsrr 'wn ^^ro^i -^TTwr: i ffHHT%T gift r^mrnm 
Tan}: i intrmT^f^^^^frsnn ^^^^ 'trgrrf^ t^ ^^ ^: ?t^i^^_nTWj#^- 

jwrrt^mrr:: i Tf^^rnx. tsi^: i v t q i M i r^aH m i R ^ i^Im ^ fm g fH «^ liW^ 'n 

fm I ^fT'Ttff I ^wmn ^: iin wi ^: I m ^sranixd: 1 1^ Wi^: ^^5^ '. 
fT!ft ^ flfT^ flfT^ ^ ^ « tir»?^- f^i^nrrot: *n^*^ ftum i H^ '^ 

^ren: ^:tyt t^rm i ^^m tj^: ^Y© ^^ ^: ^ 'q i ^i^ oO a i r^in< ^l f<<^<i ^ ^ ! ^j^ ! ^f\ f g< ^T•. 
f^fsj^tmsn t?Ri<-it.fl(qin, I ^o'MTtir^m: ftmngdl^mi ^ j ^i^hquM i h i im: ^ 'wfrorat 

's^raij Tiwrjnift i Tf^^jravrrt i ^?|wi[% i ^r^^^^nu ^m^ ^ srH^t 'g^ tsfr m ^nrm i 

^^i[^ '3a<T^^r^: n¥»^«n*it TT I n^ ^tr^i^ fwl^ ir^t f l ^q^ ^ i vi«< i i<«< i .i : vm 
^ ^Rjmi: g?retii^if«gH«^*n % WK fr^ 'gift m^ ^Trrm ^^^rwgfrsnnf^Wrf: 

^^rT % ^[q;Hf ^m_ ^^ tJ^ ^n»k^|«TTlt^: II ? II 

^i'OT I ^ I irf^ri: I ?5 1 Tn{\^ I ^?^ I ^Ti^i fn^ I ri I ir^t I 
^HffT I ^ I "^j-^ I grfm I ^^f I ^iW I ^1 'TOS^ I f^mf^r: ii?ii 

'nmr f»jft%n jnmT*r <4^*<i^ ^ j ; <<^ n^ ^ ^^: u 

VOL. IV. " ~ M ~ 

?.^ I g I H I ^ftw: I ^ I f^%fe I Kfirst^ I ^t4 I ^: i ^ffw i 
c^tq^: I f^^ I ^Ri^ I ^Tj^ftfrr i ^^t i ^tt^ i f^: \ wm \ ^^^^ir^^iiBii 

t^ ^ f%it ^^^T f^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^R'd^n ^: iim ii 

^ I ^ I ^rfft^l ^f I ^ I f^%iT I ^«^^ I ^: I H^^: I H^ft^t I 
Ff 1 5^: I f^^T^ I ^HS^ I f^ I ^^: I ^ I ^y I ^ I T?^S^ I #«iT I ^: IIM II 

iid<{l?ii c*(<l<j ^rm^ grarr ^ %f TTcRTTTirr f^^i i ^ ^<Tr^ntTf»T i ^^^ij f^ i 

t *i^^«^«i«<(as<. % Ti^T^ ^ ^ai^^ fw: 'err ^jt^^: ^'f t ^ nm Imrff^T 'ftf Ji*iif<a i 
73f^rra^ ^rti!c<i(ii*i<( ^■qn^U'i ^ ^ irf^^J'^TRi »t<(^f^wK rt«*HT^*^«ii«««i ^^twS ^- 

^^ ^¥T f^ fVt^Tfk ^T^^'i ff ^ ^Piril ^T^ llffll 

ir^ I fl I ^ I ipr^ I ^^frr i ^^: \ f^\ ^ i ^rr: \ ^f[%ixt i v: i 
^ I ^f¥t I f^ I f^yfH I m^ I ^^ I •% nn I 5rf^ I ^^^ ii^ii 

ff ■i)**)it*«K«ii<^*«*i»H^f^t!r 7m i(f¥ TT ^(TTc: '^fTi^: 'g^'ft ^ir ^>Hfn Trem^T- 
Twrprft JT^ % w*^^ f^f^^gwWr^ ^: ^jfTnrfTfrrnmTTtvgiTnrr 1 1*^ g^ 5^ 
^1^ t(^«i si^mi 'BTf^rfttr ^"Ni g^rirf^ fliinf'i t fi^t^Of*' i ffw^w^: i tf *j<*ii*«*K*!!i'*'" 

^' ^^ ^il^ ^T^^'^tS^ ^5T TtfprT ^T^^ ^ IIS II 

^^ 1 1^ I Tit I iT^^ I ^: [ ^ I ^^S3R^ I ^ieN 1 15 1"^: I 

^T^ I ^^ I ^TO I w^Wr{: I ^it I ^ I iTff?n I ^'J^ I ^ ll« II 

f*? ^T^ lf^^'^% ^WJiTTni ffBu^T^ KTvfJ »iT^ m %^q^B^Tpm «i i imi i ^- 
h ||i ^^^ ^[^^ ^^ ^^'ig H^ffrT libit 

^^^: I ^^ I TRR'S*!: I ^Jji^ I Wi ^^: I ^)^ I f^sf^: I ^1^ 

fni f S| I ^rr: I ^^TJli^ I q^ I ^xf)? l'^ I rfr^ I ^^ II b II 

^flf f^^ t^^f% ^^lr# ^H '^W^tr: liail 

^W. I ^t I W^^ I ^HTT I ^1 <^n54 I f^ I ^i^^ I ^Tll^l 

^f if I f%i^i ^^ I tM'JTf^ I ^^1 ^: I ^>i I 'J^^tt: II eii 

f^^^?l% jjM'ftNi'siiN !U!ijc*ir<«*i« tv^f*i I ^ ^rtruTf^ I 'j^gmiTt 'f^ q^?n^ 
%irf^W|^^^T#'^HT rl^ wii ^mi II SO II 

|s^: I ^nn I H^ I ^ I ftw^ I ^^s^: I xrficsTi^ i ^ i f^: i 

f'TS^^: I f^l H%^: I iT^S^I %n I W^ I ^^ I ^?|^| ITiTri; no II 

^^ ^^K^mfK ^: TTT^iT^TTHTfn I f^ I ^fingtwT^ I ?m %nTft <<^m<1 f*rwt *rff- 

f>*^ ^ wr^ ^%ra W5RI: nfWHsi^: i 

M 2 

^ <j ti itti^q ^mrf^ ir35t ftanf^ tp^: ^rOrrftr '^ TJ"^ ^^- ' •««<^'^>«^»i'\'^= ^- 

1^ ^Tf^fn: g^Tfl:' ^l>3^^ "f^W: iT5^i: it^ ^^: i 
^3ra^ ^ Tirff ^T^itf^^ ^ ^vm v^T* %: ii «\^ ii 

vT<.«jr*i II II ^«^ n 

i'?(T''^.=>=i. I tf^ II 'T^T^ f'f^^^ TiTR^w I ^f^ '^ n? ^ 'i^ ??^iniT^>^^ TfTi f'rf^TTm 

^^f^t W^^^ tt^rt ^w W ^^w. wmH i'*^" 

^ I ^7^1 ii: \ l^sf^^i I ttnt I ^\ I ^^": I ^si^^: i mts^ n'i » 

^ H ^TOt 5«rara^ I ^ ^J ^ T^ 1^ T^ iigif^: ^ ^ jqiil*<ldn* i T* "f^^ ^' 
x([ft\ ri['^^M^ \ n 'i^ I ^ ^»m ?nt r« i rgfl^ i «ft'MiW«i n^nffif t f*<^0^*< iu! ^,^ ' ""TIL! 
^i*<«*n» « <«l<^«*H»n -fmK I uq*<*<*i«*<i^ fra 'F^i^ ^r^rfSiTT^- ^h-Sn^MW^ 
g^: ^»^: ^:^ ^Tiift »i^K i qR i ^t i^ ^ i ^T'^ftft fwn^ i m 'f^^^ 
H^f^ irar^:f^sfr ffJfsf^i^^nsTm v^ »toto ^i^: ^nf^ i f^iw: H^J^^ 
^ gwt *4itiini i i ?7m: *<q » ^H ! j i 4<rM jt^^hw: i 'jcnirmfq ^m yTWJw^: i ^J^?^ ^ 
^: '«nrnn^ <tPim4i^5 ^tiwR: i TP*!pir^?tr>f i: ^Nr Q^mm vj^iwr^ ^'^'i- ft 
nw^: I firarara^ »ranftw^: i Tnrr^t'rr^wftnftftfTr w?n ^hm^ i ^^^^jJ ^J 

f?>f»ig«i7t 1 1 ^JT^ft »n?T^ %^jm irft ^ T[^ ^Wti^JT^ f'rffTT: ^fv(«^M*in^^: irgif%^ i;^ 
sTF^i^TST'n^^'rf^ 'nw »nmim ^a1^ ^^flffl 1 ftiilnpi: gTOSTm 1 'rltn^ i[fir prt 

g^rrr ^rn«w i:f?T 1 ^fH 'sr Tt^f ^ ''t "^^nr; in^i^: M(^*iit<:: i 7i^flfi[Mi<J*)ii!i t ^rg h^ i 

^ f^^^ii: wTn^f^f^ ^ ^ ^^j'B^^n^ iRii 

n I ^ I ^T^: I ^: I Ti I ^rik^m: 1 5p! I ^^ I ^^zi^^ i ^ipjit i 


•*iiJiifii«*)i<!n'<*n 5cft ii"R% 7(^ ^WT '*4i»i*i ^ 'ni «8iai w^^wTJrrei^ 1 ^w f^ifNt Tr»rf^' 
fw fj^r^ ^ 'j^nmi ^t^rm ^tm^^ hhht ^ T^i^ '?if% h t^: f^ 1 ^ ?ranrrf«rfn 

^ Tf^ is ti^ i|(|^ fn^ w%\^ fH ^^^ i 

^JITff ^^it 11T ^^m m f^ IM'WIJJMH TT^ ^"^i II? II 
^: 1 ^ I TT<: 1 15 1 tf^: I >|ff^i ^: 1 fnt: I ^ i ^^: 1 f^ 1 VT^ 1 

^if^^^rimj m^raitiT t^ vim I Twm^ 1 f*q^ ^ ^s^ 'nf : 1 i^. '"Pf^ '^ ^^' ^^ 
^ l^'l? r^^ ^'^ fv^T 'fel^ ^ W^ I 

^^ 'T w^i iwir^ ^ ^^ H'T^ ^^''t^^t: II ^ II 

icw^: I f*f^ 1 ?j%^ Tnn 1 1 ^^Tm ^ir^ t?; '?f ?^ «<,flii« ift^^rra H^raVfn ^: i ^rt^ 

vt^ ^Tt ^^ ^ tqt ^ ^ ^T^ ^if^ i^ nir^ I 

fnt: I ^ I ^ I ^ I ^S^pT I jfi: I Ht: I ?5 1 wfwsftj^ I ^•. 11 mi 

^^\r: II n^^ii 
TIT% ^ ^ ^f^^ ^ ^^ 41 4'*^'^ "»jfV^ ^^57 I 

% t^ ?» 44 i^rj^ »TW*n wf^ vw^ ^ntw ^ir^^ "sft: gf^ ^rr^T^t^r^ «l t^" 
?5fii^ I f*Tf4^ I *^ I m^ f^i^rafr i5f g^ ?Tf?ifr i <n^i<Ol^i tt^ gw: TT^nfnnft 
^ fM*i<.cic! < K m ^t^ <)rH *id 1 '(T ^^?T^T?i: <<flii!B<^'<|» i: ^TrreVift^: itmx ^tt^ ^^^ 

?!i<\>«jiaTfii f4ff% »niT!n^ ^rrrf*! ^ n 

fn I H«^- 1 ^^ I ^^ I ^^ I ^^ I ^ I ^: I ff I ^rtstHit: I 
m I -^ I ^ft^ I ^ I ^^sirr: i ^m ^i^ i ?ili: i ff# i ^ n^it 

!«t?ir t?;: I w gwfr fi<»: nmr f^^ninf^^Bn wvf^^ ^ ^^ gir it^ t^: ii 

^f355: TiH^n: ^^ ^^ im^ wmii |if: I 

^ W t^ T Tii^^Tf fTT^ •^ V(^\ ^^jm ^^3# II b II 

ik I mjll\ t^: I TjH'fn: i f S^irt: I W I ^ i ^ii^ i ^^i^ i ^: i 

^ I w I K^ I HI ^511^ I fiTf I ^ I H^ni I ^sfm I ^\^t% II bii 

*i^l^^<<fftaf^: I f*^ ^^: I ^R fhfs^ ^?f^Tr^'^ i -^c^ct: ir3%in ^nwiar: ^fsfti^T 

Tij T ?m ^T^ JTffiT^wfireftr ^??i: I ^fir 'Jfl^i^: II ii^^ii ii;;ii 

^'rf^ ftTTfTcpt.' ^ fmi H |<*^(«iNi »iT^f g^Em?; i ^^ '^ i n'^^r^ jt^t^ 'jiitilfarfi 

?TfT fn^ ^^T!j^ inf^ ^^^% ^^^ Iffi; iRii 

If il^s^ I ^% I Tirg: I ^^ J ^: I ^^ i ;qri^: i 7[ \ tts^^r i 

'?fT I fn^ I ^^ipCT I iqf^ I ^s^^% I ^][>i I gs^fiR II <i II 

f^T^: I 'PWt ^ n^ ^TOT in're: tt^: v:^ ^gfm: iftrt »r^f7T ?j?ri. i ti^ ^f »?: irf?nn^ 
^^ fl<(1'q !(«»»; TH^ ^ Jiff ^Tfir »?wt*?^^n!nm finr^ ^^^isrer ^t^ i^^ 

^. ^^ ^1^; ^iT4wmj|«^#ff?n ^fwr: irii 

^■q I ^: I ^% I ^r^^J I gsxT^: I rf I ^ I ^?^^ I ^^ I ^^ I ^SfW: iRii 

fwr: I T^i^sr^: ^ ■ii*< ^ <i' n ' n flif^i^jf tf *in*<^'>^M mf^TTft: «Trer*4 i 'wfirg^n f^rar 

^54^^sti im ^^^ri ^^ft ff^^ ^^^ I 

^ ^ ^^^fi^^ar ^H W^ ;at4 ^Hrf g^W II 9 II 

^5^^: \ ^ti: I ^ I w^t • ^^ ' ^^tff I ff^t I ^^ I 

^: I ^: I ^1^1 ^f^ I ^ I gSTJrt I W^ I ^^ I IT^S^ I ^^H ll^ll 
^qt TPfT^ »i^ Tgr^T^ ^t»t ^^ I "^f^i^ I '^i^g?^^ ^mr^i ff^m to?* 

^: I ^jf5T«i: I ^^cl^i ^s^ I ^ct: I ^ I f^fli^: i %i^ i ^sMt^ i 
^qf I ^^Vili H^SHrft: I ^q: I ^T: I ^T^: I ^: i ^^^ i ^1^ i'^" 

in^: €t^ 1^^ 1^ ^ ^FiiT#1vi|^fri5?^ tt^: i 

TIT il«TOf ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ifH^T ^W>i: l^lrfTf!; HM II 

in^: \ ^i\i I ^^ ^1^^ W I ^^TQ^: I ^^WS^: I ^ i ^i^' ' 
WT: I ^«TO"f ?fM I ^t?: I ^^ mtt I ?ff I ^rl^l ^sf^^: I W^^' ' 

Jfoc^o.^o^.^o^oJ II «TOts^^: II t(i 

# irf'i^ Ti5^ ^ f3(f^S5qt^ ftmiinTi^ ^^: II III 

ir^ I ?r!; I ^^ I -i^: ' '!'!^ » ^^ • I ' ^'^ J 'f^t: I ^fif I ^^ I 

^ 1 5|R^ I T^ft^T I ^ I f%f^ I ^^^: I fiiW I ^tt: I ^ 1*1^: iif,|| 

t^^ WTT^ fl^rar f^flrbrr i^rr ^ ^r^ 1 *i«|j^|tifn 1 ^ f^fti% 1 ^ ^ nfv^ ; ^ ^r^- 
'rart '^ '^^piT H«i«s TOfvT II 

■^' I ^: I ^HTwi: I ^mm\ ^ # 1 0^^ r: r: I ir^: 1 ^»^s^: 1 's^'^i 
fT^ I titq t Ti^s^rt I ^ i"|^sm^ I n I fi^ito I ^it: ii^ii 

^ ?^ fTTwt ^tTTfm«r: ifr^fBTrnsft ft gi*T«i7rjrfr ^^ % ^4< i fi(J i 4<« ii «<n' i 44a(tnti. 
^(^^ I ^ if^ ^T^: 1 fsjfq- ^ ?Tt ^psRT^ »r?n iffan ^tfiiai^^MuR'^aiii^r^^^i^ij^c i, 

^JTTt^WjT^^K^T^t^rft: 'J^ f^ ^ II til 

IT J ^ I IfiTtiT I Ti^SHr! I ^ I Jiv(: I ^: I ^: I f^n^: 1 w^: \ ^: 1 
^^'i'S 1 1^ I w^y^ I ^T*: 1 1^: I l?|iT 1 1^ I H II til 

T'^ngrmi I ^TTTfin*!^: 1 ig^n ^^i(«ji i iJN n f?ift7i 1 vftw^ « 
'I?^^^ 5t«t^ T^ft fiTffg f 4 ^(iT^H l lie II 

VOL. IV. ~ " ~ N~ " 

^0 li "W^^' « [^•^.^•«.'^»^^. 

^^ iff^^Tri^^Ti^ ^7^i\ M"^ ^1^* ^^' II ^011 
^S^Hrft: I ^>i I ^ I f^s^: I J^^s^^: i ^ I f^s^ i ^tift: i 
'^"^ I ^5*^: I >i^^ I ^^: I ^^: 1 ^^ I ^S^^: I ^stNft: inoii 

ff^TTi^ I ^: I ^t i^^s^wr I ff^TT I ^ I ^^ I M^'Tt I 
^rT^ I ^?t I f^ I ^5^ I ^: I ^S^<t': I ^ipT I ^W»^ I Wi' "*^*"' 
^ ^^f^?^: ft^ Tifww^ H<m*<d TftT^^n^fW^ ^ ^^»^i3«n t^ nt^ ^^tt^m€ i 

^ f9ra5«: ^t'l^^fMt^'mtvmw^wi: i ^rtt ^"^ 'afj^r^mi^ ^mt»T^7T ^j^T^t^ 

im^TRT^ Tf^ I TC'Tim^ ^?«T^^ ^*<*Jf*4^l '^ W^mtf I ^C^^Tfr? "^ ^?ir»: ^'^^^^- 

^tt: l>^_rft: I ^^ I ^ I ^^: I ^ i ^ I »T5 1 f^>jq i ^^ i ^ i 
TT^: I -^ I ^ I gS^T'THl^ I TTivff: I ^t^rft I fTr^l rpf^ \ ^^: | ^ipi- h <)^|| 
I ^sinJt "t^'^wt ^w^to: 1^ TO^ n^ VT^ TPTO ff I tfijil 'ig 1 1^ H^ HirfW 

^^^ft^ri^ ^^RT t?jN ^ g^ Ht^: in^ll 

flfi^ I ^f^l wAi I ^''si I WS^rft: I ^rt I xj^nlftl I f^^: I T1^ I 

^«^^sfif: I T^^ I ^s%rt: I i^ I €tTf I ^s^ff I Htrft: in^ii 

^ I |?!t: I W^ I'bTffl': I 5ft^s^: i ^^m i ^^H i mPfJ » 
f^ I "^flR I v^ I ^Hiw: I ^t I ^it I ^5%T5iTfi: I ^: ii '\i ii 

"^^ ^^r«ft ^inn^ i(\^vp^ 'sfNm m<af<<-»t| ! inu!n<4t ^wt i^^w ^spj '?iiwr«i: i 

t^ ^ ?if«r^T^: ^ ^i<jH i i!ii TPTT Tprr w;: mi^an i *sim<ifl i gr^ «i<<<i« ^ ^^ i 

^^■km ^^^ ^'piife ^' 1^ ^^'^^ " '^^ " 

N 2 

Q^^ II ^1%^: II [^•^9.^«v9.^«>^®. 


^^u g^ I ijdiiiit'^ I ^^^i^ifct 1^: I ^sW i^-^s^q^qr \m\\ 

^ IT T^NtT^ f^^ft^ ^ qj^^^rr^ ^ %^ I ^tW^ ^\^-^ TTT T^ '^^a^<)r4(rn » 

^f>+i^"^iaT^ >=RH TTtat f^ ^fpn ^tTi mil 

^ I ^: I'^i^ I ^ ii ^H I ^: I f^^fn: I ^: I ^-^ \ ^^: i 
^: r^^ I gs^T^: I »T^ I ritcT: I f^t I |:s?Tfn i ^im ii ^ ii 

^TRT ^tTTWi 'fti^grra 'its; «fl\««*i\ 'snrfr ^re^j: Tiq»j?T i!^^1 ^<'tnn^ r4% f»T: ^ - 
»i%»n ^TR I f%^ f^^ tf^ f^f^TfM iRdiR v^wjf^ ^^: ^i « 

^ ^W ^ # ^ ^'iM ^^ 'l^T Wl^Jfl IRH 

^fti f^i ^: i?f^'i w^miii^rT^ iT'T I ^j\m I ^ I f^^i 

^ I #^ I ^^TT I ^ I ^ I ^^ I ^ \ ^^^ « ^i^nrl^lRII 

'?mf »T^ '^'it't: ^ ^TO^ ?f^ ft%^ ^^T^ 'n'l^ "^If!^ "'"^nS 
cfi^ I ^iT??^ 1 ^a?f»T%?i: > ^ ^i^^ "^^ '"T^f ^WT mifw T^raT **r<«ii*5i«nt'nft^i 

^wiirT^T! gf^mFl 'J^ '=T^^ ^4*irilHT^»3JT II? II 

^Mtft I ^ : « ^^^ I ^'^t I ift^ I ^ I ^ I ^^ I ^H I ^' ' 

^H I ^^^TT I ^_«Td I 'J,^ I ^^^'R* J ^PiHt'ft I ^^_ ll?ll 

qo c^o. w 9. ^^ ?«l J II WWtS^: II ^9 

,ipn5?itjTg%^ Tft r*inirflrt: ii 'r t ^nrft ^tttt tr* i ^npnfr inmT Ti^ar$: i ^n^ i 

frij^t: I ^T^'^i ^s4frT: I ^5^: R'^ i ^ ^fit i^: i nf^ I mm^ \ 
i^: I ^ I ^Ttf*+: I ^TH I |i WJli'lTfl^i h: I ^^ Rl^: I S^^i ^ I ^Tf|^ii8ii 

^?n^ TT^pit ^T»ft vmifTTfr ^^ ^TT^nn: i ^ ^ y^fiifaHi ^a^ i ^ "gTnt^ ■^r ^ 
^fgwrm^ Tfi ?rf^ ^i^ TtT^ ^ ^JWK ^tf^m'nn, fsitavit^ ^Timf»rar^: i tnnj^: 

w^ ^ "slfT^i^^TnTnT ^ ^: ^priH ^4 ^^ ^iRt: ii m h 

??i I w I »|«qT: I ^^^s?cr I ^t: I ^1 f I ^z■R^: i "s^-^m i ^s^rnh=( i 

^ I ^|fH I ^ft^: I ft^^TW: I ^ I 5t: I ww^: i ^ i ^^ i ^T5if: imii 

^: I in^i^m^ 7r^[^^ ^T I ^irw^: ^fmra: sBtf?^«ft %w^: i TRJjm ^: tj^tot 
«^n I 'sra^nfira 'gr: 'irsrT ^f^r^^ srrTn ^ft^t ^rar »rTf7t ct??i, i f^B^ ^rf^: *i \ ^im im 
i'l^f^ THt T^ 'fti'sn^rr^T^g^'frt ?ig I ^'I'rafg II iii?^ii 

^^ ^35T ^l^ ^T ^mpr W >lt^ f^^TlT^OT: "III 

^ I ^1 ^ I ^SHfH: I ^H^RT I ^»^^i ^ I ^^1 1 1^: I 
^^ I 'HS^fer: I ^^^ I ^i I ^% I ^ I Ht^ I f^iiHTioT: ii^ii 

f^ fes^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ri^ 'i^ ?n^TjfM^ fH^H^: I 
Wrmi^ wmi y^^ ^^tf?r ^^1i^§^ ^rtir ii^ii 

f^ I f^rl^i ^^ I ^: I ^ ^ I ^: I ^^: i wm I ^ri: i ^^f^ ^Ri i 
i%:srm^: i 

— — — o 

^ITWr^ ^ ^SH^^ I ^"^ ^ I IrNvfft 5HbT:S^ I ^f|fH | 
^^: I ^^: I ^ 11^911 

T^ i^^»9t ^^'^r T«n!i ii*i1€t i fwrfrt^r ^r#rtw f^^Tifn ^^sH^re^ ^ f^rsTrg: i tj?}^- 
^ I TJHT^ I ^ JIT I ^: I ^?^ I ^fw I ^^T I W I ^n^fM^ tf<^ I fWi I 

t^a I xrM I f^ I ^VTS^f^ I ^1 |i ^^ I H I ffbi: I ^IfiT iibii 

^•*i<'<n ff<«aJiHfif% I ^5^ %Tirr i T^rRt ^t^: > f^<«!j« i 4 : Mi«<^ijj\ qi<i^Mt f^» ii ^ i M : 
f^^ ^W ^^ ^^qilt^sf^^^ ^ 3q^ ^^ II ail 

— — — — — c ~ 

^: I ^ I ^t I ^rf?T I Trfw I Yg^'i fi?| I ?n ^: I f^ I f I ^jfff I i^ I 
firw: I ^^ I ^^Tjt: \ ^5Jmt;=r: i ^cm i ^^ i ^f i f^ i ^^ i ^^ ii^" 

%^: II ^ ^ irs^w^raV: II <fa.*<^'mwif^«i : ^ fwtf t ^ ^ %^^ TrSrfn i 'nfH- 

f%^ ^-f 5iwRt «!«<*» !*n =9TiFt»T^ I ^7«rnRTn fsr^: i TfNi ^m ^tfri ^w^ f«re^ 
¥^ ftnijvf^ win ^rw^ <n^H^**^4\f^ f^r^Mffl i ttw fstfi: i i »fV< ^ ?(% n imr f^' 

^ Tifij^: fiT#r^f^ ^Hit jrfi^nTT 'i^ ^^^or; moil 

T3p' i^\^i^i\ ^i^mhTT I sjf'J: I w^^t I Y^_ \ ^sTft^n i 
^: I ^1 ^i I ft[^: I irf?i? I ^wrt i "tI: i wm. \^\%{ ^^^ mo n 

gmr I 'arsK.fd i ^ri ^ "^ ^rfft" f^rn: '^f?^: f^fn ^V^ ^i^^fii ii 

n f^^ ^^fq^fflriN|Hi7^ vrNiT^TT w^^ii ii <\«^ ii 

^W I w I ^S^: I ip I ^: I ^ I ^pi: unt i w i ^^ i ^^ i 

HI f?!n^ I ^^1 ^^ft^ I ^li: I ^ I ^^ I ^^n ^w I ^tjt^rt in^ II 

^?>-ti«i'iM PTft;^ I mRi'*)f^ i ^%w»?t*T^rfrtttni: aisf^^ ^^i# ^<wT«ji^ ^ »r^T- 
'itqii: I Tra^J^ I gq ^iTTR '^aidl*i<('Ti i ''B" i^. «»=>^. ■=. i i^g* n ii ^«: ii 

ismi^fit^i ^>q^ f 5ft^fk ii#nr^H^ fill^fir ii <^ ii 

H I ^ I ^fTt I fw^^ I W^4 1 ^i:^: I ^U^i ^H I g I iffS^l^w: I 

^^^ I iji: I ^vj^ I ^^^ I ^1 ^IpRj^ I ^m I ^fi^ II '^ II 

t?;: ^grft w^ f V *) ^ i*( ^y i<i«<'M R d i) « i1 ii^«H**i »m ^j^^f^f*! 'rsrfti %^t?it ?iirf% 
''^^ST^ ^^gjiTi ffrg <stfd^ft)fl|* i ^"Wti I %qm i w^rsfg 'p^ ^ar^: 1 1^^ ^t«rer 

mflr I arratf^ i % H^5?f fyfH: ^"W^ xnt^JTrf^ gt^f^rt »f^nf^ <^*iidn*l«i «nrdm fv^ 
1?%^ I •«J?iT II T^:3!«^i^*i w^tt: II Mirvi?^i¥l^T«i I ^rratf^ I 'J wft^ '^rar gy: H^:h»itM- 

Ht{\ ^i ^ I ti^i^^: I "2r^:"s rTt I \W' I ^1 5n^ I ft^: l ^^S^^fiT I 
wm I ^ff I ^ffiT I ^^ I ^STir|;i^^a: i ?ri:i >7?^: i "srig: 1 ^s^: ii^ii 

^(^: I Tj ^ I rra[Tif^ I ^4«>ntitift ^gst %-u<i)Ti<*<«jH g^ cT^n?^ ^ »ift «^<^i 
t^: c^mijdi I ^51^ g^ ^n'i ^rttw^ ^rMTii fHtjlTrrrf^^: ^^TiiT^;vt'rRt 'b^s^^'I^tw- 
ftrn^ffTf I *tg(^* L<ii ^ i*i *M %i^^w: H^ 'rart ?:m3i^ ^^ ^wt^^itri 1 '^ 1 *j«>i*mi<i*i(i 

< <i ^ ui u^ii iT?f^ I ^i (*)»i*nM HiM< i fd I -rr^ wsi^^: yR«^d: g^'f^: H« tTli 'i^T^si^:! 
^f^rrr^ n^?ra: 1 tt^ i gH?[?r$ h>^ f^»Tf^ 1 ^^ c. q. ?8- i^fii 1 ^i^t 1 B^if7r3[T#'^- 

rRI^I ^1 ^S^ I ^ I ^% I ^^ I ni^: 1 1r(^l ^^ I ^ I ^ I H''^' ' 
THTTT I ^ii: I ^i' I ^^ I Tp^T I ^f^ I ^^ I ^S^t^: I ??l^ I ^f*: lUJ" 

rT^ I 'm TjTTwnsirniwti-w ^xturt? i ^q^^iig: 1 F5qf?rc'^l7rai^T 1 •vH'm 'W ^^ 

^mm ^fnip^^nfH ^nh <ag 1 fl <« i ^lMti i<i ^rd jttt: 1 ^t^t 1 ^i^^fmm ^ '^J^ir'Sr 
^*f«IT^ I M^n^^ i giqaimffl 1 t ^rrar^ 1 i:?nr*f inraffJT 1 7m ^ntinijtfd- m ^^«f\i< T ?!2^ 

jtr: II 

j{o e|o. ^0 9. ^0 ^^ J II ^^^3^. ,1 ^^ 

^ti I ^ I ^ I ^^ I ^^ nrft I ^: I ^«i: i f^^ \~fj^ iimi 

rtfK W^ II II '^'i II 

l^sift^^i I ^sj]^ I ^s^ I n I ^ ["^^TTt I ^s^n: I ^m^ I 
td: I f^lT^i ^^ I f| I «^T R^^ I ^5* I ^f I ^ I ^^sfaj^: I ^ I ^TTT II !, II 

^Jictff ri I^T^f wrm: m^ x:^^ t^ % Jfw ift^rra i «tqi<0'l i ^ ^ fq^ i ^MH t?: 
^^ ^^ im^ ini^W^r^: wT^t I '^trmg^^ ^ T%?i II 

I?HI >T^T(^^^7r^rT ^ f^^J^^^if IIS II 

^%sf^i ^^sf^?ti ff I ^rat^i ^: i n I ^fw I §^sf^^ I ^^sftre: i 

^f^r^l 1 1 »T? I ^S^W^^ I ^ I ^ I f^^ I ^T^ WSW 

*l<<*)Tli|m^^f?iJ J(KiPi<*) I ^f%^f%?t 11 f^ f^Twraft: ii ^\^ i^t^i^^fii ^ 'Jvr: i 

^f^ I 'i^ I ^ht^tTrfirfJi ^^5^^ I ^iiTffj^TJnT^rr^T ^na? »rnJ mmt m% u 

i^^^ntT irfiTn pkH|36'^^: ^^^ ^^ II til 

^ I ^1 ^ ?fi^ I m ^?fj!i;i w\wf{ I ?J?T I ^ft I ^s^ri: I ^_^ili 

*iTg: I ^: I 
^ I |i iR mTl I wfpiT I fsfM I W^obd. I ^* I ^S5R5|t: 1^ iibii 

VOL. IV. ~ " " 

4>q*^*H'«^i^ir^ *nf*nfti'*i* < *4i I 'tgTiw^ II ?H tn^ I ^"^J^l^ i fw^ H^^^^^ »^j(^^^ nT: i 
Trfti -Mmlg^^^fffi: vifKjpi: ^Pi »ng: gf^J^ ^^: «tt^ ^mrf ^ gmv^i^ft^ I inn 
gm^ firtirtAui ^^rnri ff^m f»ra^ %M-*if*i ^rfr^T ii ^trfTi: ^fTP*^ M^i»O uii{^q) ^^jj. 
f*R:ii ^f^gfir: f{h«*imiT ^TVi i 'sntn^^^ ^rra^ i tfitf^ i^ : i ^^ft i'^doa ^^jg'i.^g l^qtft 

7t^ ^^jTTHt ^rft^ '^i^ t?[ Tgrf^ 'tr'nt^ ^\^ ^re«f ^ ^: ^<^^c^«jl^«l>*j(rj^TTTt^ 

>o. 8. ^^. I xHn R^y^W ' ii '^ ^"^Tfrn i \ h^^\^ JT^'ftwt^^^^: ^ W'm € <^ 

VK<iif*< II ^3^ >irrTW<ft^Wt: i gfrfrmfl[^: i ^^rrt*Tf^w«rra%^ i <4^'^ « ii.^fii*(T7f: ii w i 

^fti fiif!m I T^rrri: grtr^nnin: i i?rrat 'f^^^^ i "fm^ ^^mm ^f^ ^rm «^ i 
"^ra ^t*ra[ ^ornfM w^g ii ii ?o ii 

1[ft 4H^<<s(|^irfc<<l^M<*^^. l 0^k'ft*<I^IMq<^^^'^41<,^^^M|gl^ l M |t* U ' f tvtt!? ^ I *Ha M l"*! <" 

1[ giwiw ^Tre^^PT^ ^T'T^' wtH^^ tinnfii^ Tiftr Ti^fTTPwwwt g^^ 

flo <io, ^» ?. ^» ??.] II 5nwt5^: II ^^ 

H I in I ^f^ I ws^: I ^Ri'Tt I ^fiftr i w i ^^ i ^tTft^si i 


f^ ^ ^rtfiTTwr -^^^ %^^ Hfk: ii ^ ii 
^ I in I H^fH I ^Hft: I HiiTs^JS^csr I T|^: i 
f?r I ^TO^ I ^J^tfrr: i ^^ i ^: i ^: i ^ i M^ i hTit: irii 

^ ^ fWT ^^ Tr^: ^mt ^ W^Ht I 

^: R I fW I f^ I ^?^ I W I ws«i: I ^mt I ^ I ^iT^nt ?frt ^5^ I 

^^\ m^j\ ^Ji^^ I fe I '^^ I ^ I "Prmsi^ I 'l' I *!^ •'?" 

^ "JiTninft ^sryq5;S»i Tsi^ v^"^ ^ VH ^tirrt tt m <*<m«i«i ^ira^ ^ n i?m 
^ft^: BiiMi«Hiflif*i ^rnsrstfii fi^ ai^frr i f«ff«iv»)<(f*! i trar '^ trr: i wrtfn JmrftTr: 
^w <^: tj'^: ^iR^^ ^cfiT ?[WTfnf^ ^nfm ^m^ ^mifwm ^ wfw^rl^ 
^^j^ t!f^ »n«i: ^irnrr: i f^* 8- §• i Tf?f i ^rar "^ 'trf^ '^f w^reng gae^ i wteu^i^^ 

^^ g'^ra I UVR M^i^RT^ ft^ 'TOT ftm TTSE^fW W^ II 

f^^^TtiTn^fij TTwW ^^^^^ I ^^ '<\mr\\*jp\t II {ill 
l^s^g:^ I ^R^ I ^r| I ^^^ I TR^ I ^pmif i '^' iiJiii 

^ftT<flff^im<ni^gT ^i^ii Tre^^ ^'re^f^: ^ »rff^ v^TTTTufn?!^ ^rmt 
3'^''^ I JKTi ^^gj: I TnO^TRt ^pft^ ^tmt ^F^^nm mim TT^rpi <»ivfli^r«*sii*i«ii- 

'^ ^ fft^ T^ fk^ ^flT ^Jffl I Wif ^[f^ft?^ HMII 

"^1^1 fficit: 1^ I fTO i^iffr'i m^sin i ^ i ?^^s^W wmh 


<)06 II ^»^^: « [^•^.^<'b.^»9. 

^ I THS^tei: I fnt: I ^tis^^h: i fcr^: i ^^ i 'I i T.'^ i ^"^^l iif,ii 

^tttt^ M^^^. II 

^^ ^ni^^ fTT^^T^fir^f^ I f^ ^fw ^f^T ll>S>ll 

^rfil I ^'^ I ^3TpT S^^: I 'ftiti!;! f^^_s^fH^n ^% I fTT^: I ^ I ^ft*i I "^^^ 

^1 1^^ I ^^^ I ^Hl ^ I TV^l^ I ^'^^1 ?jft I 'T^S^t I W^ llbll 
Tm ^^wm ^rmt »T^nrr v«i< i iR i -4ird«ft ttwt ^(^?i:j mwi^nr^ i (Terr '^ iri ^vsf^- 


gwr *><{mif<«<i ft ^ I ft^^ I ftg^ a^^TfttT! TTwr lit^ »u fftrq^: ii lun 
fl{ai<^<4l<!(^ f^f : I ^nr aiK»^^i**tnrd ^< i *t<i<^ i ^ ^rjr^ft i ^m'srreflwr: i ^'ff^ ^ 
i^mr-. I ?niT ^»pit^ i in%Tr: viapn ♦n<^«^Mi'qti^«rMHij«i ^Tt?fti?wt^ ^ ^^^ 

w^m: \ w \ ^: i 'rr^f^ i h^s^t: i ?ft^ i ^^'n: i 
^^5^ I %S^H^ I >!^: I f^s>^: I W[f^: i TO i ^^pl"^" 

^f(ft iTfift f«i*rifl<*«s( T^w^ 'H^ffv'i: im^^: Tnt% ^ ^«twt ^fK'H ^irarn; ^Itrt: 
^ifw«n ftififlHf ^tiRuna ^iSr t^jft^sSt f?r»flH*r«<<*iO'i'^ i^t jtrwr: i ^srar^^ i 

^iin^TiS H^wTCfTT ''a^rsftn^ira if^ ^ ^»t^ jftw^trer Jreft jfhr^ g^nrfTf ^rrat 
^^n5f^Ti<.a!i'*)gj*<M^<fi; 1 1%» o.. =. n[f?r n 

^^^^^^TT^ f ntr^^Tpt 5n^^ttv ii ^ ii 

^ I m I iwR^_ I ^ I f^l^ I ^ I f^ I ^f^s«i: I ^ iiq^ I w^\ 

^^ I wi I ^sxn^ I firr: I ^^S5im i ^ i ^^t i ^^v irii 

^1^^ ^tnt «i<^w ^i f^^ f^^ Ht'T II? II 

if^ I ^^: I ^4 1 m^-\ I ^lofis I ^ I ^rfsw: i f^^ i Hftrnt i 

^ws^ 1 5Ttw: I ^^ I ^ I ^f I fW'T I te^^ I >Tr»Tf ll?ll 

^^T^rpsrr *rnn ^wm ftitpi "^fs i tM-^fHt*!*}: 1 1^ ^trt ht^t ^^irfw i f^<i<yFg t ^ift 
^ 'nf^ rn^JTR: f^ifi^ v;^ ^rflmt vpt^'t g^ftTfnt t fW^ 1 1 ^m^ i tt^ g^T 

^^ 5nnt Tift ^^j^m ^^pjvt^ ^pr*^^: i 

%T TTTHT iilTriT ^'WTI^ ^"^^ ^^m ^[^rt II ^11 

^ I wm I nft I ij^fnl ^ I ^^ I ^pjvn^i %^^ I ^i^ I ^^' ' 

%T I wm I JJmtT: I IR I ^|: I ^ I ^^ft^: I T^ i ^ I ^ 11811 

'RJ ftiB^^ ^^ V^ qr^ ^gi ^H^il ^'^t'J^Vfl. ^^J^T^RPjf ^iftfTT TRTra ftfrn^ ^n^T 

^'?Htt%*t ftRnmy: 1 ^r^ 1 f < » <<*< <^<(l<(*) ^ ^^: 1 r^^ ^i5%n f^m^ 1 ftirr'n; ^ 

'^^IR ^^_ m^ j R-if ^^M^ f'T^ 5nft* iiMii 

fjmj ^s^^ 1 5T I ^fW'^ I ^' ' TTO^s^: I ^ I ^ I ^rf^: i 
f^lS^: I ^ I ^^^: I ^"^ I ^H I ijfti I ?Jti "^t I % S^ I W[f^'s?3 liq 

HHT I ^ I fe^: I TJ'^'ii^: I ^^nfrt i ?fH i h^ i ^^T^: i 
^^: I ^ I f^ I fwtfff I wi I iTfiTS^^f I ^vw: i ^ I fmf^ ii|ii 

fHstr ai Ol ^t! T5F^' ^'H'^''^ ^«i*<h: f^^: ^*Trf% vrf^iw ^^nftfH ^^vipc. 
fwtf?i I ^^Hf?! II 

^T^: I ^1 ^ftj^: I fnsf^f^: i f'TSfi^'T: I fr4?IT: i HTTTft^: i 
fTni:s?i.'<inT: i ife: i "g5T:s^5f: I TT^ I ^ST^i I fe^ I ■^t'^if \m 

^"tfeTiiO ^T thht: v<,m<> f^iTnrei ^jfrnra-rernrftror^: ^^^fTn^s^ f ?f^ iiflm»i!in«ira 
jT?itn I f*^ ^raw: t^cr^Ri jtuK^^m >^^^ vT^nrt jbIh^: gi*iKi«ii ^mrft h^ i "^ 
^ TfTisn Tg^ wpfii: irfM^'^W ^iwr MPk^^-t ^HtefT:%*r fnn^^^ gT^: gtijinft h^ u 

^jji^ f^WT^ ^ H^ TT^i f^^ ^'T ^j^i'OtflT II b II 

f^sxT^^: I ^^ I ^: I W i"^^:s^ i ^fff^HT i i^wrs^ i 

^^^ I f^l Tpq^ I ^ I 'ft^l^ I f^l ^* 1^' J ^'f^"'''' 

^^T ^H ^^t '^t'^f ^lej ^^^H ^1^ I 

f|^ ^Ti ?ft^ ^: ^m: ^ 1^ f?rl(frrT II ^11 
?fW I ^ I 'f^ft I 'ffs^ I ^a[|W^: I firls^ i ^^ i 
%m \ ^'»Ttu: I ?ft^ 1 075^: I ^t: I #j*:i i^^ i f^r: i ^ffff ii^ii 

^Wt 'SfttTT I ^iTf^rml' fwrffm ''snum i^i^ ^Tf^nt ftm«r ^°i M<N<it4i<. ^*»T fH Hqfn i 
fijarr f^ *nn ^prem ^itttt ^Rnr^fin '^nsrr «:ftw t«r»n:ff7T ^ i *t»iX spr: ftm: iftTr- 

irrrn ri^ fchrioi^ fkT TTim ^^ ^tn: ^ f^i 
^T!!T^ f^*^^?ifF^Tri^s^^^^ ^?l\^ moil 

iq^T I rfJT^ I %T^ I ^>TT I TiTHT I ^^4 I ^fT: I i I f^l 

^s^T I f^«irti v^t I ^Tii^: I ^^! I ^w I ^ I ^^ iTjf^ ino II 

it f^ gJTft ^^RTit f^'^<l«^H: f^^^ ^-RT HT^ itn\ ljfTW?BT ^ rPJI^ I f^?it»i- 

f%^ ^^t'^ ff "^jffmt ^^^ ^to; ^^^ ii«^=iii 

f^^ 1 1^4 I fe^ I iTrlR I ^%f I Wm I gS^ I ^ I ^f4 I 
1^1; I W^ I ^% I ff I qjjr^ I ^: I ^: I ^ I ^77: 1 W^ ii<l«lii 

^* I ^: I ^?TTS?ft: I ?7|H: i apj^ 1 TJ^rf 1 ^Tcter I it^h: I ^ I 

fT^ I |%fH 1 5T I Wi ^wf«7 1 ^^ I ^i I in^: I rrri:i W I ^^ in^ II 

^^ '^nr: ^ ^pjTT'B JTT^ ararei ^^^ ^iV %'IT«ft'f<n ^^ H^ 3T7J^ ^ I J)U|«lrt*rt- 

^ M- 1 TT^TTi:: i?W ^[^ w^ TTWT ^«wm Bnir^Hff 1 'v^m ^iftfir 1 ^ra: 'rt vnr 

^f : I HT I ^: I ff^ I ^1 ^TO I f^% I S'T^ ' "^1 ' ^^'n^* I 

tH I »TT^: I fiw^ I H^ 1 5n^ I iTrl^l ^ I f^ I ^ I ^f%m I ^ I ^: II S^ii 
gni I f%% ?r«rr ^mf^ "^ r^^ nrfrt f^ i ?rf w^ TRt »t^ i h^ ^pit h^ i b|^ 

fii^ I ^t^ 1 13^ I i|35H I ^: I w I ^: I ^t'n I ^H I ^^ 1^1 
f^ I ^:i ^ I Tii^: I f^T I ^ttfw: I ^: I -^w^t I TT sf^ I ^ I ^ II «i8ii 

gtifrai nf%fft TT^>3i% g f^iw^ I «^ II IIM II 

f^jjft firer sj^ ^(^m: 1 tt^ '^rg^ft 1 "v^ g^ vr^rrat %^ g fl[f^^ t^t^ « tfi: 
^ftf^nrti: II k'tiKritt^Ji %^^^^ M^n^Mi« H i* j <in'<i'W i ft% ^51 Sim i ^^ '^ 1 M "^ 
^r^ft^'amr^^^T^^^ii^: i^''^^-n:ft » 

^ I ^ 2f?t'i ^ I ^S^TT^ I W^: I ^fii: I Htw: I ^^: i f^ s^^ < 

TfiT ^s^^rm^ mrm: 1 %7nTt 1 ^rT^ftnt 1 -w ^J ii n jii^itr * ! ^^r^iTftT^T^^^rTK^ x;^ ^r^nn yjt^re 

^itt:sr I ^ I ^ I ^ I )^ I ^: I ^r: i ^ i ^w i ?t: ir h 

?n^ r: I ^ I ^W^ ffri I ^ftM^: mi^ "sf?t I ^w I ^rn4 1 WB^ I 
^m: I f^' I ^ I ^^rft I ^^ I ^w I ^fti I ^S^R I ^Rt II?" 

j?ft »?iaff JTHTTT TPT^ JET^ 'Hg?^ ijmqrr ^f^ 'JTRT^t^nuT^^srrfwf'nrnra^ 


W ^ t^i^^ ^'Tff ^^^_f^ ^fa ^r ^*ft'H| II {ill 

??i I H: I ^ I W!T I ^s^^ K^rl^l Hf^swi: i^^l I f^ I ^^ I 

^t I ^^ I 5:sf^^^ I ^Mf I ^^ I ^ I ^S?VT5T 1 1?^ 11811 

>?5T ^ ^ T!I^^ o^^^W ^^^_f^ ^VRlfNl IIM II 

II I ^t: I %r^ I ^Ir^ I T:ftHsf>=f: 1 5%f?i: 1 nttft: 1 ^: i f^s^^f?^ 1 
*!5j: I 5T: I ^ I ^% I f^ I ^psiT I ^% I ^ I ^S?MH I t'Tl II mi 

^ ^^: ^^ TftJrfH: ftr^: it fIreiTl ^rt^ ^fsg ^g ^* tg rmm ftfli«*i«i%«i s^Hn- 

^'ihT ^pw m ^t^ 'T ^^^ filfrTT 5^fi^m ^ I 

VOL. IV. ~ ~ ~ p 

^?TTft^: I ^ifft: I m I "^^ y 't: i ^i ^^: i f^TfrTT i ^tf^^ \ ^^i 
w^m I ^f^^ 1 1^ \V^ I ^f^ I ^ I ^s?MT^ I ^ II If II 

TT^ ^fN^* fU^tOTgtt -^^ ^m^i^ ^ftnn^Tft'^f iisii 

^1 ^: I ^RIi ^f^: I ^^ I ^^ I W i^^i ^: I ff KT5Tsm: I ^1 

TTRt I'^fH^* I f^^^if I ^ I ^^ I ^f% I ^ I ^S^lIT'^ I t?T| II^H 

j(Tm I ^f^ar^: I ff ^ren^mf^w^ Ti^vn: ^trt vj^fiTTr ^rf%»nint% >T^tlt i *!^ ^ f«nnritn: i 
fWTitrt frml ^^f^^ tt>to: ^ff%mt f^r^w i^oq.;^^.^.! t^t i tj^ ^r^^ ^tfMV 

fqxif Tn TT^tT^ IT^T^^ "^T^T ^^^^9 ^TFFRff I 

f^RT ^^r^r^l^ ^i ^^^f^ ^Trin"?i^Ffl^i iitii 

Mi I ilT I rm^l ^iT^ I ITS^^ I ^^ I ^r^^l ^^^t: I W^fk > 
f^^: 1^1 ^t: I ^71 ^iTjfH I ^f : I ^f% i mf^ i ^S^TR i ^| iitii 

lu^^ TTi^ ?n?P5i ^ ?(^fv ^TT^ Ti^"R^ ^m^vl Jjnn^ ^rept ^H ^rgwr ^^swHrif 

Wf^m ^^f^ WI ^^l!?Tf^ ^^"^f^ ^PRT^Tffflf II ^11 
^w. I ^ I ^f|^: I ^ffflfti I ^^-^ I ^^ I f^^'^ I ^^ I ^1 ' 
^^^T^n ^^ I ^: I ^p?TfH I ^TSr I ^ I ^SfMI^ I I'll " ^" 

^ ^ •^: ^^11 ^ff^f^ W lie ^n^ ^ t^ « 
# fM ^Tsi mtm H»f ^^^ftr ^r*4VMifl^l moii 

^wf?r I ^^iQ I ^W I ii»T I ^f^ I ^^ I ^s|vpi I |r| II ^^ II 
^^ ?(Vm rT^R ^^ ^_m^_f^ ^^w^^^t m^ii 

rTiT I ^} 1 1^: I TT^ I |S1T^^ I ^f^: I ^^rmj I ^S^t I ^Sxn4 I 

^^ I ^^4 1 fp4^Ti I ^^ I ^^ I ^fir I #s|iiT^ I |r1 II «j^ II 

^? 'ftiw^ q% traTar^rra <fr^T^ grra ftfqrsi ^rr^ '^ ^% w^^^^ ?r^fT i ^ i 

f^^ ^g H^wt f^'^ ^ f^^ w^f^wij ^Wit: I 

W 5ft "^^T ^^T ^TJW f^'gTI^ ?f^ ^T^ ^ II «|9 II 

f^^ I ^sri m^: I f^^ I'^ift I f^ wg I miA: \ ^s^t: i 

f^^ I h: i"^^: I ^%T I ^ I =rR?ff I f^'^ I ^ 1 5f^ I ^5t: i ^ # in^ii 

P 2 

^TW^^ ^frft g^^m ^^T^Tq ^wt fir^ ^^T I 
~5e^^fif?t^: mil 

fl7f\ ffsfr Tfafr ?pina7 g^ -amtiHJM rjw^ grnrpirmT -iii qiar^j^ Mjmt 
fMt f^ i -^iqi^un "^T^ '^ ^'i^ f^r^'n ^: Tn^mf^t "^^^ M^«ii<aN y<<»iH ^ir<«iiy 

m ^^^ ^T^iT^ !?!?[ rT^^^TT^ ^T ^^| IRH 


H^dfii gf¥t '^Tmrft 'ivrsft *i«j«t«n ?fl^ gfM\ '^ ^rmr^f^rang^ 'Tti««iM 

m ^ I f'fi^ 'ra ^TPrt «^f^ TT^mvTTTim^ Tc^rtsnTOTtw^ nvTM^nTf^ W^ ' 

^: s^i 5^: I ^T^ I 'T^rff I Wfti^^^'i i ^: i ot i ^^1 "9" 

^Tnfr VT^ f*T^^ ^'Pnjr 'T ^« ^ q<<1R^^|q^^^<^\4Ml ^nw^lH^ »ftivrt^^^^; 



^^ ^ 'T^irk^j^ rT|^7rm^ mti ^id^T^l 11811 
^irf^ I ^^ I h^h! i ^^"^fl I rfft^i'^^T^t 1 ^^: I ^m I ^rj^ w^w 

^n%iT 5ft^ Ji5?4 ift^ ttI^t^tt^ ^in t'^l'^l 11 m 11 

W I ^5 1 "^ff: I #^ I ftl'^m I ?35t I ^[|WfH: I ^sf^: I ^: I ^^ I 

^sw I 5^^ I ^ I ^f| I rfit^l1^5lf I ^^: I ^ I ^#r| iimii 

in^'WT:ftHTn^w ^^t Hl^Mm^l ^t t^Jif 11 ^ii 

f^^s wt^ 1 ^f I wm4 1 ^w I ^s^s^ I f^ I ^^ I ??^ I 

iq^STf^Ti I ^s^jf I ^?[ I mf^i^^^rf i ^: 1 ^ra i ^'^ ii^ii 

"^Jf^ W^ ^iwm vii f^R^ni f^ 'fireTt ^imt w^ i f^ i tmr whjt^ t^ 
'n^'TTftr mNrfiw ^TrfH^ gsTSiTi^Tw^: i fw^T^ii 

^3Wt4 ^TT!R^^ li^JT% ?T|^VTpR^ ^T ^^h| IIS II 
^ I 5^ I ^Sl"^ I Wk^ I JTO I m^ I ^ I ^;^T^ I ^sg^ I 

^M ^^ I ^^«T^ I i^H^ I Kri^i"|cn5rf I ^: I ^ra I f'd^?! hsh 

<\^0 II W*^' II [^»®.^«b.^«<)C|, 

^ I ^^ 1 ^Z^ I HTTI^I I I^S^ I ^Sf^ I ^5^S Wl I 
^ST:fM I Bt^ I ^f|^ r ^^jf% I fTr(^l'|:^Hf I ^^: I ^ I ^l*?! II bll 

^HMT^T^ ^fm^T^ ^TMTf^ mS ^* \ ^H^^ Ht»t JTrmt I vtttr: I M^lmi^sirat ^- 

¥^^ I rn!^i ^gs^^fft I ^vTi^sfi^: I wei 1 5fhn: i iit^s^: i ^nrtn^: i 

^^sf|-q: I f^^l 11^: I H^W I Hrl^l 1'^Rlf I ^^: I ^ I ^1*?% II ^11 

Wffn: gwNrf^: ^ grrf^T iftfl%^ *ni^ Til'f^-m ^*r i igan ifw^i^ '^ m^- 

^1^1 Tl^f: I ^%iTt: I ^ I ^^H^ I ^r!;i ^: l^"^: l t?l| l Wrf^l ^TWJT I 
%^ I ^ I Tf^'lfl^l ^S-5|?T^I ^^: I Wr!:i"^^^ I ^^: I ^ I ^'V^ II «|0 II 

^[■g ^^TfTf I 'fti^W H*4-^rl I f%^*l'*<<l, II II <10 II 

^?^ ^^ ^'^^M TT^I r^T^lT^ i^ ^^l^T^ mSII 
Hlrl^l ^g I ^|m I W I ^^1^ ' ^'^* • ^T^^'f I ^^ I ^a^^ I 

^^t I ^^ I ^tis^ I ^^Hi I mi I ^^5T*f I ^^: I ^ I ^^iOhI " 'i^ " 

^)'<l lRlt4^R JTfrlt tm^ f??rr f^l^t*4*l^mi*iHrriJ|<1l*ll 5^qi'^lW!f^ l «0« l i ^^^''^^" 

TRT % ^: f^ft^ ^: II 
^ ^jjT^ ^rf^g: ^^Wil H^rTTTi^ ^^T ^^'tlfl ll<l^ll 

^ I WH I Hr^:"i ^'itT^ I Bfi:i l^'iT I ^-i: i Wi ^l'?! "''^" 

^1 ^%: I W^S^N^ I f^^ I fn^ I ^jt I ^uj^ \\sfi: I 

% m ^: ¥wrew Hanrero ^f^g^w ^ijrei fiRT^ipni^ ^^ iram^ ^s^ 

H%T I TT^Trdlt;! ^^WT I t|^^I ^m I ^^Tli?!:! ^^HT I ^Htllfr^l 

^%T I ^: 1 1^5 1 H^Siftfrt I ^%T I ^: I Tmm I ^f I ^^: in^ii 

M^mifsna*<ti: Twf' ^l^wf gr^nr^g Tm^: ^rfrrnTrrrf thti: fw?rg ?rf%?iT «fr 
^:T^t I ^g I ^FVT *(ni^M<«tsm*isif»»n^TT^ ii ii q=i ii 

mfi I ^i^ ^^^j^ f^j,^ , ^^ ^,^ , q^ Tii^ihid I 'mt ^j^ ^fhrfmrnT: ^ 
^iwt % f^j^tpf^ II ^ir^iiij^ ^^iTTf^ H^^T^ TTfrm* I ^t%n ^ I f^ ^m^n imt 
fi''^^ I w ^. M. 1 i:t7r II ftrg^ fi!%TT^ ^3j^tig^:q: I ^ri '^ I f^«rr^f?ff«Hg ?rW 
"^ '^ ^J^ ^^1^ '^^ "^ ^tNmg^ I ^^ c:. $. 1 ;tTi II ^ftj?nRHret?^ ^rfa <^|p)5jM 

^TOJMf^ ^i^ ^ f4%arrf^^d<*(*r: ^ ^%^: i ?ff^ =^ i wf^^snt^^in^'arf rm^>n^ 
^t^ ^min I ^1^ ^ I ^f it «w ^^¥r if it ^i5T m^ ^ gf^: i^- ?. c. i ^f^ « 

^^ ^^IfiTTT^ %(!^ f|^^^^ ^^k ^^TT II «l II 

^' ' fi?^ I ^l!!9I I ^1 1 ^: i'I^pI I flrl^l ^ I H^ I 

gs^^ i"|^S5iffljq I ^^ , f^. , i|in^ I ^^f^ I w a «i II 

ei mr I ^n^s^fii: I ^t I ^ I f%^* I ^^ I ^ I ^"^ I •p^'N: J ^ftf^T R I 
f^ I ^r^\ f^ I f^ I ^1 ^^ I f^^it I mA'> \ ik^^\ I ^1 

^ I ^^: II ^ II 

mf^^: II 

Tn^H*i^^^ ^m^ ^^ ^^%T ^qtfii^ irf^ ^ ii ? ii 

^ I H I ^^: I TTsf^^: I f^ I ^^ I ^1 W^: i ^: I V^^ i 
in^^7 1 ^^1 ^^ I ^ I ^: I ^1 ^T^ I ^fMm I ^ I f§ il?ll 

^^^irfl'^^f^l=l^t|fim^iff^Tl4 |as^wr g^ IliJil 

^^ I ^^ 1 ^fi^^T I ^T^% I rm: I ^T^l ^ I f^^ I ^Sf?rfi| I HT^ I 


f^^^ iff I iis^w: 1 1^ I ^wi ^IsB'nxi^s^tl^i ^tot: i ^^i 
Tiff^r^ I ^ » ^^ J ^sir^tnl I w I ^: 1^: I ^^ I ^j^ I ^ II mi 

jj^V^i ^g*i^fif II 

'^T "^ ^ ^^ ^^f'^ ^ ^^^ ^tr^TTJT^H r ^ III, II 

rf 1 5f : I ^^hjWt ^ I fTri^i ^: I ^xt: I ti: i 'jijig i w^: i pf i ^: i 

TTT 1 '7^ I )fT I ^^ I ^S^ftfl >Tt I 5fHrrT: I ^Wt I ^1T% ll^ll 

^rai '^ 1 1 Tm flj^fiffTT^TT^ I jjissg I f^"^ ^ f^ #ftlr ?f^ ^% w|TR i:'?rra m 
irra^fl II II <i^ n 

f^lt iqi ^^^: i^m: rniiwt ^Mhr ^^it'w: i 
^liff 1^ f^^^% f^^_ 5^T5f^^: irfiT wh ^^ ii^ii 
^^ I iqj I |ST?%: I ^s^i^: I ipns^rr: i ^Tfhn: i ^?iin«: i 
^s^if I t^T I f'l^SHf : I f|%sf^% I wt^i 5ft^T: i nfM i toh i ^^ 11.911 

I ^ ^ ^ g^T'ra: H^fTT^JHTwr: g'^^: ^^: u^rrtn: grrg^ ^f»nft^ fr^- 
t?m ^TwriTnjv^t^Tg ^ f%^fTfT ^f!^ ^§t^ ^: I f^ % fjnwfr finrRrt g^f^: 

^f| 5^ffff%rrt J^ f^^^T^ mT^_ ^^^^^^ T!^: I 

"^ I ^f?i: I f^jjhf I c^T I f^s^^Tj I m^ I ^^^5^^^ I n^: I 
^s^lff I ^i I m5f;H: I tift I ^ij I ^fhr: i irfw 1 TrxraH 1 ^ 11 tii 

^ f%^^n!r ftf^: ^ jrff »Tf«3ifrf7!%wt f^¥7! vrtwi m^ i ( \r^m '^ '^'^ ^ff^ 

VOL. fv. ' O ' 

%T^ TK^ T^fiT ^^r^frft TTf^f^ f^v^ '^ r^ii y iiir n ^ I ^^w^: i ^ ^ ^swmtnn^. 

^^ ^HS^^^[ll^|^^ T^m^ ^id y^ f%^ moil 

tfj I ^: m^ I ^W I ^ I ?i: I ^ft I ^ I HT^?ft I ^ I ff»n I ^ I ^^t I 

71^ I 'Sfj I ^s^ I TJJ I ^^r^l ^^ I TTTt^l ^^ I §f^^ I ^f| I f^^ II ^0\\ 

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^S^l ii: I ^ai^: I ^?T I ^y: 1 ^: 1 ?r(^i TT^: I Hns^ I ^^' • t^ ' 
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^: I ^ I ^ I ^S Wpjf I ^ I ^H^ I ^i^t^: I ^^1 ,Tf^: , :^5^^. , 
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^ f^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^j^ ^qiit Tm^^ ^tT: II mi 


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^mft ^ gTnfr ^(fjn^^^^ftifu ?^^ q^^^rg^g ^ m^^ ii ii ^i ii 

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f^^Sf^^ I iT^S^I I T?ft I ^^^iT 1 5RMt I ^;it: I ^RS^-NiSJi^l ^^t I 
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^^iT*rt \»«it: ^rf^^rwiiri; i ^rfinTOfn i f*^ ^rui ?^ ^srertf ^^ ^^mi^ ?f^ 

^Vm f^ T^^ ^ ^-^^^ 7?^ ;, ^f^^^T ^T^ \\S 11 

^' "TlftT^I^I^I^S^^Trtl'i^'#''t^lf^'St^lf^l 

^^fir \ f^irt: I Ti^: i ^iw i ^^% i ^^ i rn ^f%: i fl'^^r i ^t^ ii^ h 

^OL. IV. ■ ' « - " 

^RW ff^: II ^R^ ?ffi: II ^f^T T][*qt f^%T f^ «%T ^g^ ^f^ ^*Srn ^^hfft 
^^f<cti<j : II 

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^ I ?7 1 f^: I TTH^I t:#: sg I W I ^: I ^^S^i?ft: I ^l^i^i 1?Tt: I ^: I 

m I ^^ I ^XJS^ I ^KS^?f% I ^rf^^ri^i ^^: I TI^ I f f^^ II bll 

T^:g '5f1%g f^ 1 vyn f^*r: ^: ^^ TTfTrpH^vrsi t^tt^ 'ragfTT 7R(^ t^: fi: 

f^ ^ikrTTJl^^ HT^^T ''^f^: ^<i^ ^^ 'I'T^ ^r^l II ^11 
^1 ^W I ^^3: 1 WtfH^T I H5 I ^V I ^W^ I gs^^t I ^?5S^I 
f^i^^rfti^^: iHT^ti^f^: 1^: i^i^^i'^^^l^Ti^ft^stifH: iKiii 

^ TT^ifn: n^T ^?rH^i^ ^^^ ^^ ii<\oii 

atrf^t: I cR'T 1 ^T^frt 1 ^ISIJ^T 1 ^^ I ^^ I ^^S|iT I fW I 
^^ I TT^sf^: I wit: i ilrrtfrf i ^^T^ 1 ^^^ I ^JR II ^0 " 

^* i':^i|rT WHt ^t: ^^ ^^^ -^f^' ^^ ii^^^ii 

^fRfH: I ^: I tift I xqg 1 ^Trt 1 ^ I ^Sc^^WFi^l ^tT1!^l ^S^' " 

^: I ^^1 frT I HWiT: I vt: I ^i^t I ef^s^r: 1 ^^: 1 f^^ "*'''" 

^ I ^5 1 ti- 1 ^sxtfir: I TT^k I ^: i ^im i ^^in^r: i ^^mi^ i 

nSr^m: I ^ I f^^ I ^^ifn I WJIK^ I l^^T I ^[^^ 11 <| II 

|5^^ ^%^ n^wmr: ii^w JTff^rr i sra^rmw t^: i ^nfirq^imift^t ji^t^ ?i^ v%t 

^twi KT5P5Rt?Tjn ^^%^ ^vk ^ iT^% ^ijirtf^ II ^11 

g 5 ^ift k4: 1 1 s ^^ I f Tt ?f7t I ^ I fir^^ I ^ : I ^ s^ I ^4^ I 

^twl I TX^ I ^SX^^qf I W I ^ff I ^%^ I ^vtrj I ^ I W^'~\ ^W% II 5^ II 
Tli^^^ ^^>4 ^RI^^^iiw^T ^?!T^ ^ig II ^11 

^ I t?s^T^: I ?jsnfw I ^i5rs^T| I ^ I ^^T^: i rrf^^^j i ^ i 
nsi^^^ I ^^ I ^s^^ I w 1 1 1 ^msm i Hvs?n<: i ^|^ ii ? ii 

^^w?^: ^ m^rr t^^f t^;^ ^"kTrti^^^TW^ ^ ii 

^5|: ^ ^ ^»^ ^ ^Tij;^ ^^ ^^^^-j|^^^ ^ II 8 II 

?^^ I ^fW I ^T5s^ I ^z^rm i ^^: i ^^ i ^^^ i ^ i l^s^ i 


« 2 

r^Tftf^J^ eiftJT^ ^1% ^fiH^TiJ^T TT^ ^7^% V^^T II M II 
TTT^ I ^'ER ^f?i I -^^ I ^ I ft I C^jt^ I gS^f?!^ I >lt I ^ I ^f|| 

^ftr^i: I 

1^ I tf^ I W. I ^5riW[ I ^ I ^ I ^ftf^ I ^T^^ I rT^ I iqi^l | 
viTirOT II M II 

ifW^w. ^tiT^jit *m ^rfij^ ^ftHTr wfli^ 'rf^^ «t TBTTr Trff i ^jttt^ i f^ wtfri^ i 

ri ^ %^-qf5i^t ^T'^r^^t'ftH^ ^ ^f^nsm %^: ii | ii 

^«Nfi I u I mv!i I it'^'Tt: i^^s^h^: i ^^fi i ^^^if^r i ^^ i 

^ I ^ I ^f : I ^fl^T I 'TT^ I w s^i I |rt I ^^ I ^ I f^ I ^rf%^ 1%^^: II ff II 

xm^: I Tmr '^ ^t^: i g^ ttt^h: ?^ ii^: iwrr t^^'''*'^ ^ |^Hife*i<n«fi^ ^st^rn^^rrt^ 

^ 1 1^ I ^tit^ I ^xirt I ^H I |:s^: i ^rI: i ^^if i |:s^^: i ^s^ • 

?r^ I % I m^l ^4"^ I ^fH [^^ I ^fti I ^ I ^5Ttf?T I ilt^ 1'^" 

wf^^TstT^ sFfftT »T^ I ?r? ^5 '^ ^nsf^iTfrg ^fTTf^ nvT^Tf^T i«nnfn m »ft«WT 'ft'^TH 
vi»rrf«! H^fl5 siwf^ ^|wt ^T^^ «r?i II 

^JN^^ fy^ f^ ^^vn^H ^: xfti^ ?i^ ^pp^nf^ ^^f?! ii tii 
fndn I ^^ I'bRT'iT^ I ^^^1 ^: I ^^1 ^t^ifti I ^TT^i 

ejft^l^ ?frT HSl^'^^ I fv^ # I f^ I ^^'I^^^ I f^' I ^5^ I '^ I 
^^f^ I ^^11 til 

fa t O^Mi« i 'di*'W^ar\«aQ^*< i«i i"*M*< i *iH >irn^Tf;: i tsft vrft^Tm^i: i f«na» ii ^fl« <i Rw ' J : i 

iirnf I fjfi^i^Tfwftr sfm^pi; i ^^xj^im i ^^"tJT^r«fW: i f^^: mi\^^ vixm ^^ f>ira% 
^rrar^aH' far ^wrsrfn i ^flR^iir ^^sTrfH i ^wi^^w^: i T^ j^ pj: ^t^x^n%^^- 

B HI ^T »I^ ^g*«ITf»I JHTOTt^ ^^♦llfit ^Wfn I ira^\f!| II 


^^ I '?r^'t^: ^pft^^^ II 

'W: I H^ I ^irifw I ^tsTj^f I ^^^ I mi I i^SgT I f^^ I 
"^ I ^l^sfn: I wtm: I ^;#f i ^wi^h i ^^rf i hrit ii cjo h 

ii} \m\^ T^rft ^j w^i ^ii^_ '^fiW' f^ in'=iii 

^1^5 1 ^t: J t|ft nqff I tt^tii^i ^ i ^ri^si^i:^nfi;i ^ttti^i ^^s^: i 

?i' I fC^i ^fT I Hi^: I ;i: I ^lat I ^'aswi: I ^fiN: i f ^^ ii «)«Jii 

^^Tf^ irr^TTf g^ f* Tra^'ref 'tt^^tt^ %jHm^ i ?mT ^^rgurm i l^mfK 

^^m^ ^TjTT ^T^iwfit^t5i Ti^ ^^ ^^: mil 

%: I -qft I Wl I ^ I ^fti: I ^^rl^l f^fft^ I ^t I ^rTS^: I 
^t4 1 ^s^ I ^sn^: I ^^i^ I t^t^r: i ji^ i ^ i ^s^Mt: inii 

^(f^: JWt ^ f^ ^pt^fi^ q^n^rf<(*jiaj«fT ^^ i wr^: i ^t«t^ mrraift ^rn^v^ 

feiT ^ 7tM ii^tt tj^ iff^yi i{^m_ ^ ^^'M ii ^ ii 

f^ I ^ I ^ I w^T I ^^mfti I f^ I ^ I ^T^i I f^S^HT I i^s^ I 

f^ I ^ I ^T^ I ^l^ I JJlt I qil^l f^ I H I ^ I ^: I WS^^i^ IRII 

^JntT!I f^?T I ^ ^'ft^: I f^'^ % ^ ^ ^ WJT 'H^TTf^ WTTTf^ f^^fH f^TTrf^ H^^ ^^ 

^^ M ^TT# ^^^4 rT^^^ 1^ f^% ^ ^^ I 

HH% 1 1^ I ^Sfm\: I ^S^ I ^h: I ^S^: i ^ i f^^: I ^^ i ^'t' 
^^ I m I ^wft? I wfws^t^ I ^^\ ~\ ^^s■^ I Hff^T: I ^^^_^ "9" 

i[^rvpifvmv(m^mT^ ^ir<<g*iva^ ^ ^vt i ^^tfxmmn. i f*^ ^^ "^^^^ ^"J^ 

^i\ ^^m\ ik ft^r^ ^m^ tK# Hj^t mriiw. ii^ii 

^g: I ^5f: I f^ I ff 1 1 1 1^: I ^Js«ht I ^ I d^ ?fw"i »qg^ i 

m^nffs^ ?mtf?i ifi^ff^ ff r^: ^^RP^rnn Vt^^Kh: ^imfirfTT ^(T»n % XfrfRiwt 

^* W ^^ ^"1 ^^ f^ >^4 ^dft^in^: II M II 

^ I ^swt: I ^^: 1 1^ I H^l^nirf i ns^w i ^Ht^lsntxn: i 

^^- • f^- 1 ^t^M ^S^ I ^Tlff I fi I ^Tfw I ^^ I ^W I fJtlR: im II 

?fhrt ft^jft^g^n: ^iRf^mr ^m t^W vn^ v^> vn^t ?Tiftini!n»T tfUjrt i «?Hi 
^: ^nqfi rm ^t^ T»T>n: ^tirw ^ft^n '^g: ?r^ ^t^ira ^to^: ?if?Pr ^^ri ^ij^ nj^ ^a 
fm TT3IT ^^#^ ^iTOTO^ JWTrT^^ Tw^i^?^TNf ?rm«m^if*rfj mfn 1 h^t^^ 11 

% I f^fti ^ I ^arfJr^i xT?^s^7[ I Wt: i ^i ^fii i ^^jw i xj^ ii ^n 

^^^ vHTi^^ Hf5t>j^^T!i ^f^m ^r^^^Jl a^ii 

!^^^i tiT^^: I ^_fjf:~[ ^swni I ^"Wl I ^ftr: 1 ^: I f^ I tnf^ 


^a{JM<nfM ^ i * < <j*<h : vj^^: w^ ^^irer ^fttp^ti <f?«iifli JjTrRwrrf^Tm «rr ^j^; 
^rmi I ^^: I -sf^m I f^ I ^%!^i ^:S7T*^ i ^^: i f^^ i ^^T^: i 

IT ff ^^ HiTt "^^ Wmf^ ^ \^^ -^fk^ II ^11 

^: I W I ^g I fT!I^r!^| >T?;S^ I ^51^"^ • 'qrTS'^W I ^ I 

Til rf I 5T^ I TTSHt I ^: I ^^ I ^ I ^^ I^^S^t^ I ^f^ II^H 

^?m ^1 ^ig? Hft^Tjf atTJi^ti ^^RfrfH irat n*ar(<^TT^ ^^"^ n^t^i's^ irfti n 'ra 1 
^^rw^ TTR^ I THin t^f*f* gf?if«if%^^ ^^it w^Tt %ft7rrt h ^shwr ^ g^»»tH 


fvm: ^ ftr^ Wiu yhtTr^^ i^ ^ ^^^f?^: ii«)oii 

ftni: t ^"1 ta: I ^1 1 i^^TfHi ^ri;iiTT^v:i 1 f^^^i ^1 ^^s% mo" 

fi ?T3WPi ^Ymt ^T vm I ^aT la >4»H M<i'ii'i %'r^ 1 f^'^t^ ^ ir^nrf^ ^rapn^ 1!^ 

i^ H^ ^^TufirW^Ri'T W5f aTtTTW^ftmt f^ ^: in«in 

m I ^1 'i^'n^T: I ^ I ^ I f^ I ^^ I ^fw: i m^^ i 

a^ I ^ I ^im I |.^*<|57i: I ^ I 'Ttsitif I ^ftj^: I f% I ^: in«^ ii 

^rirtf^ I ^: 1 5TTt I f S%^: i t^gprT: i ^sf>^: i ^Tis>Ttx?T: i 

vpm% ^WT^ VtT I VTX:^lrT II II ;^a II 

^i^iiw 3raiTl|^ Twt fT^ f*rm:^i g^nfr^gft ^ ^i M M l ^ ji i 'i^ i: ii 
xfn ^ *^i^^_;^^ <'^'^<^'^<^^^^*^''''i"^'^■*^'^^'^T ^ail '^H ^ l ^ ^|!>«^ f tvTW ^rrawRT^ 


7^J^ Mlft ^ ^ ^tftl ^in ^^51 f^^ i^^: II ^ II 

w I ttrft 1 5qw: I ^5T7( I ^>T:sf^i 5|S^irf i fl't^i ^t i ^s^^t i 
^Tii: I ii: i ^rf^ i «: i ^ i ^^W^ \ ^wf I ^R^ i f%v^ i H^s^: ii^ii 

f ffq^: '^nw^ 'srrm ii ?w^ 55 ^^ 1 ^: iif*ni. stt^x;: 11 tt ^ft^ 1 %?rt jw^ i trt- 
p# »rffm 'j<^ < -u ! ( i I ^o ^. c. 8. 1 iln ff f*nm: 1 'tit i trt i vwrrftitsi^: 1 ^ingiw ^r^^- 

f^rfl^igjl ^ft*^ 'iTO^ f^v?t mRm<.7i % ?pir «i«<i«j(ri[r«i ^^ vrrf^j '^ ^im 1 f*rat*nn 

^^ ^ITrT^^^ ^^tfJlfr.^ ^q ^^Sf^ IRH 

fT! I f^'ri: I ^T I ^S^ I TT^ I ^ I ^Y I ^: I ^^ I 'H?^ I 

^t I ^mf I -^fs^: 1 7^',zfm I ^^: I ifW: I ^^: I ^1^1 " ^ " 

"^^^N^ ^tram li^Ef^ vkr '^tirnt ipfr^f^ 1 ma^: 1 ii^^n^^i*<*i^*<i»i«« ^rnrw^ 

T 2 

5H i^^Mt ^qw ^ f^T| 5TTf*T^'^t ^^frf ^^^T^ ll?ll 

?TT I i^m I'jjf^ I ^f^^i f^^ I tgs^: I ^^ I ^nartin: i 
r: I ^s-^m I ^h: I w 1 1^ 1 5^: i ^ i ^f^fn i tJ^^^ ii?ii 

T^ ^ »^^ifmfM '^Jj?^ f^'s^ra: g^fwi ^Hf^fT^i^fR^jJWi*!!: i ^rwr ^: i ?»^ 
jni^t^^ ^^ wm: mi^Tr: H^ft^srei Om*it*h*i M^i^*ii '^wwtwsR'irei ^m^n^«Rr 

Tii I ftrfit I ^M: I q^:sfH: i Tri^ I ^^ I ^wrt i ^^^^f i 
f^Tjif I ^^^ I ^f?t I TTiR^ I i^s^l I ^vw: I TTT^^g II 8 II 

^tvm f^nni ?f^fr ^Trt mg^ »ig^ i'^ ^>=nft ^vn^n ^^f^wt ft^ i<«i*<Mi*ii+)«SN i 
^3[T I f^ift iraTrr'TTfTW^ i i g j^ T ft i ^ifHrt iv } : i «mtt«^*i«*K: i ^tTT^Tfx:^^: i ^a<yn, i ^g*li 

^4?^ IH ^^t W Vftft^'l^ HT^H ^^f II M II 

TTi ij: I 5i4»f I TT^t I f^ts^t I wa: I ^t I "^U I ^^T^ I 

h4cT: I n>1 I ^HT I W I ^: I ff ^S^ll^ I 'f I ^H I ^S^^ II M II 

1 wtn: t# ^^ %7 tt*i i ^ta giH Tft Wei ftift^ ^VTf%^ VT^TTHf^T -a ^: i w^ i ^"^ 
w^ 1 ^tgfiTf?! ^: I wt^^ ^J i^d r* H rt i^^ i^T >}XTCt^*iy*J'if*Tfn su'Rwrr; i " ^i^ 

^t: II 5ri«?nT^^r%i ^m ^t'tH ii 4t wif% i m* ^. q.<)o§-'^o^. i f:fn ^i^ ^n^ j^tht^" 

M'n U m ^■^Jfi^|^smvs^ iRf^^ 'i[m\■ ^*^^^ '^'^'^ v^^ ^^'SR^fii ii 5i*iit<«ir<«ifM<^M<?r ii W^' 

^rrf^virt fmt %TT f^M^^JIT-q%W ^ llffll 

f^ I tr^g I f^cf: I ^s^ I tifts^: i -^^i i #^i ^ftfi* ' 
^: I ^s»iwi I f^^t I i^v. I f^sii^ I ^%: i ^ » ^'t "^" 

j,^?n^?(Tft ^ jjj^- ""^ ^^rarfNiH: ^ trotng mw^^ ^i^im: ^^ ^^n^ 

^^^^«t ^mft:^ ^^^wt ^^: in^^: i 
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^ I w^TJ[^i I ^TTT I ^affi^t: I ^^s^Tn^; i wfjii i ttr^: i 
f^^^: I w'^^: I ^mi' I ^s^: i ^mi: \ rr i ^Rtrit: ii^ii 

n>tt II ^: flRfti ^"^^^^ 1^ f^H^^^TfR^ II ?>m * <aii«iK«M ^f^rrot^t^i'^^ftm ^ 
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#lTfl[^ T: II ^t^^to: I HiiH'iiUfK i f^TTtr^ ^pTSPfr Hrrini^ ^^f( ^ ^^tt: b ^- 
rm ^H ^ II m^^ «r ^t»n ^Tmr: ^Im i^ i ff^rgWn'n^ ifhn H^rolft « 

i[mi', ^^^if Tn^^ i|5 frwtt ^tit ^f^i^ ii tii 

n I f^5^ 1 4^^ I %it: I ^Rj: i n i ^^^ i ^i^j i ^fW: i 

Tt I W^l I ^^^ I T^^^ I 1T5 I ^rftt I ^fv\ I ^lf5T^ llbll 

'itmf^g^ ^^ra?iT^: i^fi^'TTtTtci; i ^i^ it wttT twt ^if^r^um wvnmf^ ^Wrftr 
^f^ TWT^ %fi^gTrf^%*i jpm it jtx^ ^mt^mr^ linirt ^nprr: 'j^^ ^^tjwt^ 

VlX^ffl II ^ 

^^t R I ^^ iTjf^^ ?f7T I ^i^ I ^: I i^^ I ^ih: I ^* I ^^:sf^: I 
^^ I ir^Tf I THrTft'gi I \^\: i rTrr^: I Tn4% i riH iiqii 

^'rf^ 5rr^ 5f%nft ^rrangf^aft grfiref '^wfWfTt ii 5i%^ ^lai^iT tirf^ ii ^^inrsr 
'^ '^ 1^ ^^\ i^Sf^ii ^^^ m^^T^ ^^^' I 

^ I rq I li^n: I ^ I fs^s^ I ^s^: i ^^pm: i 'nW i 
^: I iIT5F^ I ^ I ^1^ I ^^: I MT: I W i^s^ I ^5!^: I ^ I ff I f}ff: ^ 

% ^ fsPTTf ^ WT wf ^ ^fMt >iiTfT^n: »n»rn^ ^tt'tt^ H^^ ^F^T?n»( 
wftiTft nT^ TT^ ^fvt vTft^Tw: i ^ « w iT*t^ iirafSr «tir ^'^ »r5t ^rat^it \n: i 

H^i^^m I mitft ^ t^ t^m i ?raT *ji*i*i<!i i ^»^»*n^ ^a«r3i«il*isi gai^wtf^ i 
wim\ ^ ^f^wW? pt ^^^ ^^^ ^'it I 

f^ f^T^T 'Ttttfif ^ ^^kT9T4 fN^ ^ S^ 'S[i* »«>" 
^»IT I ^ I'^f^ I t? I f^ I ^S^^: I ^^S^ I ^^ I 

f^ I ff I «^ I nlstl-fH I 'jt I "tt^ I ^w^ I f^ I ^^ I ^ I ^: nil 

^^ ^gxi^ ^wit vn^ Min < fi<y % ?nr ?[f^ w "^^^r^ 'r^tm ^^y«n^iFi»»:i 
i'^w f^ '^ i <<^l<j jm 'T^ Tt^ vj ^: I ^ II 

^^TT^ ^^# g^'H ^:^!^ H^^ ^^^ ' 
^^ Tij^ jjfNRi^^^ f^^ ^^ ^f^ ^t: II ^ II 
^s^^M I gs^-# I gs^rlN I ^:s^ i v^ i T^^ i 
^%^ I ^^ I »3fts^t I ^pT>^ I f%^ I ^^ I Tf^ I ^: II^H 

gswHi'^s^ri I ^iw I ^^ I ^^ I ^S^U I I? > 

^S^^ I ^ I ^HUTfwS^l I ^17^4 I ^^ 1 1^ I Tf^ « ^' "^" 

^5^ |f»Wii?l '^''WjT^ f^'f^ ^ ^: 11811 
^jjif^s^ I f^s^ I ifki I ^s^ I ^^s^^ I ^^-^ I 

^S^ I ^^f^i 1 15 1 ^5^ I ^?W>4 I f^^"i ^ I <cf^ I q: 11811 

?im?T^ wa ng r««nq "l< %vTf^ 5^ ?nj^ mr* v^ vrm 5?^ ^irert 'tt 11 fuft?!: 

)T5^ f^^ ^^mw«l f^ji ^^ Tf^ ^: II mi 
^'^s^it 1 5f^5f I ^"ks^rf I ^ff^^S I -^fir^ I ^ 1 1? I 
H?s^fT I fMs^ I ^:sHt I ^TW«^ J f^^ I ^^ I ^li I ^: iimi 

Tram ^irmT%<^ xfv^ Tvim i\x^ ^: p(^7f ^fflnsf ^n^nm ijtN ipm 1 
inimMJMin(*i»fi{»i'^: 1 h^^ h^tito ^narrt: %^^: xj^ finrfH: ft^ft^^TT ^t% 

IT WH^^#7f gwt ^^ ^fT^ f^iniffT I 

^ ?nf»Rit ^^^M^iijs^*^ f%^ ^ Tf4 ^: II ^11 

IT I ^S^ I ^cTSlfl^ I ^SWlt I -^^fi I ^frf: I W^ I f^iTlfH I 

^' I mjmm I ^Tim I ^s^: I mR^ i fM i fW i Tf^ i ^: ii^ii 

^ »n *rfn: ^(?i^<»nm«i^t ^RrfH 1 vtjt ^^ 1 wrvMn '^rara^ g^vf iftJT'mtf 
!^^ lf^> »nr® ^Tfini 1 ^j 'gHji.iPK.^'tifir O^rnnfMtn i^ 'nrer 'm^irf^ t'TT^piH^r: 1 
'^'^- 1 W I 'nwnNtq*^ yMJtt<(«n*j: 1 ^XTpnn wi: 1 flit ^ m^K^^ jtw f^ pnt 

I^WT^ Jisfer ^^mkr wm^ fM ^;«W Tf^ ^: ii^ii 
^Ht'^Ff: I ?T*i I |rn^: I ti I TiVf^: 1 ^^tfw 1 ^SHift: 1 V^' « 
lf|s^^: I ^t^ I c i ^hI ht: I ^TO*^ I fM I ^ I ifti I ^: ii^ii 

<\\i^ II W%^: H [^«»b.^«^^«M. 

ir^ TiTfrt ^^ f!^ ^ ^^H ^^H ^^iMt I 

mf^ ir^^-^^fw^ ji^lriWw f^^ -^ xf^ ^: "til 

;qr(^l i^ I ^«nf^ I ^IS I rfrf^l ^: 1 1!| I Ifi^ i ^^ ' ^^^ ' ^^"^ • 
^fJ? I Wr(^l ^^T^f^ ^ I l^lm I ^^Wf I f^ I "f^ Kf^ I ^: llbll 
■^ f^ rTT ^ ^ ^tj<* < n !i ^rrf*r vr^rtf^ ii 'n^'ifnr^^: ii ^irr^m-R ti^ i ^ r ^. 

TItT tf^^rfirf^ f^^ I ^'^.^.i x^ ^f^ II 

Ti't ^§ fiTHt ^ ^?T^Sf ^'I^ f^ i+^f'T hN-5T mil 


^ g WsO "^ ''^''f^ i^ g^^^rrvTTTsr: ^f?i: ^T?ft iff i 'w^ ii H^^^t^ 'ram ^^ 
inft g^ I ^f^ ^g>irr^Trf*Tfg^^T^: i ^^i«<^*K*i: ii ^mf T^: • 'rann^^ " ^• 

WK^ I f*nn: i f^<TTf*w gm: i ^ err^ ^ ^r^^^rra »ft^R^ t^ »^^tTf^ i ^^"^ " 

^1 1 ^: IT^^' I ^^' « ^^^^: I f^TTnl i it: i ^_'T^ > ^"l* i ^^ ' 
^ I ^s«r: I tif^ I 'fJ^ I ^ I ^ 1 5^^ I f^^'T J 1^ « '^PI^^ ''^'' 

^I'^ M K^f fin^rmif: i 'Wn ^w# Trvjfq^iiijdWs^ ^sjttw ^rgft^fft qjif^ ^JL?t- 
firafiw^TT^i^grar^fiifr tj<i*nfti a ^qin. i^^T^f»!fr^f^«n^^n^i'«^^^^.i 
^rfi!ftif«r«iTgm^ I ^« «»8. M- ^- ^- 1 'T^ 'i^T IT r^wr^ I w <\. ^'^^^ *>^- ' J^ ^ , 

Ho«|o.^<»iJ.^«»{ib.] II ^^S^^: II c|^q 

H^ I i^ I ^ I ^^r!^l m^ I ^4 I I^T^: I W^TP^ I ^ I ^ I 
^-^ I ^f^ I ^^^S?:^ I ^^ 1 17t I ^*^rT I ^^ I'^'^rl I ^ II ^11 

jnr^ I wf^^ ?r^ ^^ 5*^%; tjt ^i^tm p^r«nf^^i!iT^ 1 jRfft 1 ''sji^TijJfTra^T 1 

?^Hrf i]3?^^5Ei tr^ ^f^ ^pi^?TT f^^w^ I 

^^ ^1¥I f^ fWfif ^T'7^ ^r^T ^1^ if^^ ^TRf^: II ii II 

^i I ^ I Ti^q I ^^ I ^ I T|^^ I w^ I ffTscpn I 

f5 1 ^^¥t I f?T I f^^jfi? I ^T'J^ I Tfi^l ^ I JRtTll^: I ^^5=1: 1 ^Wf^ 

'"'if^: ri^^ II 
^f^ ^ tf^i fl{r^ ^^rf q IJi^RS^ rT^ ^^ ^^ I 

^WFRqt ^^ TiT^TTr ^ ^ ^ ^t^: ^^ fi^Jw^ iim ii 

^ I ^: I ^ I Titt I %f^ I ^1 ^1^ I ^ I T^^ I ^^ I H^ 1 qi^ I ^^ I 
^ I ?ri;i in I ^5^: I ^T^ I ^^ I ^ I ^ I T^j I ^ I ft^^ II mi 

''W"' X^' I fwni ^w% i^ iHT^T^ ii^ '^ is^Tft »rR ?nt 1 Twf^ffr H^rf*? 1 
•^ 1 1(^1^ Jn ftirnnm 11 11 mi 
?I5^TiT?lT ^R f^5^ |S|T ^^'^^JT^^HfH't: II If II 

VOL. IV. " ~ ~ u~ 

^ I ^WTft I ^^' I ITSli I i^ I ^ I ^^ I ff^ I ^^T^rT I 
^S^^ilT^Ft I ^^ I f^T I ^^ I ^T I ^r^ I ^Ti^^^: I r|H%4: II ffii 

ifl^: ^r^ 155T i^rfn »4<i^»t"*ifi« twrrfxtr ^^TTrf*T «i<r(i!'*i i inqtif^ ii 
5^^ ^ tT^l^ nfH if^ ijft f^ ^ f^^ ^^sf^T: lIvSII 

^ff>^ I ??( I ij4 1 ^: I ^ft'T I f^T^m^l ^f^ I ^T I f^ I ^ ?fi+ 1 ^: I ^ff I 
^^1 q m^T^i Trfii I ff^ I »3fi(: I f^fi I *q I Of^ i tfj'^: i ^^: hsh 

^igry -ij-jV M frt ff^ I m *jT*(fVs(T <s(<Rffi t^TWRfT i^Ttfv^: ^n^ JnWsi; f^ N^ i 
^Tr4#TO ^ ^i ^it^l ini ^1 ^"^^ ^^^'^ II t II 

^i I »p3swi: I ^f^ST# I ?^ iitbI I ^ I ^s^ I f^^ I VK^ I 

^1 P^S 1 1 ^ I ^ I ^^S| I H I ^ I ^ I ^Sl^ I ^TT^lf^ II bll 

f*nqnM: f^igt trij'n f?^ f^ rrmv^ »rai t^ 'nafSn? «mv*id v^ iffrra h^ ^?^' 

n ^ -^ m^ ?^ ^% »|^^^^ wmi ^fT f%m I 

f^ ^w ^rfk^ iff^TiTf?i^^ ^M*j^ ^ Ii <iii 

u I ^ I ^ I ^n^: 1 1^ I # I ^1 T^if I ^^ I ^^n I ^^ I ft^ ' 

f^ I ^\ ^mi I ^S?%^ I Hf ^ I ^i!^l ?f^l ^5T I ^ I ^pF«2f I ^^ "^" 

^ fH»*rt^ «[^H 'i^wi: 1^^ ^1% ^€t ^: moil 

H I %Tlfw?i: I ^f^ " ^* ' ^ff • f "Tt^: I %^ I ^: I ^TOT I f^ I 

^: I fffTHS'i'f I ^ I ^^T^ I p: I iml I ^^ i"^: i ^rrftfi* ii"<io ii 

aVr ^ 1 1^ I ^ %*m>J^ jfrm jfmrf^f^iMT ^m ti ^ i v*l »T q % i mf «iHa r > f ?T i rmz^ i 

^ I Tii asnTi^j%?Tf^^^%i7r: 53^ ^ 1 ^am^ jfrtn: '^wbt^rs t^f;?n 'it'HTf^- 
i^ritf?T I wr^MiOf^ I ^t^ 'fNnsppftwR: 1 ^ %r^ fff^nr^^i gwfii^ ^gwii fid ^rth 11 

ff ??t Mi5T^ ^^^ Hir^iTkri^HTrejiTO^it;^ ii<i«iii 
^^«^r! i ^t I ^f|^T!it 1"^: I'l^nnif 1 5T I f^^rrftr i vj^ i 
^ 1 TIT I )qf5TTi I ^^ 1 HiTO: I ^nkrsftnf 1 ^rejit i ^mt^ in«iii 

1*<MI<dS«S|fWJ7t II II i, II 

^ ^a^i^si't ^TTTff ^ I ^ Tf^ff^'nn "^ I Qifl1^'<i i <»rf\ f^ijjft I fliBT 3r7ra^: 1 
^i^^ 'f I M ^i*i«nMi^ ^ II flpft^ iiTiM^i*) ^TR^Tt^ ^ I ff^ '^ I ^ «[t mm 
ftfti^ ^ ^ i^*^. 8. 1 ^ n 

^f ^ 1^ ^ ^^^ 5r^ ^m -m ^^^ i 

^f 4^ 'RTIT?!^ ^^it%T^^: ^T% f^p^fw-H^ mil 

^i t ^ I ^p!^ I ^ I ^ I ^ I W I Y^. ' "^ ' ^^'' ' 
^ ' f^ I W*<R^ I -^f^ I ^53r: I ^fW I f^*^in»<H I »^^ mil 

''^ STira I ^iftfiT I ^: ?Nffv 'fffH 7i4l v»( n«^*i. »T?i%^ ^ ^irWiwJ: 1 Tramf 
^^^^ »n^f^ ^!ij^^ ^"^f^ iK^ ^ I mifif I Wrntf^ij: 1 '»i«i8Kr*i«i'i: 1 1 

^^ f^ ^^KoT f^m ic^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ii^ii 

U 2 

'^ri I ^M ijji ^'T i"^^?!! I %: I '^ I ^:i ^ I ^t I ^ I ^rr^: i 

^i '^^iM ^tor ^v^ ^ ^ 5T ^^ 'Tm ^^ II ?H 

^i \ ^"^^ I TRf^HT I ^^: I ^ I 'FI I 'i: I d: I ^^ I ^Tt[ I ^% 11311 

g^ fin^ I JTrf^TiTPif^ I ^snrfti^^simT 1 f*^ git^fja i « en^Rw i fw i^ffl fir^vrf^: 1 
f (^ra ^laprg^ f^ ^: 1 '^'' «• '<%■ '^'?- 1 TWTf^ *i-^M<: i T^%rra 1 ^M i i^ ^urwfTj 
<.^u ! i«n < i«ii r*< '! t gfliMlrt<rl^<rd i ^mvS '^m^i\xi\M^*m^K*^ ^at^rar HsRidi 1 Trei i T«rr^- 
ig^: I ^v#?i ^ I TifTwra f*r5rfimiTRf^ 1 ^rft ^f^rr^^mw^fV 1 ■w^ttstt ^fflsii- 1 

HTflt 'TW I 'a^^iMTflflJt. I THrarg^ ^^ H^ ^T^tjqf^"^ 1 f^ I 1 ^^Plf^ I ^HiTI 'W^ 

■t < f< j{ ^ i <ft*l I "m" «i. ??• <)8- 1 ^^ f^t f^ T^^ ' ^^ ''• *'°?- '=• ' "^f^ ^TVT H'Jt^ I 
wti"^ ^^ffwTwrm f^^ II 

^^ I firm s i^ I %iTgr[ I ^fn^^ I ^ I fwt^ I ¥nis ^ i ^ i praj 

^f I ^ I ^iillTH^ I TTlf^t I IT I ^1 i^"^ I l^R I ^ I fipiT I ^S^"^ lllill 

TT^TTiJ ^ I 'w^ I ^^ TfTt T^: I ^ 9 a<«it i^ e> 1 T^^ ft^ 7i# ^rsmr'n^n^"^ ^^ 

^^ %^ H^RT'Ss^T^ H^^ il^filTltM^ II Mil 

^f I hm'\ ^ I ^fT^ r ^1 w I ^5r^ i ^^it i ^ i W^^^ 
^i I %^^ iir^ I wi^^ I ^^ 1 ^f I ^^^ I ^s»if>4 1 ^^ "^" 

^f I ^: I ^: I ^ s-^T^ I ^frf^st^ I ^ I ^si^ I <rel I ^^Sf T I ^^ I 
mi\ ^^rT I ipr4w I ^^^^1 ^ I Tm:K5|^: i ^^t^^ ii^ii 

1?^ ^T^ I 'vi wmsRT^ II ^ jr*r II ^ina^ i?^ ^»>5?rpi wn^ v^m^ nfr?^ ^j^ 

^^\ w% TTg^ ^i "firf^^^in^ ^m ^ ^: iisii 

^1 1 ^^ I T^fl: I ^Tftr I ^^sf»+: I n I T?iT^: i ^^h: i mm\ \ 

^1 Tn I ^^: I fl^^: I ^^ I % sf?ri I ^v^i ^ I ^T^ I ^ 1 5*^: II s II 

W 1^ I '?iT5^'\w'J: I f^n^^ I fiffitlr I f^TfiJfSifii i«?xr»rm i ^tm^hi ^Iw i j : i <!^' 
■s?^ ^m I f 7iaifJT(ipJ: I ^TO^^f^?rrt ^ itr^frerq^^vi^ i a v!) a!On < i ^Bvf»r- 

<351lj 5?RRf II 

^f ^^fT ^^ 5t|?p in^^^ Tsj^m ^^^ ^% I 

^1 ^^^ ^t^T ^^^t 5T^ ^TliffT 'fWfiT ^ ^^^ lib II 

^i I ^S|T I ^^^: I 5I^:s?r: i h i ^'^"^ i ^^JRi i ^^ I ^ \ 

^i \f^\WEi\ ^T I e^: I ^t I ^^ I ^^w: 1 57^rt I ^ I ^^^ II trii 

^f ^nrawrasT^ ^ irf5n tt wm i ^ ^irgr: ti^ 'srn^: i ^^ °t- i^a- ^- 1 w* • 

^ irram I ^«wf^ii^H^i>l*i ^rrt^fT'O^^ i ?P^ ^tot ^ ^ h^: jr^gRT^fiiai^: i 
^TfJTiq "^TW^tTnt ^r^rr ^%^ ^ ^t^ ^ i ^^^ ii q i^i ^ ^f ^ a^^ ^^l fd |x?f i 

^T^ ^^*nwr: I w^^ I ipTf 1 3i«rni^fflarS: n 

^^»i€% f^ fTiT:Tft? p^MT f^ ^ HT^^ II eil 

^^1^1 ^: I WT^ I ^"i #rN: I Tjfw I hIu: I ^ i 

^i I w^f^ I fe| I ^qfn I ^s^: I ^^T I f^ 1 51^% I »n^ I |T?^ nan 

^1 w^ MTO ^^ ^ ^^^^ rm^5^^5iT^i 

^ I Wi) wg I VJK^ I ^i^i ^ I ir i"!;^: i ^ i R^ i ^T^i ^i 

Fqt I n^ I ^v: sg I -^^iirf^ I ^ miif : I TTV I '^i^ I #ti=r I ws W inoii 

"vi drt<l*i3 tm ^ng afrg vtt^ i ^?rTP»t^ ii ^^ ^rrrt i wfrei ^rf^ ^^ « w^v ^ 
jj^ ^^'i*! 'jrer ^•ifJi'sMl ^^ ^ ^^ »» M*iiyi<,*j*i, v^ Tnr^ftti. i «*^?^ q^<vT \«<n<f ?t 
%f^ ^r^ I ^u^ WT^ ^^«n«i I "^g H^iKMfTT ^3^81^ I iTng^:g ^intTftg ttt '^^^t>i^m- 
n^^ I f*^ ^^^^ ^wsn^ I f^'n^THi; i ^JTf^nfWng T^g vr<.<iTJHl«gv«j^ i i^^^nr^ir- 
<jiNrt«i-n<^ I ^ JTvYTt^s^fM^: I s iiJ nn 4 < ) ^tm t)M^fln<a>>j: i -mtj^ »r^¥?» ^t^^ i Traj i 
4iHn< f7t f^TTTR I f^irWn^ I ^T^ I ^OTarfJHgw^ wrsf^ \ ^vrat 'prr^ sff^ tot 

f^^wr W ^fr^: ^(T^sl^ i^xj^: ^^^ ^^iiifTT in<^ii 

f^ I ?r|^i m I ^ I fft^^* ' ^^^^- ' ^^^ ' W^^' ' ^s^: I »p!rfH in<iii 

anRifw I fH«iH4<i-«n: inrr: tt ^\^ ^nfNHr^ iV^J* $. ?. q. 8. iTt^ sr^nii i f^warair^" 
'Tsrr? I "^l^-i ^^<)i ^Ir^ i ^^^u t^: i irem ^^Hrrn, ^tWTTvr: ^mniR: i 'wei im%wr?il 

Tf^ 1 7T!Tf^rj%^ I n?ft i ^Wr I ^[fNff^lt I TT^ ^T^pirm I JT ipr »ft HF f?[«r'Twr3N^ 
j^ifimrfwrf^fn n irrra^ f*r%^^ ipn^ W^tN i ff^ "^ i u 'ft li^ ?t^»rprnii^ ^ 

tMftTR l^«^* M- ?. <^- 1 TfTf « 

^^ ^ ^tN ^ 1=rf| ^rH ^^ ^ ^# wM* tl *i H 


it f^ H^ T^i ^?f: *|ri'yJ)K< ^ Tn^^ ^"^ i 

^^^ ^ ^t^^l «f^ ^^ ^^-^fn '35 7T^ II ^11 

«: I f^; I ^ I «i?rt I qH: I ^: I ^: I ^^r^; i ^^r i Tns^^ i ?t^ i 

f^^ I y : Sg I ^^Sfwlg I ^51T^ I ^ RT I Wt^Sg I ^m ^ IIT^ IRII 

;fr fw ^ ^f^: ?ngn ?rf^r|^ f»rf»T%«i ^ g»9^ ff?T ^: ^rf^rar: ^: ^T%?r: i 
?refT ^ (fn t:^: i »n^ *<<««im«« »n[: ^^^i '#«i: i 35^:3^: qnk: 1 q R^ << ! ?!*< vr^: 1 

% ^ it ?? ^ ft ?^ ^ W ^1^ ^iI/qAfTl^T^ I 

% \ ■^mkl^^k f^f^ % ^ ^T^^ii^ ff;^ II 9 II 

% I ^ I ?Tt: I ts I ^ I ^ I f^ I ^ I ^ I ^ I ^S^seI I ^^^F^; I 

% I ^ I ^5lh I ^^k I fff^ 1^ I W[S^ I ^EETT^ I ^li^ I ff^ ii^ii 

^fi^^ I ^^k»Tg fig v^ ^ ^ ^nn» % ^ »tfTgnn ^ 1 f^i^^ % < i e i i^4 i «) i ^<^'iifq % }^^i 
^vWiiTrr^ qr^TR ^^ro fff^^ I'&r^ ^Vrfl[ ?m: 1^ ^'^ ^rg ^"^fsi^^^ilTTg 
^f^^t^nsng ^^ ^t% 5^ %fn ^ f^im^j^ fft: "^r^l^tg^?! 1 ^siiff^vn ift^ \^ 

'"ft^TO ^^^ I ^0 jj. qq , ^ 1^ ^^ J T^ ^:*m^^ f%^f^ ^i^*i<^1<ii I ^ '? I 

^^^^^ ^^T ^|pg% f^l «^^ ^f^4: I 

^ ^^i!7t f^'^lwi^ #^ #^ f^^^^ 11 8 II 

^^* I "^ 1 1? I ^^ I '^^T^ I ^i' I f^^ I «^^1 1 ^g^: I 

^^* I ^ I ^^: I f<4^rw >t I i^l^ I ^: I ^ I »H: I ^'^s^t^ ii^ii 

J^^^a^TT^: « TTOT f^ ^ ««|i»g ^ifinft ^re55l[ ^: 1 "Ww: 1 mr t%^f^p«x; ?JTn% 

^^'i ^ I ^1 5m^t^ I ^^s^^: I wi(\\ I ^rHt I ^^: I f^j I 

g ^mn rr^ giiffn Ti^inft f^ ^qrf*< w i <\r« t T^'trrafw x^^T^Tinn^rwT^: i%» ?. s^. i 

w^^'. II ^TRT I ■'^ isiTf^ 1 ^iiiTf^ ^MHirtj^: I wi^ ^a^TT^n: II ^*^_^^^^^- 

^^piTt^ ^m gj^TfT sra I ^ftft II w^ I ^^ f^rf^ ^?^^n fl[^^^»n^: ii 

wm f^^T ^^^ H^W ^% ^^ ^^ ^1^ 'ITf'^ ^^ I 
^^^ ^ ^^ ^"w^t ^^ »t^ ^^^W ^^: llffll 
W ifW I^W I H1|^T l^l^^l^^\fiT I ^f^: I qift^ I^V^I 
nxirf I ^ I T?H I VTi^ i"w7lti ^^: I '7^: i ^^ i ^flS^cT i ^: ii!,ii 
% t^ Ti^Tf^ t^^ ^n^ H^Tftsr ^'nff ggm gr^rfi ?f^ i ^ftft i nm^^ '«t'^?« 

fipWT^ ^f^ ^^ «^<frfH ^: II 

n ^ ^^m ^^m TT^T >5^< ^rT^ it«iw^^: ii^ii 

^ I ^ I f^ra I ^Sff!: 1 5|H I ^^t I ^^ I ^ I ^^'T: I ^ I ^1^^ I 
I? I ^ I gi^ r^'i^T ITT^ I ^^ I Tf^l ^rf^ I ^«r^ I ^^^' "^" 

^^img?t ^Tf^it 'Rj^ v^T^ ^^-^^ r^w^i^rw^i y^^^v^ ^'n^ r^^ 

^T^ VMJTtH^nmwnT'nN I ^i^imr;: ^^sm g'a^ m«ni »ni^ ^m ^r^T^fiir i ^ 
ai^si^: I n gn^i Tf^ I ^sir^^pmi ^t^ H^^miin*: i ^pt ^^ i g?reiTf>Tg?ref «t«. 

^"HHt ^ m i fM^Mj^Kt i Hia^ M i Hri »ftHt ^»^ l^nm- mT^rnA i ^ ^^^J^'-^^^ 

p(^ TTO I ^ ^^ ^vm im»r »mt%f7T i^^^tro i ^^ftm^g ^tt ^< i < i ifM^rM : i 
fganflc I n« «• !?. $. ^. II cTTRnn ^tt '^f^mry: 11 

^: I ITT I ^^ I ^w, I ^: 1^^: I ^: I -^ I iT^: I ^m I Trft^s^a^TS!?!?!^! 

T^#r^ I Tj^ tfrxTTOf^^ f^^ 1 ^ »n iTt ^ 1 ^^rr^ 1 ?i ^: qirm: ^> ^ 

^^^ 1 j^ I ^MT I ws%^: I nsf^^ I ^ I ^s^ I ^r^tg I 

H I i^ I ^T?: r^f^%rf^l f^>^ ^ f^^SHT^ I ^S^^iT^^rl^l 
^StHhR II? II 

^^wftRT ^ ^ '^ffii 5^ I \ wm'%^ wmman^ m (sm-^^^i^ 1 ^?t «^ 1 w^- 

?W[^?i^r?fr 9ftw ifM< i !Mif4« i i<j^<n Irr ^?inj ^v^> ^^T^ra: mR ii! aO<.f* < R < 3[?i 

VOL. IV. - ' ' X ' 

cT^ % w^ ^|\n "firN^ im^^_ ^ N^rTTf^f^: ii ^ ii 

if^ I ^ I w^: I ^m I f^rsN^T: i ^ i ^^ i ^ i f^%H i ^f i ^: h^h 

xjff ^J'^^^^^sJ'^IhI st^RiT H'tfir '^^ I 
^in^: ^^'^:^5=ip^ faiTfH ^?Ri3mt?r: iimi 
^1^1^^: I'l^S^: I ^S^: i ^Sfsl I HTi^ i ^ i ^^ i 

^SHT^ I ^^: I ^5^ I "^"s^TflH ' ^ I l^f^ • ^SJ^^T^Tlk: II q || 

m ^c«*j<< ^ Msf* < ^ ^ «i!i«<) i * < ^ H^fn I ^m Tiff I f^ j^ ^r«nrnfft H^cf^fTf %fT: '3^ i ^?ot 

^ft I f^^ff^ 1 1 "SB^ ^SSTTTW '^ l^ iJMK^^ I 'MfH ^4«im i T^tH TrP^ »n*Pl. ^TPS^jlf I 

f^ n aft ff«i«ii<i!!*i^^ I fvf^»i<«n<%rtiH(«i^: ii #»nBrT ^ ^mf^xf^^^mn: g«?m »t^ i 

^: I ^ I ^jitht: i ^ i ^ i ^'ftsi^ I w^f^ I ^^ I w I ?^^^ftf?ii 

ijwifli ft^i I ^^ I ^t I wN I »^: I f I ^^: i ^f^_ i ^^nit: ii^"' 

^^nirrrf^: t ci MHm' i r*<(*<*Hti i ^ i ^ ^: 'si^^r ^ i?%?tmT *rnrct jjxif7r^«pn^fH?"^ 

^ ^a^i<<n g^ I ^nr^ ^<*nrtj» H Hm<»<3i f^irf: i T,^T«iiv«nrM tj^^ ^mr T^ft f^ ^'^'^ 
MM< «i'iii f^ fm: I < i <tii-« i <« i iirfl<< i »ftwT \ w^m ft ^inrra i f*^ ^^tftl^y^ 

^^ ^^j^^ 1^^ W ^# 5|Ih^^ ^ ft^: I 

f^: I ^ I mi' \ ^^ I ^1 ^ I ^^ I ^: I WS%^: I '^ « ^'^^ ' 
^ I ^fT% I gs^iT^'iH: I nm ("^nf: I ff^^: i gs^nw ii'9« 

fls^Fi; I "^ I ^g s^^n^ I "? I ^^H'T I ^^ I ff^M ^ » >iFf I 

(T^ I flS^T^n: I ^^5^n^: i ^ i ^^jf^ i ^^h: i |Wj i ^5 1 ^Fn: 1 
t{i I ^^ I ^g: I ^ I w^i «^: I g4 1 'prm 1 ^sf^: 1 ^: ii<iii 

^5m"t ?t^ jtrt: ^ I ^ ^ '^ra ^^npj ?nn^ 1 rm nf^: tobt ^^it^ti^ fJ^r^ 
iw 1 ^n Ttff ff«r^ ^: 11 11 «»<) 11 


W "^^t: ^^j* iq ^5 ItrTf ^wt 'T^t 'rfSa^^ 1 
^^^ ^m'^ W ^ ^ ^T f^m ^ ^fff'T mil 

^'^' 15 ' >=ipiS^I Wl ^: I ^ 1 TT^ I f^ I ^ I ^: I ^ltr?T ii«»li 

W(^ an^mrW 1 % f^ ^: ^ it ^ tu^ i ^f^irrt ^ 1 ^' ^^^^ '^'•"*"' 
^^ «^ 1^ ftg^ ^if *nf% ^Ptf*r Tinr: i 'im^nftrw ^fttw n^m^ro^ i % *w 
"T"^ u |7Ti ?WT ^ ^ »n»i ^l^mrr. wkt nm^if ^^^'^'^^ V^^ ^f^ 

X 2 

^^?Tl^'7T«t^ ^ ^T ^ftr^^fir 5HT^frT^T II ^ II 

^f I ttrrf I fifi ^'K f 'nff^n^ i f^^ i "^^: i 't^?*: i 'h \ f^rfir i 

^: S^f : I ^f^^ I ^«^^^ RT I ^ I ^S^l >T^flT I «T I ^S^fw: RT IRil 

gi tiH 4 11*1 : ^TffTO^if ft^ Mx»fS\<( I f*m^>jftr i f*m^ k t*iw f^ ^ttft »nnf^ ^ 
^«ifn I ^ T ^f H ff^^^-n^ I % ^»t^^ 'ft g^ratTTt^^^^TRin : Trf^»T **<?<*ir*<f7i ^: i ^iiv(^ 

^?^^ ?^Tf^T^TW^t 1^ ^w: %^ji ii ? ii 

^^ r: I itwt I % I ^ ?fH I ^: I ^TT^ I ^ I ^ft" I ^1 1 ^r(;i HS^^ffit i|^: I 

^:s^: I irp^ I ^RlfHSiRtfti I ^^ I 1"^t: I '^^ I f^s^l ii ?ii 

^i^i fW ^ fas: I 5R^ H^rT I ^■^sit H^fTT I n^ ^ an^nr t^' i TT^t^rrg^ i 

^W^n^^ ^: ^i^RTfiT xjxtinTi fk^ m{w^ 11811 

TTt 1"^^: I ^Rit I l^qs^t I ^ST<^ I -^1 1 ^^^ I w I 

^ftr: I f%n^ I ^^ I ^: I ^^jfw I ^-^smii I f^s^ I ^swg iiiJ" 

M "^IT^wftri^ V^TIW f^'^Tt TjH^T ^WTfH IIMH 

^ I ^: I ^ I ^?»^Si^ I ^5-^ I imt I ^: 1^^: \ 'stfk^: \ ^^tji i 
^|^:i^l|^l WI^IOTJ if^: ITJrJ^TTU^rqTffTimil 

^ vrf'n'ftw^: I "v^i ^n\m f^^: ?r^: g^prr: T^^m ^Pufri i k^ i grag tt u 

#^ I ^t: I ^^!^ I ^t : I ^ I ^nrt^i ?^i ft wit I f^T I ^^^ 11 1, II 

^ft: I Tig Jfsr^m^iT ■^rH»f^1^m stJiaj: i -^re^ft fwr^ f^^: i Tim mg?irf H i trgfli^T 
^Jiaftf5^T^fiif?T I r»ia*i3i II i<t: fiitW^^: ii 

« ^ -iI^l^rTtrTT ^iff^jf^ f^ ^miji\^> ^if ^^ 1^11 

^ I ^^H m^^T 1 5R : I ^ I ^ I ^npc Rgpf I f%IT7|; I T^t^ : I f^f^T?^ I 
^* "!' • ^^I'l'^SiTirlT I ^^^F[ I f^ I f? I ««^l ^t:: I ^^: I ^TWrl^ll <i II 

'^^ ij^rat^r^ig %?rrfJTf7r ^^: i ^jn: ^n, i ^^' ^v^r ^i^^n^ ^^t^ ^ ?r^ ^^srr^ 
""^if^i^rat ^%w g*n^ ^ I yf^ ^rftw trgrtt ^ ^im^ ii 

^^Tf ^g^l'-rT Vt I^TlfT t^ ^^^ II ^11 

^^^ I ItrTt I ikz^i I ^^T^ I ^f>l I H^Tffl I f Sfiicnfif I ff I ^«Tri;i 

'^t?^ I ^rfg^ I fr* I "^T^i: I ^f^ 1 1^ I m^ II ^ II 

'^'^f'^f^ffr'n f^*<ni'M i <^1 <i'inii i '«|fl*<^ ^rm^ %^ m^^tTTjtv i t^i^ I 

fTT ^fhnrr^T ^nmR% ti^^stt^ ^[fwnsft ^rrn, «|5>dbi*i?i xf^ firf*i ?t^: h 

fN?t ^ I n^ TT^: irero Jw^^tir ^Rvra 1 'w <i. ^ n^ 11 
V rT^ ^^: l^JT ?i;Rt^ ^^T^ ^fvi "1^ ^m\^ I 
^^ ^iT ^tf%^^: mM 5RT ttt4 ft'i ^«^ IliJil 

^S^J^: I ^ I ^^^* I ^"^ J ^' I ^ I ij"^ 1 1^^ nil II 

^^81^ I ^T^ ^ ^rar^ '37!Tfxi '^ <<rtj*jt«> ^TTrrfr % ^ ^mr |q«i<it4i<«(: ^ im iH 

^'^ ^ T^Tt ft'r ^m ntiffrn ^ ^ ^f^«: 1 
Tjf^^ ^: tnf^4irM|H4«tsTTf^ f^c^^n^ nmi 

jfm^ TTst M<<si i fj^^ni'3 ^ I ^^rc^ nT^im i7«n^: 1 m^xr ^ 'aft 1 ^mrft ^ ^ ^rf^B^ 
^rnrnqrg i x^nj 1 fl*>iflr^ n »iflr<,^^^fl i f<«»in^iflM i <(i | fi ; MiM«iy T»ii 4<ii i «» Tq « » "i? " 

flo c,o. ^0 ^. ^^ M?.] 11 ^8re^ST«: 11 


OTKT mmt^n i ^m ^ i *n^M«i^ftr^fliy.^«viT<:t f^iftg Tn^Rmt m^prf^ iw 
;;.^.i ff n II nffyra» ^g T ftiwi»>t^i^ ; «i i^ Mrtinj^«n<i<rnJt ir ^^H^mT'^Tix:^igt^ 
g I jnt'««iigq*riii<ri lfl<. »t twvi ^1(^qiv» ^i -^ ^ngrmi: i^»f <\o.\ f^ II ^nf^mr^iOwT 
vmr I if^ "^ I ^ «•<(<) ai¥t »iT»pTf^^ »T t^ »re^ f%T^ i ^* m- ^o. i ^ n 

TftiT?[TTT ^»rs^ Tif^^ai^: i f% siftfTmTi: irarimt 'nref ^ tHtwf^T'j, 'V'lTr ssfrtlr- 
'Jiift ^fH^nr: ^JTigf q^ JrrJtr^^^n'n^ t^ i qra^ i «ifl?in^n^ i ftrar ^^istt wTiTn 
?lmf^Tn: I f*^ ^-ff^mfjpt ^1^<m*m: i ^^?»cm: i Iwf^ ^m ^T«p^xpHt7rft* 
1^ I ^frg I ^^ Tsr ^^ ftrsi^ ti^^t ^nfTf: i%» ^^ ^. 8. ^.^. i ft^ f? m?n!f i ^ ^ 
v^^ I »i?T^> «^ I ^ H^w^: I t*^ ^ 3R ^^ gt'ra I H(m^ ^ i ^'frrfwnnwct 
ff^sr^: II 

^y»fl4iM''jmw^H I ^wi I ^v\^ T% I '3'nft ^ ^ipn '^ra^v'nnrrrf^i^irerM i f^^^n \ 
^^ ^^ II ^i ^ T ^ ^lM ^^ i^: H 'amft ^ fi^ ii ftif ^ra^ y vm^f^^^ai^: i '^rer- 
^ I ^t ^rrf^f'Prre^T't i ^a*i«sr**i^T^?i x^ ^4«sify*mfinT: ^rf?ft ^w^ i ^^r^'' 

^^ 5rn^ ^ ^sg^: f^^TT^^^HTfil "Wmbi II t II 

^"^'Ks^Fi^ I f^_ \ ^ I -^ I ^it.1 fir^ I w I HI? I ^^: 1 
^^ I ^ITO I ^ I ^^^ I ^i^T: I ^T^ R^ I ^1 H^ I ^_"P^ 1 ^n^ II t II 

^Tsrsft: II m i^ t i J i ^i^ i ^j^-n O ^^ i N g^ i ' ^n^n i twt wm ir m^ i nt » i <l4igm«fl i % ^r^rr^ 

i^t I Tipi: I %rf;i ^^ I ^xi: s iin: I f^i^i xn^ •I'^SXTRif^ I "s^sim I 
f^^ I ^ I ^r^ I gs^^ I %^ I I'^Trf^i TT^W' I ^^^: I ^: ii^ii 

f^lt^: ^^T Jj^f^ ^^ ^^ '^^'it ^njHr^flM^: ll«|0|| 
^h: I ^ I ^^: I H I f^^^W I ^T^ir»i: I "^ifA: I ^Trk i TT^^ I 
f^^^: I trcjT I Jjirtf^i I ^R#^ I ^^ 1*^1^: i ^^jiTSi^ i ^ipT^: iisoii 

rw I iit^ I ?a^^: I ^m I ^irafH I ^xft'^iri I j^^m i ^jt i ik^ i 

_ _ _ _ — - 

?r »?^ffr an? ^Trrar ^W^ ttt^ '^^ ^^mn aft: 'fNfvf^ '^tm wr*i«i*<f^: > ^n^" 

fff^^ ^v^ T^ II H*^^ <ai<n*a ff7ft«r ^^ nrfR^ i ^^ ' ' ''i?^ 3^"*" 

5 % ^Wf w Jiff fsT i^'g-'Qi Tf?J n »!im^ t^i%^^ tpr^ i ^m ^ i ?ri g % ij^m 
jm^pirffwr ^ TfTf^ 'Mr i ^» ^<> m. i. ^. n;f7T ii 



SK^: I TTm ?[re ^qii itiM^c <<«(^n,*<^i<*<ird<.: i 3pmni: i ^^njTR^^^T l^r^t x:^m^ ^^^- 
ijnr^tjfPfit xj^^: Tfn v^ f*^ «qwr n^ uwr^ ^rst ^j i^i^qr^ *^a[<!^*^r^ ^: irnr^: i m 

i?RreT ^ mf^ ^«Mr|^[?i tj^ ;t^ ^it f^^«% ii ^ ii 

v^\ wii: I if^ I ^[^qpr: I ^Tytf^T 1 15 1 iisf ^m: I 5r^ I 


^ yj f*^ 'nf^ g^Tf^ »i:jRm«n»i#: ^ gxjf^ ^b^: rnj^rftf m^ i gw i:ffr '?ir? i 
^ ^ ^ i TrffTT^: HTl^Wr^ ^^^Srtwg: I 

^ I ^ ^fii I ^ I ^ I T^7{', I ^H^ I ^^r!^i ^ I ^^: , ^flf I ^^: I 
^1 THiTt I ^ I fW I "^ I ?n^ I ^?I^^: I rf#: I ^^: ii^ii 

^ '-v^l^^^^ '"^ tf ^ I ^nfr 'i <i < ii ar q'Hi R i ( >H'i ? : i % ^ ^ift ¥Ni ^i ^rm^si: 
•^1 mf^ f^^% f^ ^h: qjiltft! ?TtR^^ II ^11 

'!'^ I ^ I ^^^ I ^T»t 1 5ST^«nf^ I i?f|^ I ^ff I 

'^ ' ^ I mf^ I f^T^^ I f^ I ^: I ^^^ I H^s^i ^^ ii^ii 

VOL. IV, ~ " Y 

^f^ ^ (i t<i^rt)ir< a H rdMi r^ d ifM Trf^ tw Tmmf^r » iO<,ir tu ^^ 'b^ ?t th^ 

FT I "fW I ^f^^ I %^ cyrfH I inf^ i ^f^: i ^ i ^ i ^^t i '^^ i 

%t?^t^raT^^lTftr '*li< ^ ^i'«^m*<*' i ^K'mrii ^t^ >iHTf^ ^^fM^ i ^nr^iffir i f^rgr^ 
^ f^^ 'l^fit^ 'l'^ 1^^^ ^^^T^lf^ llffll 

Tj: I ^Tit^i 5^fHft I 5qtf^: I ^h: i ^: i ^^;3n!;i t^^ \ ^ i J^fjii 
^ I fir^ I '^^ I i^ I 'T^ I ^^SfrT: I ^if!;s4«tvii4^i ^^_ \\%\\ 

^w»^: TjMV gTwfl% m^: ^^'^^rraf^f^^^: mil 

^ I cHl^l 5TTTt I rj^ i'tTT^: I ^ I i^T I >^ ^fH I ^T^HT I ^:SV I 

inn* irOt qn%: M< i ^<^4JtiS ): i ^rg^rnurf^ng^: i ^m jr^M«il*<*<M «iippf ^rfr: i:m W^ 

|T^ T^^ TfTf ^: I ''^'^ ^ ^ '^^ «ii^iar«(=»n »fm «7ft ^^fs^ ^^«i^"'IT^ 

jm 5qf! 5^^^^ fvn fiwi: ^irtf^nfm ^^ irii 

iTfi^l fT7!:i 'TT'i I 'Jlf I ^S^l ^ I ^ I ^: I ^ I )1«4 1 
TTwi 1 5jm 1 55^fiT: I ^7(^1 ^ I fvn I fir^: i h i ^rfrsyH i t?^ irii 

^ t^ ^ ^W iftq'ft^mttTfTirm H^lf^^irfiTfait^: <^);t(n««< | .<i i m i (i | iii ^jn ^ftt 
^Tci; I ^fPBTTrrarar^ M<.*H<<>M^Mi-|<i*<ctii(««ii grTjrq^ i ^)i<tin( i fli i ^ritfi i f<<i<i : 1 1w^ vr^ 
i f)«4<ni iT! ^^ I ^ ^^ Tfii ^: I »ft»(^it jftH i,fci<i^«»^a4< a^ iii T I P i m<M^4< i qiS T <t ^: 

^^jfefrTT ^^T f^ ^ H^^ iqtfrim f^5T II ^11 

^ I d^^ ?fi+ 1 ^^'imi^l ^ I ^ I T!^ I xt^ I^^JT^ I ^gS^: m^S^TH I 

^g:sf^^m I ^^ I ^ I ^ I iHS^i!! I wt^^} I f^s^^ ii ^ ii 

^spEifiT^ ^idfl^Ji ?iT^ ^^rer TT tr^9^ ^TRT^fw^rRT ^i^iprni i T<^ i ^stTrrti? ^ 
^ ^^*<;l«jrmy<<i<i*ni\i«*in. h^ ^ iHTn ftr^iwr ^^wrarrfn Tnerrf^r ^ ?iTf»T ^ 

^^^ w^: TT^T f^^rm^fT^ ^ T|^ ^ I 

11 ^iftfi^H^t "qt^T ^I'^fsn ^l^i^^ II 8 11 

H^ 1?' « ^Ni: I iT^m I f^smn! i ^ni^R: i ^ i ^^ i ^ i 

^\ % I ^TfirSr^ I ^^t I tltWT: I H^ft^l ^^' I ^Si^ I IJ'^ II 8 II 

•••^-i- urn II 

Y 2 

f^^ ^psi ^^^ "^T ^^^ ^^ xi%Ht 4mT I 

1^ xfVtS ^tFCr TTfii^l^T H^ ^ ^: ^^'T II M II 
f^S^ I ^^ I ^^^ I "^I^TT I ^^^ I ^rT I trfT^W: I ^HR I 

"|or^ I im I ^^ I ^ff sm I ^^ I 'Wit I ^: I ^: I ^ I ^IR ii mi 

^nrsrr ^rrwnJT'SR t^: ^;^ i fn^ f^nrnnt ^r^ girr^: ^i^ i f^Ti?f ^vrfn: 'vfM: i 
rrm ?t^ I •«i*i«m*i: irmpf i +««(»i«t*nM!^ wi^ ^^^^ ^nwf ^;sm jr^ if^i^^n 

f^ra^ I 'ET w ^K^' 'WPf I ^m^g^aTl I « i*'^' *< i^"l «i4<i«»<i1«i«l: i "^ '^mfK Twrf^r w^t- 
wmrf^ II in$ « 

^T^5TT ^% ^To: ^T§ ^ ^ H^: 'JTt: ^R'fte: i 

^f^^ W'rf^^ ^ -^ ^t^fT i^TT ^Wt II ^11 

^T^^T I ^^: I "mw \ gs^: I ^ I ^: I ^M 'jt: I wm,\ ^^: i 

^7(^1 W»?f I ^Rl I ??i;i FTrl^l ^ I ^^ I ^ I Fni| I ^ I ^t I ^?n ^rrt II |ll 

i iT'^ ^ 'ir I n^ TfrasT I !n<w«n ^%T TTT^: "sm-' ii ^ ^n^ t <j<i*^^ ?nf ^ iptf x.^' i 

^rf^TT t«?ig l j^ il WTTrfH ?! rfJ «t f* < cC ?rw^4 T g »ft^ 31^ »T^ I ^ ^ ^^^J ^ %aT 

^ ^^T!j: f^iqTlkl^ H^ 4^^<^^<^Wh "I^: II>9II 

^ I ^: I ^ I ^5^ I ^^n^ \ ^: I W^r^i l[^Sfwri^ I f^ I 

^ I ^T!j: I nh^Hi*U<^ I 'TfT I W^S^ I ^S^^iHh I "^' H«» 

t^ HfH^f^: €? fCTgrrf^ ^^^nfxir 5reiTf^ ^m^ ^ i '^ii^ "^[^S?' '^ 

f^W-piT I BT^qqi K^g ail < K <ftW I|-4: ^"R I W^ fSTHT I *<*lWIIU]l4jMs(q»l*i''i^*l* ' "^ 

^'gxirei ^ i ^ r «i i 4ja^44^fla»*l f fgH< i » »qi 4 Hrtj<«ir*i!T '3'yiT ^cto* ^ra^ tlt^? ^ 
^R^^: II 

tfti^ ^Iri^ % ^ ^?r: '^i^ f»T|M7^?;^ lit" 

^ Tj^ Tft?n f^ ^^ST^urw jrW ftw ?>«t^ ^hS^tpi: ^35: ^ g^rg^ ufRJU ^ 
1^1 ^ I ^iii I TTi:: I ^ ^ I ^ I ^^ I ^^?I I l^frf^ I ^ I f^H I 

^s^i^ I iT^: I ^: I ^v I to: i^^ \ ^ \ ^^ inn 

^«(«ii#M ^^rer Tfrrann ^ t^n^ 1 ^35^Taj%»'n^mm%Tn«nftT^^T3(tj^ 1 <wtif 
^i^ ^f?E^ ^if ^ WWT ^f^^f^^tft ^t^rrani: f^H^ifr gut: 1 ci^^i^: w^ 

^^T^ vj^ ^Ti^ ^?t^ ^«i% I ^TPft ^TH^T't ^rf*N ^??^ Tfii ff ^; II 
H^ ^ftpiT^'^ ^^ '^^W^^ IITW ^ g4 I 
^i^ TTft ^wN ^<5iTr<=n'^ l^fff: ^^RT llRfll^: IRII 
«T^ I ^ I ^ITi^ I lf4 I Mrft I ^^T I W9T«i I ^^ I ^11 1 g*^ I 
^?f : I Hi: I u^Toti 1%^^ \ ty^si^ I ^fH: 1 ^ I ^ 1 fwft^: 11 ^ 11 
^ ^Tf%t7Tm»ra g^ 1^ 7m <i5^ T[f^ 'ra^ ^tirH vj^jm^ ^f^ijM ?f^ 1 ^«^Kft 

'^''i''^ vrg I ^vTJj m^ ^ g^ gwf vxg I ^vrg 1 'bt wn|fftii^'rfTm: ^ mt Tfit 

^ I ^ I ^^^H I gsM: I ff^ir: i ^btH i ff^rr: i f%^ i »it: i 
^H :\ifM\ wm \ ^^ I wm I ^[^: 1 1^1^ I ^f%?r: i ^^^ i t?M ii ^h 

iwTf^g II di^?i<?*i gf«m: ^ irfTTT^ ^V*i g^ ^^^^ w?} ■^sW fl<f«*(ini^«i*i»i m: i ^p^; , 
^rgT^ I 71^ ff^Tfft f^ it: I TWT ff^ v^^^m ?mf^mf*T >#n?J^praE i *t^irrft | 

<sfi*<g it: II 

?Tf|^: I ^T I f^r^t: I ^^ I |f% 1%^' 1^1 ^^* I ^f^ I ^ I 
^l^ffW|: l^l^nf^T i^rfHig: l^l^T lH5|^if5i if^ 

^^ TTTFT ^sifSiwt t^rNs{.if<3 ^ ^raram^: i ^trtt: i ^mft "^ ^rrf^ ^^rf^rf?^: ^ 
mf^ ^*iR^^ : I ^pmr ^iiT^rn. i W ^mnt ct^ irfl^ t^ W^: i f^f^^ fw^iPir^: i 


jT^ f^^ g^'TT f^ W^ uTdr^TT ^ii ipn ^^ II M n 
^:sf>i: I f^ I vfk I 'g^^: i T^i: i ^^t i ^^tf^ i ^Tft^WT I ftnTt^Tt: i 
ff^ I f^^t I >|^^ I f^ I ^f^t I V I ^TOTW I ^^^ I T^s^: I ^ iimi 

*i«(l«ii: ftfTT: *i^f«4^: ^^'^ ^ '^wt ^frt i wtwr Twht^^nr Tf^ f't^ i i^ 
g^ftr VTJTTf^ WPrpiif?mT%tJTrrrf^ fJTJTRT: MRf^i^fl: ^ ^wg: i ^^^wm^ i f*^ 'W 
gpfTTt f%^ ^tf^Tfti »pHT sjTnrmTfn fW %fift i f'nsrftRraTf: i f%q gw g^^rr ^nnrart ^f^ 
■^ «rt?0«gi^*MR TT jtrtr;^ i H*(ir<.fl«id: i '^i^ffqTrc: ^if^PC^: ^^«thSN ^ ^ ^t^ 

XW^'- 1 ^rt^^tSt^ ff'tt^f HT^: II 
^ Iprt f^: f^ 5Hf ^f^^^^HTitft II ^11 

fv^ I ^^: I ^t I ^:sf^^ I ^ I ^WIM^*! ' ^^'l ' ^''^ ' 
^t I TTs^rt I f^: I ftr4 1 ^: I w I ^^T!3 1 ^p^- i w^ i ^Sfin ii^'> 

1^ ^mf^w *a TTT t^ ' <if3K« : i frm Harm.*! '^t^ ^n^ ^ "^^^IS^I^n 
^^ fft iwn^ I TTjt ^w«m ^rf^ '^NN ^^ ^*ra mf^ 5T^ ^^ ^^^SSi 
JW^^iirft^ 'rtm 1%*?: u^rar ftrg«i: i^« ^» §. ^. «\o. m. ii[f7i ^: irtftPn^'W g^^'i''^ 

flo <\o. ^» J{. ^ M«.] II ^l^S^: II <\^^ 

i^^'M. 8- ^. §• I ffil «ld*«(l"^<(Hl*(ir<(q^ ft[:*ai M« i * j <<in»in«it<.i ij n < rfl v^ I f*^ fTirnct 
igr^; 1 f»ra%g ^irsrr^3 »t»j^ «aifMn«i<t: i 'TOT ft^t v^ ^r«T^ trftrw ^%«r: ir^NffTi 

7{v^\^\ ^' I iTsf^^i: I ^f^sqr: i ^f%sf>+: i ^ i ^:s»TTf?t i f^^ i 
^T I iTS^t I ^icis^^: I iirf|s;^ I w I ^^tg i ^?^^i ^ i ti^ ii^ii 

^nrr ■•i1<(4\fliu!*iivi^"5lfl -^ ^^ ?raT »T»paT Ttfr^aiwfTtTitfn 'rar tt ^t^fw: 
%^^^ 9#Tftl i^lHu i:^ <in=m«(lndi,rd Tai^tS4'+«i: ^ wsn qif^ ^ ^ »TffOT 

u i#ffj ?f Tra^ M^aj^J-i ^'^fn n 'srf^^R^IWTi'i'T^rRRr ^[^ ^ ^ni i ^f^ 'et i ttw%- 

w n nb ^^ ^q TH ^^rfe ^fH'=[: I w?t: ^^f ^ikw. nil 
'n I n I »Tm I TT^: I ^^ mr I ^5fi<t.i t? i ^^^^ i tit i wififii i ^: i 
't: I ^ttii^: mil 

'^■il»H5Hi> in?!n<j^ I ' <m*< i n< < i «iill8 jfiTrraMT ^WTJret it^ ^r^^mmr^ fTH»rnft 

^ ^g^ lWl^^«ii<^MTl^rT: I imi^ 5T^^ IRII 

^: i^r^i^s^T^: irf^: i"|%^iWSrt7T:iwi^s^i5p^iT%ii^n 

TTRt '^T ^^TTlt ^PTRT^TO^ 5Bt^7i | frT^W ^ lT^f>^: II ^11 

W t+ TJ^ ^m: ^: ^ ^^ ^1^1 1 5qtf ^^ ^% ll8 II 

^ I ^ iTjff I ??54: 1 ^^fii I ^rl I ^^ I ^^^ 1 5qt^i ^ I ^^ I ^ 11811 

ff ^: I wt^ ^'t^TT^ 'g 3^^ f^^^T^ f^ 1^ 1^ ^ < ^w^it^T^t^Ti^'^: II 
t}^,J4 i 3 I irm ^^ ^»^: i ^fni^: «v<«^*i: 1 ^trt H^ift ^ mn ^ ^^ 1 '^ ^ ''l"^ 

H^JTff I MIJj<lT»T U 

^^ I ^ I ^ I H^ I 'l^: 1 iT^ I f^^ri: I ipns^rT: I ^%'?ff "^" 

^ »nft f ^(i<flifM4*|w i ^ vjx^'. inn*i: iraitn: 4^M)ii(<fi4^»i: ^i%«ft > ^'f^''' 
^ ^ ^fn ^: II II <»e II 


g^TO r«ii«im«a ^T ^^n^T ifw^ ^irvT fMW *i^ I ?w H^:wTW»r*Wm i % 
finnnw f^ '^ TH »nfr %i»^ t^^^?i: H^ ^ f^^TOim ft 'm H^ ?m ^RTR ^ ^ 


int I ^ I f^^ I 'ni;! ^f^* 1 1?^: I W^t 1 15* I mi^i ^ I ^ R#3im% I 
If I ^^iwh^ II ^11 

^TFi "^t^^t: II 

1% JjfiT ^^ T^ ^^ ^ I cT^ ^ ^^jwjf ^^\T^ whB ii^ii 

'''I' ^ ' ^'f ' "^-S^f^ I f{^'* I ^T^ I f^ I rfr^l ^ I ^ I ^t^^^ ' 
If I ^^^ I ^^ ll^ll 

^% ^ir: T^^_ TT^ ^m^i ^ I rra ^ ^H^qpTfl'^ ^h iNh lllJll 
^1 ^ I ^1^: I ^sf^: I f^^: \ w\T^ 1 1^ i TTri^i ^ i ^ I ^'Jpr^ i 
If 1^^ 1 5ft^ ll?{ll 

^ ^*^iMi H^ W(\l\ ^ I rT^ W ^#^TRftf El^riii -^t^ II mi 
Irf^l ^ I ^ I ^^ I ¥R: I mrWf^ I 1^ I cffl^l ^ I W I ^'Tife I 
If l^^l^ft^ IIMII 

''^ 'T^^: IT^ TRit ^m^t ^ I era W ^^'l^f ^^ ^I^i^ II ^ II 
^^ \ I "^^i I iTS^: I wt: I IPXl^ 1 13* I Tfr^l ^ I ^ I ^'H'!^ ' 
If I W^ I 3fhlllfrll 

vor.. IV. z 

^1 ^ I ^^: I ^fl^i '^^t 1 1^: I ^ttI I |T'iJ I wjf^i ^ I ^ I ^#in*r% I 
If I ^^^ I ^ft^ ii^ii 

m ^ ^?|^H H^ ^nrr* f^ I ffw ^ ^i^^TTwftl ^#11 5(bii iibii 
^1 ^ I ^1f I ^1 ^^^ I tht: I W»t I ^^ I Hct' ^ • ^ I ^ifn^lft I 
ff I ^^k I if^H II til 

■^% ^^rf-F^^ T^ WWT^ ^ I era ^ ^^in»Wftf ^t^ ^'hl IKill 

^n^^i ^ I ^^r{J^ I ^rT: i ^^: i ^fit^ i |jsii i cfr(,i ^ i ^ i ^^^ni^i 
?I I w^ I ^^ ii^iii 

^1 ^ I f^ I ?<^ 1 1[^\ T!^: I mm^ \ -^ i ini^i ^ i ^ i ^inflfti i 

p I t^j:^ I ifWI II «^o II ~ 

^% iq^t: tiTT^Ht Ti5Tlf njTTi^ ^ I w^ ^ ^i^H^1[5 w^in ^^^ in^ii 
-mij ^ I ^t: I TOs^ri: I TT^: i wn^ 1 1^ i rnt^i ^ i w i ^^rm% i 
?f I ^^i^ I 5ik^ 11 <\^ II 

^'l' ^ I >|rf I ^ I H^ I ^ I Ti^: I mjw^ I ^ I TTH^I ^ I ^ I ^^'I^ • 

^f I ^^tq I 5fH^ in;? II 

VRTfi: w?5( inr^^ *Rfif I ?ni ?f^ itj v^ -^^tv f^rmff '^\^^M[* {: n m '^'^ ii 

^i^Tsm tjfm: I T'nft ^^H^ flTrtfw: i ^rpift tT7 Mti<. i i ^«^ 4aitama<fti<)t(< T: i ^* <i- ''''■ ' 
«,«I»'!i'smj*)^i<?id. I u«»HK i rv^-wi:|^r<f*<aI ' 4il!<j ^if^TT^rr i ^ w i^ i f^ d ^ fl <!<^ ^fTTWWrfw^- 

m\ii( ii \ Pnlrd' ^ <^di ^Tjvh'. mtv^ 1 'sig^ ?m Tfn yr mi*<*i«nrd*i i iin' ^q\* < «gq 'i ^^= 

TTfM i^ i af^^ufqfJ i «ii<»raf«j<*n ^ I ^fij^w ^ ^^iO ^'"n I iTOT "^rnpiriTi I IT ''T^'^^ 
^m^ r^^tl(iiq< i 1.^« i t<f »ygg^^ i< i <<l«)«g<tn<v<i*< i <n-<<<i* irt ^q1*<*t^ffl ^?^ 
^m: fIrsTm: 4rw*itiMf»MW^ w < i f*<4 i q i aPi<41 ^W^<fts( ^rrti^'tfn a int f*rf«nfr»r: n 

II I mft I ^: I wsHt 1 51^: I ^tTfrrs?.^ I ^sflHT I t4w I 
^ I 'so^h: I ^1 rmlfff I ^ I ^SHt I g I f^:s^rT: I f5r^ in II 

ufifft T'J^^ T^TTt I *i1q^1"i)<in<«n5: I f^Rr^pm^iRTg*?^ I TR ^^1: I is^tm 
rn ^ f^'^ ^rTT Tt?^^ n^ g Mtfirf^S^ II ^ II 

m^ I ^ I TT^ I firf^sj^ri^i ^ I ^^ I ^j^l I g I ^ I ^tf% I 
m I 5t: I f^'^if'T I ^m i w^f i irtrswt i f i f?i:s^rT: i Mm ii ^ ii 

w^imf*T f^a^ft ^rrn?! I m mf»T i^fft «fti^fT^ ^4^itf% nrarfi ^rtrftr ^»tw sfti^ 
'gfiT ^ I ^TT ^: if»i<"io.r:.i *nrg i ^^ i ^m^n^ 'n f«nifw: M<. i fli««i< i jj^ 
f^f(m iJRffitii 

^>^ ^S^: ^^)|^ ^^ ijftt ^^ ^«r^ I 

HT ^ fWf?! ^HT f^%H T?lTHt^ Mfwf^f m ll^ll 

^^ I H ^^: I tf§f: I >#^ I #: I ^ I Jjfiii I fn^^: i ?t i ^nd^ i 
m I 5t: I f^^TT I ^ftm I f^ I wq^i[i \^\iki s^h: i f^ftwt ii 911 

^^w^ift^in^: H#4%: % g^m «%in 'jft^ )jm f?f ^m 'grttflm^mfiwrfW 
^^T^: «mf»T ^V^Tfij mf% f^^ i R ^nirftr 'srfrm ^m ^ r*iilrdPa^?t i ^»!Tf?r i firsg* ii 

^ ^fH I g I ;t: I #:h I ?pi^ I tirt I ^: I v;^t{ i g i ^^ i 'frl^s w i 

fSw f^L!^^"^ 1 gj fw% »Tt 'JTT ^: I ^ q<.i<( i »i gw[ I ^^*<Ny)«iitni'9rpirT 'ffrff: i 

Z 2 

^^s^'^ I wi: I ^^ng I ^rpi 1 ^'kTii% i ^ i n 1 % 1 ^t: 1 ^: 1 
xif^ I vt: I ^^^ I #s^f^ I ^5* I r^ iip# I ^^^ IIMII 

^%^ 7T^ irftt 'nN in^J'ra II lUi^ii 

5^^ 4^ ^^'^^<ri ^^^^ 'ps^ ^: ^fw iiffii 

^S5=ft^ I ^i i'^mi^ 1 ^^: I i^fTfit I in^ I ?.? I 5t: I ^ I Hf! I 

5qt^J ^H I ^ I ^S-^ I ^^STl^ 1 1|35^ I ^* I ^^^ ll^ll 
^^_ ^i iMt ^ ^^^ ^^trffW I 

fJT: I ?t: I ^: lif^ i ^qw i"^fH i ^T i irnrf i ^ i ^fw- mi 

7TOT ^^ 'rN ^kH H^^rg I 1^ i5T Ml m fr*<ir»i^ ^^m wr i trox ^^ i^' 
<\^ 8M. I Tnr »nft m^ I ^mn^: ir^ <»i^iaiiifM4i7 i i m h^t^^ i t^ ^ ^^^^IlJZ 

Trarf ^j^ inraeTj i m# 'jwt ^f^: i tRT» ?• ^- ?. «=. n:fn ttww » 


vrtiTt I w4 1 ^ I ^.* I # : I ^W^ i^J^iT^:i^#i^'^'^* 

^^ I ^TR'Tfl^lltll 

ut xTj: Bf^fTTJWc^ 1 ff^ n 
^i 1% ^^ f^T f^tTff ^5lT I 

^^ I s% ^ I ^^ I f^T I %: I ^iT I HTgr^ I 

mn I ^'^ I ^^ I HtfTT I ^ I ^1 TTt: I ?fi: I Tjf^f^ I ^rn i t4: i 

5^ ?flt I g I ^ I f^ I ^ I WHWi; II 0.11 

^ ' fe ' 1?^ ' 'TT I ^|t| I 1M ^ I ^^Ir^^l ^^lil!?n: I ^: I 
Htm I ^ I Ur!^ Kii-: I g1: 1 ^f^ I ^m Ii4: 1 ^ ?.fr^ I g I ^ I f^ I 
"^^ I WRJ^ II «^o II 

t*iwir^ »m B II s?^ II 

^♦'i*i«r<l. ¥ Tpr ^^m I ^t^«Tr t^: i ^wn smyiiffl: i wn: iHrm g^vt^fwir^npft 
im ^m I ^ % f^ ^[7«rerT ^rarotrei g^^: ^r^ggnt ^^ i ?raT ^i*i*i*( i '^it 
^^^^ 'an<<H'4«rgs« 'i t a <if*«*<«iiP i *<*a'('M ' q<<i i ' t M8«iNiyM*a ^^tjt »mNf TT5tT»nreft7«T- 

^ 5f# %^#^^ w^?n^ng4^ I ^'i''^ f^jiat 'tti: inii 

''^^ ^ vWt %^ I j^Wtt »ran^ »raiTT: u '*tfir ^ i ^9?^ ^'^tt^ «itO«iiii 
''''"^^g^^^Tn^ a rn^ ^fn »n): TOtror: b »iftiiiT ^ i t»fr »m^nt fwift vtw»: i 

*f«i^^ ^- 1 TH?! f^Rrf^ II ^^((fiTfi, I TT* ^. ?. a- 1 i:fn «ji«ii ^g^ II ^r?^ wrf xmn* « 
^ ^Rf'^rfl^ t^flTH^ ^raflr^^ I ^fWTxNt^^T^in II ? II 

|VT ii?'n" 

fiff i;^ I ^^: 'awL i ^mV^'^T^ i ^r^: 'if^: i ^jtt^ i ^amfr ' ^iMql<,qi« i M<m<gy ; ^\ 

^ I |:s^nf : I ^ I ^ I T^T^ I Htpft I ^^ I f^st^ I x?^ I ^: II 8 II 

TTT^ 'Jrfwt TTT^^ ^ni: I Riajmu^<l*i arrRt ^TTrf^^ur 'q^remr: M«. i qf\M;^q i MfM^'^a i 

^: *if<5i«rt H^ <idityf*s(»rt »<«i<nf?! ^: II 

ti ^^TirfrT^ T«tHt%l VRq I ^'^ ^^ ^ II mi 

^1 ^^ I ^^ifffg I T^SHt%l| I Vfrpi I f^S^ I ^H I ^ II Mil 

<T1^ ^ 'vnrjf II 

^fTC?T^ I ^S «*: I ^ ^fir I ^^% I ttf^rTT I iHSft^ I fw I ^??^' ' 
^ I l^t^ I TT^ I ^rpi^: 11 It II 

^♦«<iNiwi« ^rer ^^9rR[t^ »mrr TTarni ^frtTr i^ < i a i t(^*<i^ <«i*<<iw«<W^*ft ^'^^^ 

gifv% w^T^ wf^Tg?^ ^ vj^m: i ^nt jftrn^Sj: ij^ m\T{ f^^ ufii u 
'mt Y^ ^'^'IT 1^ With ^ I 

'TOT ^ ^T^^ ITT^ wRt ^Vfn V^Wra <, «)i rc(V^K< ! ||<< I ?rf»?f7T m ^ ^^KW - I T^ ^ 

^^ ^l ^ ^ m\-s(m\ ^ »pi^5^ ^^(TicT^ II (ill 

^^ I ^^R I ^ I H?t: I 3ft^^ 1 5T I Tj^ I ^^ ^ I ^^S frifR II e II 

^''T^^^^lr^i^^ ^4t 1 5fhTri% ^ 1^%S^ ^fT?7TtW% II <\0 1| 
^Rl ^f I t^^Tft^ I ^S^: I H#n W I ^ 1 5ft^% I 'FI I TJRT^ I 
^ ?fH I lafri^SfTtiT^ II «iO Ii 


Tlf^fd II ysy*^ ^f ff'T %^«nr^ ■«(ifi<^fqqiir<i^mm?i«srim*n«i'7ii««s( WR Xj^ ^ I ^Jri ^ I 

^im %«r: <iT:iMr<.'q'(«q' 'fWf^gt'TH iin,«*T«< rn^ ^ ^^i^ini'Ei^ 1 ^ ^ wf^mrwSm 

^ ^<.i i ^3<«rra minsr t^ ^r^t^^rrir »n ^^gif^wra^i ^ ■?[ *»5J»ini<.«: wiiRffl HWf^i 
<!ft ST^iw i!T^ fM«<,*>«» f^ ^ »tr: MiJjoif^rtja: rMg*i*nM*(Hi« ftrr ^sTiTra JJira i[f'' 
^ ^"t»<d ^ <«iq »rR it^ T^T ftRrniftf^ ingm^ 1 Tmt <{«( i «?q>«i^« i g^: g^ »rr»n^f^^T?t^ 
^ »m m^if^fttw II 7mT«^^?rnji%vjf^ ^i g%»^ ^ apTBt?^ ^ TrHPrt^ i^" ^' ?■ '^- ^- ^- ' 
lORrrf^TT^T^ '3Tb: i ?i<^r#R^T^H^ 11 

■aRTOT ^^ f^Tt »T1%^: xjilriPF^ ^^^ WR ft^ II *^ H 

ft I ^«n I f^t 1 'jf s^: I ^ I -^ I ^^ I ^rr: i ^IT^ i 
^ w R it^i ^w I fTprrt I 'T|%s^^T : I xr^i ipF^ I ^?^ I ^ I ^ ^ 

arm firwr »mr f ii uiKua fmrr fimrr^ ^ >tr>?T ''^'''^ ^^'"^ '*'''|]^^.f!]'[^^ 

^f ^^ JT^^^TSsm: ^^ H Iji pr^fff ftf ^ II ^ II 

fff ^^: I ^^:Scm* I ^^: i ^ I'M: i fjFTrs^fk i fi^ii ^ ii 

9f?i:«»«!iiifli«1 g^^^T^ ^TTTO ^fr^ «mT^7»rTO ^HTTO Tj^ «r«rra ^ ^5^ 

fvfwmOw^: 1 7! »«iin<(iHj>TKiT 'aMl(<!< i *) i a«n^<*< TT i;^ jm % q n ^fft a lfj t wtm i^st" 
q. <^8.i TJ^^T? I g^«<i*u'5«!l'i*««n ^^flM<fl*fti(«id*j«|iflfl^i "^i '^^ "tI «(<*(*( q i ^^ ^WT >sm: 

^^ H ^ 5^R^ fff^T f^: ^rarf ^^ ?,W I 

^ ^: ^T^tfi^^^Wr ^l^!lMrTTf^'5| n4^ II? II 
^: 1 5T I ^ I f^ I f^ I f^xt: I T[r^ I ^^: i ^5^ 1 

fn i 'i: I ^^tfk: I ^S^: I W^ 1 ^^?Mri I wjf^^ 1 1^^^ H 9 11 

it^ f%Ti: ^tg: ittt jhti^ ii(i<4)fi<ffl girr ^^ ^'^ 'i^fll 'rg^: w^^: 1 ^i^^^ 
^'rf''^^^ grq^wii: n ^ingHn^ ^ u i v pT: Hw^ ^Mia »f-r\*n »w ^^ 3i4if*<<fl<«^<«nfln?! 
'ftwrft 1 f?is ?ren 1 iw^ f% ^^rf^ 1 <.< fl pg «nf*< rff f«rt^§w^: 1 m^ m^vhh^ ^ 

^ ^ ^5pn ^H ^ ^ ^R?^ ^^H^IIiJll 

f!!! I ^1 3Tt^ I ^Tsfl^ I #iff^i f^^: I ^ixrfm I ^f^ I p: I ^ • 

^^ \ i r^4^<<( i ^m1 < «4^<nqq? i *t sfrg Ht^ pproft 1 ^m fwwTO TTrof^f^reTftw^: 1 
^f^ IP? ^wrfirfTT f*i^ I 'auriJarlt^ t^ wrm .Om* < i« i <j i ^t^ Ji'jmi**^ «niRj 
^ *> ^nTtfinTT^^ ^rf^ trt in^ 1 ^m^ 1 f(n wPR^tn ^^^ ffqf^^ 1 ^ ^ "fv^ »mj 

"^ ^^fT^ltTft II 

VOL. IV. A a 

<J«t II ^p^t II [^•^.^•^^•^«. 

ffTO^T ^^ ^^T^t ^f|^ ^^IrTTT^^ II Mil 

Vf4^ I IT^ I ^"ks^ I ^^Or^l ^^Sf^ff I g I 'l^: I ^ I ^fft^l 

tj^RPfj I iTif^i ^ I ^ffff I ^1 ^^^: I ^ffg: I w: i ^s^a ^s^i iimi 

«Tftf?i: 1 TTfrffJT 1 TT^^rr? 1 g'ra^ ^ fifn 1 h^?i ^afNr^ 1 y«*i*<r« 4^hi*k«i ^Rig?qg[: 
?r»(. I ^ir T^: 1 1^: ^itrsn: ^irfTrreT ffig: yy^ji: 1 jr^nfirar^: 1 fR H«HMrd*iT^i^7mT: 
^HT^ II Tf%: firft — H ^fifr ^: 1 ^(frfrarf^wiTi^: 1 irwRfTjW ^ fffn^'WviTOf^- 

f^TBW 'HIJfUVyfilRI^ \\<> ST" ?. 9^. I X^ WtW^ 11 II ^H 

5R«IT ^RRitTl*4^^^t%; ^liT^ ^l^ ftRTft IW I 

WT I -mil ^^ I ii>43rr|^i ^^^ I ^^ I ^^^ I ftmft i ^^ i 

^pqq^ ilcfi: I ^w: i f^swt i 'RT^ i f^fsf^ i ^s^H^ i ^^ ii^ii 

wm v^r^ wm^ fW f^nrlT irsrnnfr 'g^rwt if^fljufii f^ ^ i f^^finiRi TfJiff 
snjnii H<f?J<i i tvit fl*n4«ri7if<.^»T^ tr^ wwlf^ ^n^ ^i^th^ fSTg^^wrana <i^ 
* i ^n*nM T^ft ^g: I ww^ i fl ftnsrrf^rfn Trrri i f^^i^ff v^<H<,«(«*i^f(^ i jramfH^r 

^p^1^S5R5f^ ^T ^n^^w ^trf f^tfT^P!; ii^ii 

ftm I ^1 ^t I ^fft I ^s^^ I T5R^T I'tfiM ^ s^nipi: I f?i I ^^1 

gs^4: 1 ^iR^?[ I w4 \^'. I "^mi- 1 ^ I ^m^j I % I ^?iTW5tii«"' 

fxmr H^iMfH4' ij < i ^ ffim; t^['rgTO ^rfsn^tn. vjt^Ij^ it^7wl5rtf tsmr ^f^w «f 

•frfiTi i g [7TT»i»&f^r7i ^(TW^ I'^'STo ^. ??■ I TT^H^' ^THi: 'g^smwr: g^^frnift ^ ^ jwr^^i^' 
^ <M i <«<^. I fl ng[tt^ TT^Tf I ^rr^WTi ^npn^^Tf*?^ wm ^nr^ in^'ft T^:n^f'w: 'jW 

^Tq^ ^ ^m qq^ HT ^ ^ Tj^ ^n^^ ii t ii 

H: I fi ^ I H I ^ I ^a[^?n^l ^^ I ^Til^l ^ I T?ict I $ill ^ I ^5^^"* ' 

Htn^i TT^i 1 5T i^ft^in I TOs^ 1 5n m: I g I ^ I ^i^J • ^^ "^" 

mm} «T #3T **0!«itf*r 1 tto^: 1 ^iRml^flti, 1 <Mi«imrM mwm 'rat f^pre^Pr <iq^r < mn 

5r% I ^ v^ *<'siHi 'sw^ TT ^iJTT^ ^?^w: ^if*r: ^f¥r ^^t <i41*j9iv(*<^n^<i'!!i T^:w^- 
nW 'iVrr ^% 11 

fis^f «: I ^ I ^ I nt^ I ^ I ^: I ^a[^W^: I ^m I ifBJ^ mo II 

■jf^: ^m^: gT««n: *im*<<*<frif<< 'ft^RT 1 tli^^ ifft: «ai*i<ri«fi«(iyr«j4l: ^fx^ ^ 
^ ^%'t'R W^ ¥^^^J ^ "^f^kll in«iii 

A. a 2 

<lbo II W^^' II [^•t.^^S.^o^b. 

i^n -sSr^^lH ^PTOTH Tfn it f^ ffCT^TTi 7^" m» s?. ^ <>. ^ I ft^ B 
xmJ ^rq^T f^m WM^fri ^^Vfw ^Ifi^ T^^: I 

tr^gr I ^1 TT^T I f^s^m i ^^w i ^fii i w^fir i w^ i Trki: i 

^: I ^gsr^T I ^^: I ^^T I f^ I f^%f% I ?fM^ 1^1^ n^ii 
^SHRTT ^mr: ^rar ^^^n i 'ft^r^^w^: i ^t ft^m f«rgwrf% M**l<4ir*! 'ftwprrf*! Vr^ 

iTf^W MPiM^lHt ^'TT^^^ Htnt ^T^^ P'ifHrH'l I 

rni\^\^\ ^sm I TTft:seii^: i ^J*i^ i ^ i ^^- 1 'tt^^ i ftrfwri^i 

f^ I ^g^aJ!^ I ^s4ftm I ^^T I f^^rl^l ^SH^M^l I 'Jit I 'm: H ^i?" 
df<Ti '^ q ^ f^ n* < ^'5(*a uM^ i i : tjfiTft fl«?HHi: mPl^k^i <M4\i«nii iwinM- 

^jg!?#ft g T*< tti«ji i * t<<j< H^TniTT!^ ^jrmi»iT^<^ 'aiifjm »t^ f^f^ i %f^ i Wfii^ 'i^fc^ 
?^ ?m 3?T gfim 'ftftft ^Tft;^ ii 

H^: I f I ^TTI I ^rT I 11^'iI'sit: I ^: I ^ I ^ I f^sw^ i ikj^- > 

^SfiTft 'q Jriff ^ TW 7T%3t: flB^ TTfflif 'rei ?m^ ^sn^^T^ ^wftifn f%^v# ^^ ^ 
t^: ?ifn ?» ^ ^ ^^ ^srar 7ii>^ f^: t*ift^ i^mft 'g ?t%^iM fT»nf*r: t^ »^i 
^mft '^ ^mr^ grnnrsft ^rmr^ %f^7T^ ?i^_?N^ tr i -w^ j i:wf^rftfiT ^r^ 
Tfii ^ "^Vftj gt m i *nw q: I '^w itw^rvtt: i % ft7Tff»rf^n<Tr^WTRT^ ^x^^ f^ ^^^ 
^fvntt ^qi«lHlj^MIV^ < sO^<^^ ^ 'fti<*tl'*MIAI»i ^f^ I 'SI " 

^J^V ^^S^t^ I T^^OT I iT^sfft I ffiTSlt^m I f^ I ^5|^# II <^mi 

gmft ^ % f? «n ?ft irfinft Tt^> v-^pl i ^ft^ 'r tn iTi^ift f^ i ^m' qo. §<». j^. i 
xfH ff ^^H^^W I ^f^'^ ^tfjmTfl' *ii*i«ii<inn*n % ^ ^ ?nsr0 ^jtut^ ^ «^?rrf*rfn 
^i I f%^ *itlMn(« ftjg^Wtf^ T^r ^ ^rar H^ fm?tt^ 'wtiNfTt »T?f TTmn T^wrnft 

m ^ tT3it ^^ w ^q^ f^ltefff ^^: I 

m\^:\ TX^ I ^ I %vt: 1^:1^1 f^:'i i^fir i ^s^g: 1 
^: I ^^if i\^^i w I ^ I %fiT 1 5n ^ I ^lifr: i t^s^ inlfii 

«: 1 fis^: I W^: I ^^t 1 ^^:s^ I v^ I ^^ 1 1^ I 


T'rfJT I ffwffn I ^a^fllw^: i qift %Br^: i ^rr ^Wtiwrti M<.*<t<58i •iif*»i?fy«*r "gT^Tf^Rf^. 
1^ % ^ ■{Ha* ?!'!! iXM^f i % »m ^f^m: i ^rsmf^rf^ ^: i f;i5^ ^^1%^ ii'^if^:wn)^- 

wk I ^ I JT?^: I ^Rfn: i f^s^ i ^^ i ^^ i fks^[#f^: \ ^^J 
^ttr I ^1 ^fti: I ^ I ftj^: i ^i w^ i fwti %s^ i ^H i Wtn iRoii 

^'ivT^ng '^7!^ firs ^ ifr^^TRtiTfTPhn fwTTT ftfTTmn. f?PT!W*r|^ft^WtjfaT 
firg: ^t^pfVer: ?i^ »t^ ^^ ^ aif^*<«f« irfiw f^ f^r^ra tfv f^rei ^r^ Jmnrfw: 

^ I rt I gs^f^: I ^: I «# I ^1 ^n^s^ i 'Tf^ 1 ^^prif^i* i'^*"' 

fT^ I i4 1 11 J f^ I ^Wl^ I 'll : I TT^ I ^ silt I Ti( S ^T|: I 

^^ ^fiftT'iimti^Frra^ ^ i % ffrft ?fT«rt nvf^ ?t wqi f*«8iqfi)<mH ^^fgt^Ttm: 

f^: I H^: I «: I ff I TO I ^135 1 ini I ^ I ^rt^i ^ I TT^i ^pi; IR3II 

t ii^im <iywi*n f»m^^ ^rar^^ ?mwrr?ft ^g<<tii«n i a1 <n i *>mii i «i t w«ri ?iTig: 
^jimsDHl it: TT?i «i^fn ^(TT^ ^^iHi! j^iPj^TT »ji!n«j I t^fii^n. 1 ^4,«bw<«t ^ifir^t 

TOI^t^ ^^^ W^ft ^^«^ ^ IR81I 

^prar g^ g^ ^^^ I ^nrra ^ f^rwrer ^J^rer ^raip^rei ^wt ^rt«i*a tt <i7^^ 

f%^ ^^TPn^ ^^k ^^ ^^ ^^^n^ I 

^nJnf ^^rra -^ 1 ^ 'Rrerr'raTnrs^: iq ^ ^ q i ^tlm ^ ^Prt ^^^ %^ 1 Tft»^ ''^ ftt 
^ t%^ finif^%)HM^ fiifrf fSfW a^fV5*i: «»iH^: T'f^ir ^ ^rafTftfi^t^Mj^KTrnt 

'T^: "T^ f^ ^ ^wT Jrapin ^ iro^ffTf ?t?pi: 1 'JI^t 1 iff 3^_"J^ grw^ mg: 

H ^ ^ # Hit 'l^r^T ^"^^TH ^^ m\^' I 

^* i <<r^<pK*j wwT% I % ^f^RT ^re^n ^«t t^: % 'g^ i ^ Tf'T ^rw: i ^ t^^ 
f^rtn: <» ;i n*i«ygim fM^ "N??!: ^: i ^ "^ ^'«»I*J,<|: i ^Frf!H4\fl*n*i<.f«!fli fvj^: i rniur 

?nf ^ *if | ^g | ^ i <ai4* ( a<<i'* ' '^ ^ <<' f^t^^ ^ I TT'T^^ TrHT»>f<8^i ^ i ^' ^'^^^^ 

^4l > ;<L» i PKHt ^ ^ fliit i^ir 'n^^ ^^^* »*i" 

fjifn ?iigi«ii*l*ii1<« 'HI- H ^^^T^ ^w^f^ ^r ' ffO«flmmi»itii1<i i ^ M^u^n^M^^t ^\ i t^t 
«fTOT 'B^i'T'T^: I ^rtm *<^^1«J«i ?f^ ^r^Ju^jR^j*^ ^w «»?h(t: 9»nn %if\^^iTf- 

^ ;gtjT«l T^ '"^'^ '"^ ' ^ ?^^^™" 'S'^^ ^ ^ff^TT^: ^ ^i<fi)<(|in*<i<ifl *n^ JnfT: ^ 
^H|i^4fni^ ^ ^ ilfrt »I«!filT JfW^ ^^: II ^ II 

% I ^(!;s^^ I ftrrt: I ^ s ?i^ R^ I ^1^ I ^4^ i ^f^?H?; i ^ i 
•^yj^^ti I ^fhw: I ^: I ^^^ I iif?t I jjviiftiT i Tipr^ i ^s^im: irii 

^T^vf^fTCT^mf^^TO^nii t*^^ yaj^^i ^i%^ ^ttwr MAUI'S) ^<?fT 'h^ i «t^ i[w^: i 
n^ ^ ^?i«iw»i 'RW^#nc*if^:JTfti^ ^^mnni %wt fr g^*w «fl^T^ ii^jTt^^nwg i 

|iTimi|fiTi^ % ^ ufft iwifhr Tn?!^ ^m' ii?ii 

^ I ^?i I ^^ I ^ I ^1^ I f|r^ I ^nh^ I ^ftNf I »m!^ I f^ I 

fTHT:si^ I ^fmn: I ^: I ^ I Tifif I 'jvi!^ i ?ti;t^ i ^swmj ii^ii 

^ ilfiiT^r: ^ >m ^B^ *i«i^^*i ?i^ t^ 'g^ ^ fj ?r^ jK^nrrf^wRTfrf^Pi. 
P^T^ 'SH^^i^ II t^amftr^ jiaii*)y«n(X«jRi'^««(*iT?T: i Tremrr^nrara: ii 
^i 'TTHi ^^ ^^ tf Jjl yr^ ^^W^^rl?! I 

^^?ntf5K^ ^ ^ ufrf jjvnflTT »n^ ^^iro: h^h 

^'i I ^^ I ^f?[ I ^ I ^:i Jjl I ^^sf^: I ^w^; I rTc^^i 'poJipT I 

^s^Tjjf I #n[^: I T' I ^ I uf?t 1 1^!^ I 'iR^ I ^s^: 11811 

^J^^ ^^nm gn ^: ^ ^B^i?fff^^rr«Nr ^^rft ^ ^ffSrTH: ^ Tun Twftf^. 
H'^f^ vit ^ 'gran* sj^ p^ ^ ^^ ^rantt ^ n^ i ?ra[T^ ^ '3^" ' ''im?^ 
^1 ^ 'r^ I ■ flH i M« i «)« ii ^f n 7[^w\^: 9 ?l»#r g'w gsrinsf li^ ^ir^??^ i x^- 

^OL. IV. B b 

^1^: I lift I ^f^ II Mil 

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^9%if5r^iH^R, I ^o JTTo ?. ?8. 1 tf^ WJW^ 1 Vf f*TOi! ^ ?^ I f*T« ?. <^^. II nil 

rT^ g ^^ #It^h: ^ "l^^ *tf ^ II !f II 
^ \^: I tjfl: I ^fMt I f^S^m^: \ fH^: i ^ft I 
'fT^s*^: I ^ I ^z^i I ^fHr'.Siro: i ^^ i|%^ht|^ iiffii 

f*i^Mnf\ f^f^ij^jn ^ifiiT^ f<«i*yR gi^^^iiT^: vfK ^fvK ift7?r Tmr: i ^ i 
flprof^ I trft: MM<^>^'<r i <i'* : I ^^^ 4lm*<Mi<^^^ Mi: i ^m »r^ "nnfr ^^m^alfjir^ 
ifsrw ftrs: I *< -pi*<i ^ ")^Mi *jP i w »r^ ^^^ 'rag Tm ^ a«=n<frt8n, ^^^^ ^ 
mfi *?iS t ' i( tiP K^m *4«i*l» I ^M!«fM^<!(J=i<a ^inr^tw: i puiiH ^g ^^ *i|i«if^?i: ^ift^i 

?Tlf Vrt H«l^f? l I »i<!fd4l«15«4T II 

Hl^ ^ ^fft ^re^<^: ^ 1%^"^ IIS II 

ii^^ I ^5a I f^r: I ^^ I ^^: 1 5[^ I JTtsi^ I ^sf^ r 
^f ^ I ^ I ^: I ^f s^: I ^ii 1 1^^ I ^rasT lis ii 

mism: ^w ifrerfY f%% ^ - vP K^ n ^r^ g^n ^rr^'f f*»: ^^ i f^TTT^i ^ ' 
s^: II ^ire i[f7T ^pj ^JTrrfr f^rai^ ^ h f^^THBr^r: i 'dM*fl^uil)«i^ i ^rrfre^r^'tTr it^ ^ 
1^ II TFf 'T W i^r <'^ ^iPK* i : ^tiiw^ v* HT?: I ?ifw T^'i^ i ^w^if^iT^^ f^' 

■ 8'»i<.ifi<<i«<»f*<<.^ *<i« i qii<^^ 'ffrrtr^ viC^ rtmimfif i^W[g* ifN*'! i ^Tn#" "^ 

n r^ I iq^fft i ^^ I ^^i I ^t^s^^ I ^ I ^: 1 ^ I ^s^^ • 
" ;^:i^nli»tlt^iibii 

5if?raft?m II 'w^ mf^ Tsr^^^ i tn" ?. 8. i^.njfTT 955^11 ?t^ m^'^ *i«frf^ »raTf3[- 

^rT I ^T I ^S W I ^^ ?fw Wrl^S%l I ^TrSxi^XSraT I ^^: I ^il i 

^fH^ TiH^nHi ft^^: ^^T^ ^Tn^g ^^m 1 

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^r^^ ixit fifkn^ «^ I w I «5^*t^tn«TW ff^ f^iig viir«i^*i ^?rag 1 ^iref ^nwpn 
'N?^ ^fwr ^k «%g I mwffj 1 f^ ^1^ Jrfwr H^ri^ai^: 1 <t^t^ ^tr^: ^r^rr^H^i^ 

''Tmt V f^ ^nr^ g^ f* a^: wf^ 'nrar^ 1 ^MW?i^ f^j»fr 1 'i^f^ 
^^I^f^ m I fi iBt qg ^si wm' 1 ^rf^ w. isnt^rfH 1; muiiMnd^<iflT% 1 f^ %^t^: 1 

?n^^ ?l|^ ^Ifi^l^ ^^ ^ ^ f5(g t: nil 


g^ntfi^w^: II 

% ^ t ^ ii^^; I ffiTrvTT% I ^ g'm^B^ Minif*T 'wfUnfn fwr ^«*rfw mO<,Tft 

%iini ^siRai ^ 1^ f'firrsri ^ i 'jfT ii 
v^^ I ^o M- ^'=- n:fH II 

mm ?r^ f^r^rrt g^rft ^>wft ^^«ft ^^ »i^»raT^fr^ 'ra: ^rr^ ^ ^ 
i[f7t w: n ^5re: ^ q >iJ<u«iHir<w i <if<'?l : H^T^^Pi ^^it^nrnrraT»i ^ i ^•I'gft •> *"""' 

^fftW ^rft^^ ^^rin^ %tt ^^tT«n ^^ ^^ ii8" 

Tft ^ f^^ 'Hftw l^fwf*+^ ^f|Hn ^^ ^TO^ imii 
njxji' I ^ I ^s^: I ^ I wis^: I ^?:s^m: i ^^ i f^ i ^^ i 

HT^I^lf^^RTi^ l^f%5fi4: 1175: 1 Wf^Rn^l^fWl^^ IIMII 

ftut jnHT^Tmrf'niit ^ ^'5s%if^'iisji<< *i«*ir f^t^Fwi^'i g«rfwt*t: ^h*ii(«: if^j^rgi 

it W' #^ TT^ ^ ^^m f^^ "^wt Ti^% ^ ^ I 

^ ^S^ #^^"?IT ^ ^ it: tr§_^Hi^: 1E^^ II ft II 

^: I ^: I wr^ I TTOfH I i I f^^^ I f^^ i"!^: 1 W!^J \^\w^\ 


apftw %T6| II gj^ ^ffi r t ^i ^t : I %f^ ipi: ^: I ^nT»m: 11 f*^ ^ »t^ »?m<t ^r^ifr ^ 
f^ ^Tret ^: ^ ?ff7i «(M<^ i: i5?rr »Tn^"ii «-^'<i<rM ^K«t 'Jfri^^^: « ^ gftmm 

fiiiW>?g I »i^ m#w^: I ^ ^ ifti^nn. ^^if^munn?: 'nn^ jn4»i^t?[^Rfn 

H ^f^ ^ ^li"^^ ^T 5+: ^ ^W ^^^ 11^911 

^«i: ilt^l^^wti^S^^m^: I'Hf^S^: ni^i wiiitiisfH: I 

^ I wf^j i^ii I ^ I wm I ^sm I 5t: I ^ I ^s W I ^^^ ii«ii 

^ r*)^ilM^rqf^ : 4jw«^H i fM4*fyq*a ? ft 'iT'mirt im»nn^ ?r^vi%^ ^nrar 'jk ^?<ti«9av 
^ffgf» T^M j. jr*<*dr<iiri* T^ ^ »gt y»w n^m Tm»* g'?! ira(T ^?Nf ir^l^nnrn^ ^^^ 

1 tftir g^T^ u^rrat f^^ wg^'ifi^ i?i!^: i 

^ 5*: ffTT<4HJ^^^^ 4 ^ X^TH' ^^rlJ ^W^ lib II 

^ I tf^"^ I ^^^ I us^ith: I f^'ta I wg: I ^^Iw: i ^ i Ttrf^: i 

^ I 5T: I frTTrt^l ^^rTTrf^l TjH^: n?fl: I ^ '^^' ' ^^ « ^^ llbll 
Tf^rm: irangrrRT »i?w: ^^ ^f^rrrfr ^ |^: ^^ng: ^rmr^ ^mt ^jrts f%^^ ^ 

^ m^ ^T!i «Tn^ Hrf ^^^ fV^t ^^^ II an 

*^^ » t^ ' l^^^ I f ^1 « ^:s^ I gs^ i"^ 1 515^ I 

^fti I fH^ I ^To I wir^ I H^ I ^^^f^ ?fri I TT^: I ^^li h^h 

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'rmt I ^ ^R^t^irfH I 'sf^ fJTsr ^^ h^t n^Rhi^TrwTrpi ^ «imiyf«i«0 ^J i i^ i ^P i i't i i 
»n^-g imi^iawwra ^^if^RTsrra T^TsrraT^r^TR^ ti 

m^fn I if^ ^ I 'gmRTT^ ?f^' ^nm^^ »ift^ g *rnri: jgpTTRT 1 w 8- ?■ 1 i:tH 11 wrSi 
f T^ Tpmif^ I ^t^ ^ I g^T«m ^^" 5n^%i^rf*rf7i tr 1 ^'^^ ;^. $. c ii[f7i 11 

gS^TfN I ^Wf I ^ I ^^I# I gS^STRt^ I ^ff^ I gSirftf?f I 

^■^ I ?TT^ I ^s^^ I ^m I ^i¥^hTi ^ I ^|h I ^TO'1 11*^0" 

g KJinji<« ' nn<! i .^ i ^<j '>i im«ii<m' ^T^Tfij^i*i'M«i7ftflii^^«ir«i«i^<V tr Tnrf*w f®^ ''t ^^ 

wirat %|ci^ |%?T »j^ ?i:sq ^^% ^TW^ \\^v\ 

w^ ?t^ 1^ iNw^iilrf% ^: ^^ ^nsufn ^ror^ in^ii 

tl^TlTITFffT ^TmiTlTiJ^ ^f^ ^^\m mmi Jfm\f( 1 fWTrf?r»T^ ^t»T^ ?»fT 

^^ ^n(Mi*<<Mi< w^i "rfHSR! I ^ft ^T^TRTj: xnTTf*r^5?T; Trft^'i^t ^jIvr fst 
^%: 5Er TTiff f^'^ TJM^ H ^inf»^^ iIT|T5??|ft I 

'wif^snit ?r^T ^?^f^%ft[ f^fH ^m ^^ ii«i?ii 

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^ f%% ^: f^: ^ »T^J ^ irg^ffrs: ^r^<«irt|f«fi: ^tt^OTt iJ^rf^M^jS^ 1 ^t 

^'^ ^Tt: ^m mwTff^ ^xj: ^^ fSpw^ <n4ft<^P( I Trf^ngt ?i t^ fi^ W^^i y^ 
^''^f^ II fi i f*i'd i t*Ht<^^i«<1< > I qr*^. ?.?$.$• I ffn ^rrmt « Hfffw t^ i ^i^ ^^rnrt 

|sf!Fn«t ^ ^Tl^TOif^ ^ f^ n^'T « ^S H 

snfTTrarow^: ^: git 'rat 'n5»^^iw^twT''^y^ » ¥*rt»T^::^»^ 

f^ f^ »T^ flPTt %^m\ iil(^nM\H^n MUimV^ 1 ^irf*»yfr«^ 11 ^^' «*^ ^ 

^ i"^f I ^i^T^ I ^nrif^T I ^5^ I ^ I ^l^srm I H?ira| I 
2r: I *p5TfiT I ^^: 1 57: 1 Ti4: 1 ^^1 ^iw: I ^ I ^H I ^ I ^R^ in II 

iren^ ^ ^cfeifd I ^ctoffl<^Mi^qi<fl'«fn vrm: \^'"\o.<\\\.\^m giftf^i gtTitfrm «fti^rNi 
m: ^ '^T'l t ^ifff^ I ^wft ft<ft II ^g^Sr: ^^rjft^: 11 gtan ^nirNj T^RrraTwrr ^(^iifH 1 
^(«ni^<n«i"^: II 

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?7 Tiffm f^^ ^ ^«^^^ H ^v ^fimt ^^^ii iRii 

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5T I ^fim I f^a^ I ^: 1 1^: 1^^ I ^ I ^fii I im\i \ wm[ irii 

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f(«n t^i^nW^^TfTRT: ^W^rr: ^btot ^ xr?nifti 1 ^<iu*5iT«iiTra -^iiiii^ty i 1 ^ n»5t 
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^v. I t^Tf?[g ^%g % «<(i*Jr: 'OTRt •«(<iyd 1 R<)«i^ 11 t^: ^nfftii gf^ ^ 11 

^*?TOt ^^ii^ ^ f^ 1%!t ^Trig^^mfHf'siJit II ^11 
^m^ \ ^ J Yl^ I ^^ I ^ i^si^ I ^v{ I ^Ir I %T I 
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^M ^STHri^i ^S^: I ^sf«: I ^: I 'J^f I IW: I ^^WH Ii8 


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^l^jax ^Mdnrf^ wRt irilf ^ ^^ ^^ ^f5Jt ii If ii 

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riTf^ I ^v;\: %nm m^ vm^i'^fTf itvmrfw^: 1 jffwT^ wrrw^^ irf^ror: _«?««^ 

j?f^ gffyt w^ ^^fn II iTiflf^: II 

n ^ ^^ iw^ gtfij ^^: ^^ ^R5rr4 ^^ i 

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f^^'"^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ "^^ I^T?| II bll 

f^: I ^ I ^t: I ^'. I w^: I ^; I ^^^qift^; i ^^m^ i ^^ i ^ i 

f^T^ I W^ 1 1^^ I HMS^ I ^ I ^ I ^^ I if^ \ 1^^ II b II 

^ItT^ T^fit ^^ftl^ '^H^rq^ H^TI^'^^H II ^11 

'Elt^fft I W.f> I ftr^: I ^filsfJ^: i i?f : i ^t', i ^^w i ^ i ^g i ^^: i 

^^1: 1 ^: I ^mrt: i ^^f^* i ^s^rt^i tt4: iTnjsTni;i 5t: i ^h iieii 

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^ I TT^r^ffi II 

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^^t: i "^w. I ^ttrfit: I HTJ: I p^: I ^: I WTFI^ i tqw 1 57: iisoii 

'''nftf'^l^f^i,Tff^^?n^:ifiToc,^.8e.i»Ti^f^^tfH^:^'TTm ^m\\n\ 

'^J ^»! ^i| 5r^ WW? ?3Nr ^^f in^H 

c c 2 

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^fs^ ^s[ig^ wt T'lTjWr ^mm'' ftg»rrf«nT?T4Tf«m ^^ f^nrm: ««i\^<ui h^ i ^^ 

m xft'-qUTT x|?J^ ^ f f^f^d rfy T^ "^^ II <^^ II 

^h ^ I Wi I T^kri: I ti I '^^* » ^^^ « ^^ ' ^^ ' ^ ' 

cTT I ^^^ I ^I^S^ I ^^ I ff^l W: I ^ I T^ 1^^ in^ll 

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j^ f ftl^^Tt '^fT'il I HTFT: ^ I ^ ^ Tff H«WI*l*ll*t T^rr^FST H!T«r u 

^iTT ^^ WH ^^1 H^ ifTfrri^Tif^wtvTg 5^: II <^? II 
^th ^ji I Tufrr I W I f^i ^?^ 1 5?: i ^s^n^tei i ^w: i ^^i 
^THf I ^'^ I Wii I ^s^rdTTf I H^ I iqftTS«^ I ^f^: I ^MTg I 5t: in?" 

^»rf^ ^^ 1 1 v^: ^ ^« wgsf^ra[ir4Tt Tff7\ ^^ttm i <^m Tif7Tgvr*4 n grfSf^^^- 

^>^ f^jjcT ^H^ h^Wh: "^^"brfftr ftiiP^^ ftf^: ii<i«ii 

^1^ ^ I ^w: I 

f^ I m I it^ I Wf I ^^ I ^f I ^fwfit: I ^itHtt: i Tfffh^ i 
qi^ I ^^ I 'wsgrci ^ I ^p^i ^r^^ I ?7firsfi|: I ifftf^: II «imi 

ara^ I f4f^ 5n^ I iftl^'iD I ff^rffif?fn »Tfm trrafir^ '^rri^TfTr: thStti^: 'sifT frra- 

im I ^c|: I wf^st^ I W[SW' I ^^^' ' ?f^«* I ^to: I 
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^?W^ ^^ fw^ ^^W ^^: ^^T ^t^nft H^«: I 

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HT i?^ II 

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TT^ ^ II 

w^T ^ h^^ct: ^ttw^I^: ^(hi^ ^^^^i ^: 118 a 

^: s^t I ^MriRHji fig I ^^ \ ^iFtpg^ ?f?t I TjMt* I ^: I ^^ I 

^istsi I tt^^h: I ^STTH^: \\w* I ^^ I "Tf^^n^ I ^: 118" 

^ Ud i * ii l<rti i «(\«n^^i ^^^IM^ ^: ^: I vn.«Pi II ^rw i^fif #^ vrg: 1 ftrfir '^ » ^ 
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*<»iq T « »?^j5n^ f5:'fr ^=iTnn j»t^ ipt ^: ^r^ 1 ^rfliwtr ^g^ p 

^i%ilm ii^^ Kt^ li^^i^ Tt^'a't ^mt^t ^ iiMii 

ftr^^ I fw I ^^opi I ^"^ I 'n I ^sTi^ft I w^ 1 1 1 vj^^' ' 


^ II M II 

floc|o.^<»M.^»^M.] II ^iTOtS^: II c|^(» 

^ vmf*f ^«J^: ^T ^^ ftj ra ^vim ^ tiw I l^tft ira'^ i nj^?ifr'n»i^T i 

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i^T I J^: I "^^ I ^5^ I fvT:s^rf I q^: i ^iMt i m[^^i i ^t?^: i 
W I H^^^T I ^^ni I ^^ i|%«i: I ^^1 ff^^ I f^^ iiffii 

%^^«: I ^sfk?T: I ^iTS^: i W^ i ^ l f^SipH: I W^_ I 
?it I ^^(^ I ^: I ^ I ^^: I #51^ I ^ I irfs^i^ I wf^ I ^ I '5'^: IIS II 

f^^r^: ^%^rerr f^ ^it^: ii ^ ^rnpfl- 1 ^f^ ^ ii 'ttt i f^ 'fran;: i ^fyfai^T 

^??^ ^?!i^7ref 'TTT^ ■qtf^ wr«i f^f^^fift f^f^TT'iff: H<n«i*im!T: W! ^?rn8% i ^"^ f^refir i tt 
T^ 5n ^^ ^R^T?^ ^jffJTcTT fit VKr<4«1<ii*ii ^(^'n'fti^f^nr'«<«M'*ii "^f : i "^^ i 
^ ?ni 'i^rnht ff^ gjfwl an n t ^ ri nf^ *a?{OX f% tt^: i t^fii i f«inTTH5lff fn i 

in^txjfw^ ^IJTFT ^ Tj[Km^ TRf|i|T^ ftRiT: II til 

^s%wi I f^iTti I fi^n^ tf»* ^S5iT^^ I ^H^ I ^5it I mn: i 

f^T*^: II til 

^00 11 W^^ » [^«t.^<»^"^«<\{^. 

^T^ ^nffr^^ «j*4Hr«i <<i^«si i'* > Ti^ ?i"mrgf^Tf TT^ ^rvm "^t^ 'ft^ ^n% T^m: i -^inrwf^. 

xniiimm TT^snTrrfr xr^ ««MN f^wr fcpft 5RT«i«if ^»iO yOfMuii gftftnff i ^- 
g^ I siif^ 7^-^ /iiRs^<ii^ wsn^^ni T^ M*iR*4i ^nH ^rif^ i ^ra^: '^^^i^ ^ 
?T<< M4 i 'iiti<4 i ^fmr^'j I TpiTMTf^T^TRf^ ^^j »nnt ^ i^yti^ i ^r^w-^tl t^wts^tw: i 
nH ^ ^: mff-^ra: mf^T: gt^r^rf wrr ?t ^ f^ t^ wmr ^ -mw^'dH,^ ^rgf^mr: 


^f^fw ^^K fW^l^f^ ^^ ^RHT ^ ^1 moil 

^fwfw I ^^s^^i ^s^n^ I if|^ I 'Hti^ I ^jwt \^^\^\ \m\ 

^^ .^-^Mm ii ii gTsfTpii T^T^ ?TOR^cT^^^^ II ^w l M *i«?: I »f\flif<*: ii w^^ Trrftt^ i ?tm 

f^^rtM^lB H 4f\*>Vu< ^ I vi^ ^trtoI i l?i^ Tfi» ^rrwT^T ii t^ "^ t^''^ ' ^^ 
^<5«lf(i f^ <*<,«!««( 5p{ II mo M 

^^' f^f^ ^4fT:'g^ W wm N^5rat ^fii ^'i "*»*»" 


?i^ TsJ'TOTV'nm I ^i^ f^ ^: irar T^ 1 ^ i i*<^*^flfli^<r\ ^T<- ^'^^'^ ^''^j!)^ 
gf^ra-- m^ftrSr ^ifit M^flirMH>nia<ii«i f5n q i JKi«j,<<mJi>MMi ^ ^<? ''*^^^^'^ "^Ij^^i 

iv^ «i<i i <\r« i fww^i iTOTT^: ^^ 'n^ I wr^ v^ ^irmKi it*' ^' » 

^ I ^i^: I frr^: if?r: i ^w i tbit^ i ^ i ^SHr^: i ^^fw^_ i 
^s^ if^s^^ I ^f^* I ^^ I f^m^ I fW^i I ^i I ^^: in^ii 

jn^ fH: ftg^: i f«T^rn:T«i: i f^nrri T^nsr: ii | Trr^Rf^Tpfr: i gf t ^lw i f ^: ii f^rVtTzf vxk^: 
^m^ ^iw^ ^^;^' ^^ifg^'Y grmt RH<i<jiSU g^^^: i Hm<<«i: i ^ T't't t^w^r^ i ^» <»o. 

f^^l^T^: "jw^^f^ ^ ^rtE^rft ^i vVTh: ^tw n?ii 
Tn^^ I w^: I ^Stni^i ^: I f^: I ^^ I ftf^: I ^4: 1 ^^f^: i 
f^ i"^^T^: I ""f^^ I ^^T% I ^ I ^t^lft I ^ I ^>i: I ^S^ II «i? II 

^fiiH'nfJ! m^rfiTWTt^ f«i«tw«g«vj^ I f^o <\^- ?o. ii 

TrfiT^T^ ^H^H: ^%: ^\fAxi ^ ^ l^TW ii«\{Jii 

f^^ i"^: I HI I ^^'. I ^tsw I ''Rif: I -f^' I ^?^: i ^s^t: \ 


v^fw: ai(^: ^rffm: gt«n TTVi^ ^75T «*rt<5*i«i*a ^ ^^nr 'is^ ^^iffn jtttji^j^- 

VOL. IV. • ~ D d 

l^rn; I -srf^^: i ^pjrri^ i ^^^ i ^ i f^ i «^^ i ^>^ i i?sto: i 
^ "!♦ ' ^"^i ' ^SiT'l I ^ I ^^ I W I ^f%sf>+: I ^^ I h: ii<)mi 

^t^t: II ^ ^ 'SR^f^f^ ^,t^T m«iv ii <i iT^5i«ia{4*«rf" TTOTTt I n^T^g 1 1 ^: ^ 
^fw^; q i gfli<!nfi<<^f»m^ <ji i '^^ T sff^ trm i t'^jt ii ii <\'\ ii 

^ ^^u: imt f^^'?? tii^^^ ^^ ^HT^: ii '=\ ii 

"1^1^ 1 1% I ^^5^^^: I ^f^^ I 5^:sfrT: i ^t^^t^ i hs%^: i 

^ t ^1^* I iTSwt I f%»^s^^: I ^s^^w: I ^rff: i ^HS^: inii 

^Si?^m: I ^^SuT^^t: I ^ I ^^ I i^frf^: i ^ji I ^'T^: » 
TO^S^i^ I ^3T^ I TlM I ^% I 11T^% I ^^ I ^^^r[ I ^^^- II ^ " 

«*jin*ifl: I fjo^TtwHT ^71 xmric i f^ irfwr ^^ Tr^1% »i^f^cT t?^ ^fvf«i 'tw 

^: I ^sfn: I Tift I tiTW I ^: I Trx[ I wf^^: I 5T: I ^rf^fr: I ^^ I ^1' 
^: I ^?[f>+: i"!^: I 'J^^nfiT i ??: i t^t i 5t: i ^if^i i ^f^T4 1 f^^ i'^" 

^^T ^f^1 ^i% ^rR| ^^-'fd^t ^i^ II 8 II 

if^fn: I ?iT^iif^^ ^ I mw I ^frt^i ^^i?n ^frr i w^: \ ^i \ ^^r^i 
\^T^i I ^^?En^ I ^^% I f^Hf I ^ I ^ 1 H^rrt i ^s^^"ii8ii 

^^ ^ilrft f^^^^: W^ ^ -^Wi f^^^^t^: II mi 

^t^T^ I ^h: I ^in: I ^WS^: I ^^ I f^: I Hff^ I tq^: I ^1^5^ I 

^^Sfri: I ^Jjwt: I ftf^s^^H: i ^11 1 ^it: i w^ i f^5^%^ i ^im im ii 

vlfw: TTsjTfH^; ^T^i'^da-WT -^m^ ^rra#r tpj^ ^ irtprr ^n^ fRtt f^ns^ 

"n^^TTrrt TTfiirt iaifti^m li^ |m ^fri^w f^^r^ ft^ N^r^ ir^ iji i ?r[t i f^ri^ i 
^iTv^^^^rs^r^^niiTfn ^ftr TRiftr ^r fw^^ wmH ^rawnvR sj^ i ^ire^^ i ira^ u 
^1^%'^ ftiJi^T'm: II II «(^ II 

l^^T gr^tijf^'^ "m^i^ ^ ^#f% ^4^ ^W^- "^" 
^^ I ^: I ^T!i: I ^H I ^^: i ^xho: i^^t: I ^^: I |f^:Sfrt; i 
l^T I HT^hjM^ ^ I ^w^^ ^iTS^ft I ^ I iT^: I ^: i 
^s^: II ^11 

Ttt Wri^?^"\ |m gu T flTMi ^t^T^ i JT^n 'tftpn 'mrir ^rr^ fw: ^ i f*«r ^: 

D d 2 

^0^ II W^^' H [^•b.^o^.^o,!^ 

^ftlftiTK ^H^T^ ^l^S^ ^^^^^^ ^^ lib II 

^hs^t: I Tsf%3?f: I ^^tsfrl: i ^^itsf^^: I ^^^tmf 1 ^f^sW: 1 
^sttrTK: I ^swr^: I ^: I ^' 1 ^^^•l i ^ I ^S^ lib 11 

ig^fWr: I ITT II ^: **»S<a1uiif^^: fiR. 11 %f^4»«rij<*iT: 1 ipTJwm ^rr f^?r^ 1 froj^^ 

^T^^^ ^ I ^T^^ I ^^ I ^T I ^^' I w^l^ft: I ^fH^fH I ^f^'ii I 
^fb^ I ^: I ^ nra: I ^h^ i "^ \\^i 1 Hf¥ i ^T i w^. \m 

p(w\ ^ t^T^ 'J iMi^r ^ '?! grT^n^f^i^iT4«rf»m^ ^wr ?[t^ ^ ^^Mrm 11 g^^m: 11 
^m ^ 4*M'<nMv ft-g TWT «rt i << i ^'^TiT^^f'mTf^ ^ HsrpqwniT^t^T^^TO^ 1 -3^^^^ ' 

^Bftf ^ mi ^T^nn'T 11 ■j^ftrwt^^^srR 1 tt" ?. ?• m^. ?. 1 i:aj^^< ^rrr^iR n rt ^ ''^ 
<aij01 f^ f^^- 1 t^TT ^^5^^1ifi '^: II 

vj^ft: I f|^: I ^>i^- 1 ^Sf^: I ^ripr^^ i Mfi^^ i H^^- ' 

qi d i MJ i'^i Trrrg t?*«ra ^t^i^ ''IN ^^mvttttrtra^ 'ftiw^ f^: ^- ^ ^ V^T^ 

^^w: 'jTORiff^ ^ f^ ^^-Rt ^w ^ Jm ins II 
^y^' I ^* ' ^' ' ^ft^ I ^: i ^s^iTit^i t^f^' \ ^^: i 
^: I pit: I '^W^i ^"^'tf^ I ^ I f^^ 1^^: I ^ I ^i:^!: i ^ ins ii 

^%n ^T ^^I ^^M l?n ^ ^TRt^nf?! f^T^qr! IIS^II 

Frr^i I ^: i tr^: i^^s^^ i hH i ^: i ^^ mi ?t^ i ^t^s^t i 
fnf^siT: I ^: I ^Rhr: I gs^t'Tsi: I ^jRii ^ 1 sjwhIhiP^ i %^ in^ii 

^mr^ ^TR I 'RTRi^Tt »^ I n<fr 'fti^^ ^ ^r^^ 11 gift m^^r: 11 ^r^ n^w t^H 

^^ ftntu Tiw ^d% ^«i^ xi^Ti^H ^T^^T I 
^^ nfff Tif7i%'5r^pi| f^^R^f ^^f ^ii«5^rT: n?ii 

^sqt I ftrftu I TW^IT I ^i::S%T I Wm I W I ^ I ^ I ^^S^T I 
^^|TTfWllrf^S%T5?l|fl|lf^^l'|-^T^I^?^kl^liSfSTf: 11^911 

q7^r <<« i<!(;%fir I ff^i;g3i^TfiT 1 titt "^?r^ 'I'sr^ ^ 'i^m ^rg^ ^^w f^rrff^- 

% ^ -mv. ^TiTOt^T^'^^T^s^ ^m ^^ in8ii 

^^rew: I f^S^rl^l ^T^ I ^H I "^-^FC I tSEt'TT: I ^S^l ^^S^ I 


Tp^^ ^#^ ^IT^Tf^ II II <^8 II 

^^HT^'JT^ I ^^ ^ I 'siiTt f%ramf?r mwiiT^^T- f'T'aJt^ ^mtn fife i 'W- ^. a- 1 Tt^ « 

fqcriOnrr ^ift^ i ^?T3tnrR i ^wt ^^rrmt f^wf^ y'^*i«*<^«i«J: i %ii7TT T»re%if»iTHt 
iiT^si •^t^tttt: HTTWrTT vt^lujtT npi^rf^Twrf^ arww i^" st" ^. ?8. i n^ gr^^' 

^^ 'nirf^: i g^^ ^i^rra f^fiT^T^tl[«m ii 

mil ^m*^ ^^ t^'- ^"^ ^^ ^ranrn ^V«rn>nt ^i^Tfri! Ti«TO*t fi[n^ ^**'*'S 

^ rwr q T^ifiiq> r*i*<<i r*<<i<§l»»^qKii^ i ^mft ^ TrrefTfi; i ^nir i^ift ^rsra ^f^m: 

ffwfff^^ s^fi^ft^g^m ^^^ f| fw^ ^^: ii^jii 

W>ra f7Wtigx:Tlt lift ^JA: I f^ffRP^ 11 fl^t^fSF ?i% ^%f?T 1^ I g^5i ^^^t- 

Il^fii^^ ^^ vmi W^ ^q;^"r<^ -ot: H M II 

f^sfvt^ I ^ I ^q+ 1 1 1 ^TtiHV I fvf: I ^\H I ^ I ^sv: 1 "^J^i 

Iptrf^: I ^^^ I ^^ I nf I ^ii f^i WTT^s^ I ^: iimi 

^: I ^ I Tflgrnt i ^\^ i ^t^s?^ i f^ \ ^^ i ^ i 
^^sf>7: 1 WSftjtl l^Tlt^: I ^5^1 ^^ I ^ I »n: I ^^^'^OTTt^ii^ii 

?T7Tfmni<TT IT -Siyi^Ulft. I '^JT^frT II II <\H II 

p(^*iw Pri 4^ r ^^^^fl'^-^^fefqtf^ «^»M? II ^11 

^: if 1 5H^: I ^f^sfii: I'j^sfit: i^s^ihnET if^ IM^S^: i^fij^^^ii 

^^: 1 xrfrr: I ^s^t I ^t:^: I '^'ts^fi?: I ?[f^^ I f^ I W^K wsw 

^k: I ^srapTT I wF ^£m: I ri irfW ^f*j: i irrsf^fim ^iY^r^n!! v^ an'rc i sira^ ii 

^ ^^ TR?T^ Tft4fH Tn i^^^ "5?^!nm ^'Vft: i 

^FTf?Tf^iqt^N^m%5%^ ^rg^ ^?lf^5 II b II 

^ I e^^ I TT^w I ^TtsxTfit I it: I ftq^T^: \ \mjij[ i 'MtT*!: i 
^f¥(f?T: I fi7^:s^'sr^: i ^i ^fW: i ^?^5^ i ^f^s15+: ii bii 

?rq^: ii m%: ^i^'tiJiTfl^^: irai^: ii ^<=(-4j^Mi<*i<i;(^r^<ian »rr^ ^ ?t^ M<.«ti< ^t^ 

ft ^V^Ht ^frffit: fi^^rf^t: f^^^ m^ ^V^ I 
^^^fri ^^ 'l^^ ^W ^ 'T^ f^ II ^11 
rf I ^v4fT: I i^fwsf>4: 1 fWl>=i: i f^ist^ i ^?M i H^s^ i 
^Wtt I ^T^ I 'jts^Tifi I »^s>i^ I wi I W^ I f^ n^ii 

«v# I ^ f?rewnr t^ xpf .v^ i m mf rM i ^rf^ flfff*i^ 'tt^ ^•'^' ^y^**^ 

^T t ^ I ^sret^i f%^sM I "^n I ^ I ^^1 ^sr^Tifti I ^ I 
^[fwfw I -^ I ^vxItt: I ^Ht I #?[; i f^)jw: 1 3^tf?f: i w^t ii«io ii 

^RIT^W f^T ^y ^ f^^^ ^fH?S: I 

^ T^ ^ ^^ f^'^roS^^ 'Jfrf f^^fn^ \\<W\ 

mi I WSftj^ I ^[ I ^:s^ I ^ft I f^i f^ I ^i^ I ;^fii: i ^"^i | 

^T I ^4: 1 ^ I )T^W I f^^t: I TTrt^ I d^# ^fl+ I ^ I fW^ # 

f^^sf,^ in«^ii 

j^ I rrerr ^ ^finjaft^'^^'i^: sftft ^ajx: wm^v \ ix't i ffT'^vn:?? i vm ii hwt ^ 
^^ I IIP M. ?. ??. I Tf^ f^rarfTTf!: ii TT^grff^: ^ ^ ff ftn^ixj jt^ i si^g i rrf^^- 

^' "!F ' 'II^' ' ^^"^ I f^ I ^^ I ^?^fTft' ^'pM I 
^T^l ^f| I ^ift^jnc^l^^ji ftt^i'^t: l^cfpjf?^ 

^ifir^ I s^t^pTft. I fli^^ I ^rff»T?7T5iJnn*rnTXT* ^qpr?^ i ^r^v^ i ^<t: €tt ^^wif^wr: 
fii^ ^i^m'n ^r: I 'BT^ I ^fTwwrarr 'tir^n 'i^: i 'stwnt. i ^r^ H(ti»mqc(^ i ^^ 
m^^: 1 1 5iTqiyr«j<*ft ^: ?rf sfri^ri'jn^ i nr^ ii n q^ n 

"3^ Tfn ^<inH*is»t f* I '^WT^n: ^^ i "3^ fT!i«piit<j ii ^3^ fli5l<!ii^f%H 

'f^fnt 57 cj^ TT^TiJiT ^^M^ ^ftn^^ ^^: i 

^>^ ^^ H^^ <^^WfrlH«T^% ^^^ mil 

^SffT: I ?n ^: I t^'Ot: i m^: i ^M^s?,^ i ^^: i 
^S)j5|: 1 5T I ^1^4: 1 ^^', , ^pqfif i ^h i ^: i ^'q^ ii<^ii 

^'^ '^^wtiPTf'mTft «ra: trf^Tj: nai i (inji i s(^*< i mi : sf^t^m: i ^ ^atmr^ i tm 
^^^^^ I 'TOT ^ TR^: h^:h^: ^*<( ' *<*< ' * ' *^ ' ^*<^^ ' *'*'^<i*^ ^^= ^^ 'WT wifn i 

VOL. IV. E e 

H I nt^: I ^fw: I ^^^T^: \ wiis^ I ?rt.i ^^^ I ^'H^ I 
3f^ I f^: 1 5f I ^fft ^fw ^STtrft I ^^ I -^^ I ^^ I W'^S^ I 

^^ IRII 

wf'iT^if'n^: grt Tg^rmr: 'y^^«T 3rra^»i. »T»r \^^»T[ ^ ^ f^nfr ff^rfWrrpkrif 

•i^wPri: n^wi:^ f^i|^ Otj^t ^ ^^"^ f^f^: 11911 
^vs^^t: I ^rffff^l: I if^TT: i Wfi: 1 ^s-ar^t: i ^^s^tn: 1 
^l^rfrf: I tjli^wT: I f^SH^ I f^r: I m: I ^ I ^^^$^ I ftarf^swi: 11 ^11 

f^g^l firit^^^ I ^*(*i*fl^ fi^fn I MTM«<fd I Tnr f^n: 1 ^nrfir'? 'jt^t ^ f^ifw: gw^ 
'^iT^T^ f^T^w II 'f^ ^3i?ifn% I t%fz ^ II ^fTi ¥rvji?i*iTf<g'u*i7!iT 'n wii ^^t^mt %^ 

WWffl ^^ W^ II 
^FTfil^^^^^ IT Jjwrt ^3^^ ^ i^-^ f^^^ II 8 II 

^s^^ I Tiv^T I ^?T^ I ^tf^ I ^s%xr^ I ^: I ^f^s^ I ^* > 

^f ^crfH: I ^tn[ I w^^i 1 507: 1 igpi: I ^si^ i f^ 1 i^ 1 f^^iui" 

jrg^fr^%nr3^T^i«l gfM^ * <i fr«j< g| « i fH'^ 11 v^ ^ %g »i %^ »i ^<. ^t | 1 5iw^ fMiTTir^ 

r»mY^ ^'fllwTfn ^^T'J't: fii^^^^rra[%TTtvfwTraT: t^WnxTnnn'q^'fST^^ 'W'J^' 

l^^rH<rj*i?7it ^TcJy^iqjjrfii^ ^TH ^ ^ ^ it: II mi 

^xi 1 5^f?*^ I HTi: I ^-rif(8jli!;i ^: \ ^xfh^^-^ I ^: i w^\ 
^fwfH: I ^gs^ I ^^j^ I ^si^ I ^TT^: I '^sn I ^ I w I nr: II mi 

^ %T ^ftf^T^^^f^tlH^T^t^f^hrit lilfll 

^T I ^^ I ilWw: I ^i I i^"i ^wf?f: I ^^:sf>q: i ^% \ 

^sfii: I ^ I f^ I xrftsf^ I ^^1 ^^: I f^j^ i^f^fi^i 

^^^t II I II 

i?m^f(; II II ^^ II 

If^rT: I ^HH I ff I Rir^i mm I HTTt I ^<Nif I H<% 1 33ft I ^1 

^Si^ I fvmi I 'ii^^kii I nJ^ I ^il^l ^^t: I H^W^ I rFRt I ^^11 S II 

^'5^ 'i^TRif ff:f%7n ^sftr^T TT^prraj^^Twr^ vM ^mt^r^ 1 ^<<i4{<itt 1 jnc ^stTr: 1 

%^TT ^gi# ^ ^^TflFrfrff^^^ fk^ II til 

^ I ^ftts^ I Ti^ iqft I ^^1 *»<^ I ^ K^ I ^^ I fmflf I 
^'^^ I rn^i ^HK I ^pRTO I ^ I ^^T?!:i ^^qfrr: i f^sT^^jf i f^s^ iibii 

E e 2 

^;pcrfH: i 'Tts^^: i ^<^^ i f^: i nm^ i T i Tif to: i wt ii ^n 

f|HTS?^ I T?% I ^f^ I ^'itf^ I <ff¥4rrt^T I ^fW^I "^t I m: I 

^^ sf Hi I ^^Tfit I ^^ I wii\ ^^ind I f^: I ^ri^s-^Rtw: ino ii 

-Q^i rTRj ^^y5qf%|^¥rfHf>i57^f?i f^^wr: ii ss ii 

^rfn I w^ I ^ 1 ^^^ft: I W^ I ^7^%^: I ftrrt: i lit 1 ^ft^ 1 

TFd I cT^: 1^^: li^fir: i^T^ i^Frfw: ifn^i^i f^^i nr: infill 

ftmr: M i t a n« <i <t ^ ^ ^^t^ « i <i i '^f*<< i rq'« <i f<R TT? qfU » t1 1 ^rf^rnti^^'wi. 11 f*ni 

ff?t rra[<i: I ITT Trarf ?!»fr nifi?n<ia: 1 f^^rfwfj wrfwf^wreR^: 11 •^i^^^'fi\"*i'&'| 
^^\f^. qi <cn« : I vqm ^ft T ^j^ I '^i^ g « »i » i *^< i <f* » v)M : 11 v^ fn^UJ.f^ ^^irrfvfHH 

^pqfff: ^ ff nt^: ^ ^"% 9 ^'V^^: ?( ^^^ ^^ '^^ H*^^" 
?^ I ^Tsfiit 1 ^: I ^f^^^ I 'i: I ^^T: I ^'^ I ^S'ft'HtfH I 
^W?t: 1.^: 1 ff I JT^I^: I ^: I ^: I ^: I ^tfi*: I «: I ^sf*4: 1 H- « ^^' ' 

MTf^^ II <\^ II 

^ ^Wh: nMM's'Tf^f*'^ ^ff't ^i^ 'fri^w ^ftg»9t \m_ i ^\ng i ira^ i ct^s^- 

if^flTT^TT^ II n'i^n IIMII 

^mr^ ^ f^: I ^WSffldr i ?wt ^gw«i?l i hji: gf*r€t ^Twra ''sji^ Qi^ <iftiiiOni ii 
jmtf%f*nfm: ii 

^^ ^j^ f^^ ^ 1^ ^^^^ ^^ ^rf^i^Wrl^ II ^ II 

H5t: i^M ^s^'g^ I ^s^Tf: I ^ I iis^fifw: I ?| s^: I ^SfiiT^: I 
^ili'gsft?^: if^: I ^ lijtiW 1^^ i^s^cf: I ^ I ^^^rTf|;i|C|ii 

^ I ^w^^ ^w^f% ^mrei^: M'iz^\ wflisi\«iT «rag i nnnnKdig inpni ?rra^ <irarn!i '^ 
^(ffarrf^ f^qrfTm: ii ^tift^tH i '^tot^: ^^ ii 

^^|iT ^^ f^ xtim ^^ ?cC TN^ ^f^tl^iT: IRII 

^cf I ^: I ^S^^ I ^^ l^rfl^l^l^^l^l ^^ I 

^^ I ^S^rT: I ^f^^T I f^ I TJV^ I ^li:S!f=r I ^^ I ^f^tS^flT: II ^ II 

^i^^^ f^irf^ «^ I Tirar ^TT^: ^tt^ ^rt^rfwf?! «1rit^: f^^ ^^^ ft^ i ^t^ u 

^ T^^^ 3R fh^ f^^ ^ ^^ ^^ « fl ^ in: ii?ii 

^1 ^ I Ti^: I ^i ^nfNi I gsftr^: i ^sfi^ i ?3^ i rTH^i ^^i 'T^r: i 

^5 i'^X< ^i; I ^- 1 f^'Tt: I ^TO I h: I ^^ I ^f^i W I p I ^^: I ^: II3II 

^ ^ % ?nfH ^r^^ <.fl*i*i ^ *< »i^ ? iai*4tir i 'TOT ?R^ ff^: B«ji<li^rfl gfini 
^'"'"M^ift^ I ^)4<n<lM<<ir*< B fW^ t^ 1 fwi^Yfw^fwrt tf?f f^iq iri t fl lM : ii ?Tf^ 
J^^^ Tfi3T#^ »r^^ W»ft vrg I ^ ^"^TO*!^ ^r^rr h^ n^ liW i n^ra i ^ t^i ^ 

^:i^,, ^ "* 


si wpm^tfmsrt^^ I ^ ?^ 'ftiwrti f^nn: ii ytTt^uf^: ii ^m ^ i w^ T'Wt h^ i ^ i 
if^: ^t^n^t T^r^ w^ 1 f*Ji ^ <t^ T^ra ^rf^ ^ ^ ?ra ^J^^^r^ -sr^ng trretTi 11 

^^ I ^ I ^tT^s^'^ I ^ I j^^t: mi I i^ I WT^i ^>iSTiff?T: I ^Tiirit 1 
'j^: sx^ I ^^: I ^^^: I ^sfiT^: m I ^ I ^^ 1 ^TfiTS^pg^ I ^T^i 11 m ii 

'fmrf^mr *r^ 1 1^ «^ ^ ^if^^ m mftff. i tt r?ig i 'smt ^ttrt wH'Jn'rfwntnTfrt- 
%m "^TcifiiTir vp^ I ^ra TTvsra^n^^ •tmilM^m'^^ %-wnfj: Tt^fi^^ 'ninf^ g ^ 

T^ ^^ ^x^^^ ^^^Mt i^^ ^fT^RTfcTi^ ^: II !f II 

^ I ^Wl xi'^f^i I ^^ I ^ I ^fti I ^^t I f^^^ I 

'gt: S3^ I ^^: I ^^^: I ^r^t^t 1 1^ 1 ^ i "'JipTTS^ I ^f^ \m}\^^ II 

f3f5t«T I fr p ftTqT >i<llrt <v ^ : II f3t ^ I f^tfz ^ II 331: f^ ^^Trm ^psttot ^Jmg^H'rm- 

^t^^lf?TfffK^T II 

i^ ^f*T^^l!!T^f^ gf^^f>+fbzr% "^fw, lib II 

sf # I ^^: 1 5|s^ I ^s%^: I ^ro^Ms^ I ^H?rT i «w:s^ i 

i^ I ^sf^: I ^f^Tsn^sfJr: i ^ i ^sftr^fJ^: i ?i;q% i^^^^s^^ii bii 

\^^ ^fTi 5rrrR^ ^i^^ ^iw^ n ^^ i 

^^ TTT^lf^^ ^T'i^ ^1^M^^I<i^fH: lieil 

?^^: I f^ri; I ^ I ^JJrlt: I ^S%^: I Hff^^ i ^fks^^ l U I ^^ I 


% ^urf^ ^ mv^m^ % TTsr Jrff^TPim^T ^<<ina'^<<r ^rf^ ir nt^ i jts^ i ^bt^t 
ffT^tj^^wfv^t fwn: irar: #gw t%: ^ ?Rt ^ ^ *l<.Ndl5 ) < i « <i r<'!>i ^ina*ii<i«i. Trrym: 

^i ^^^^m^_ r^J^ ^yj^: ^% I 

1^^ ^^ ^M ^f^ttw ^fi ^R^^fff^ mo II 

%Tst^ I ^^ I ^f^: I ^s^ I m I ^^ I ^s^^: I H^^rj; i 

1^^: I ^ I ^S^y I ^^ I ^ I ^hi; I ^;%: I ^ihr: I f^ H cjo II 

I ^ «Tr^^ ^f^i^ ^s^m^ y^<^-j|l igtr^ nMi i i<*4 i M r<-^<,«<Miql im ftrnfw: i 
^^1 1 ?f«rfj?: PlRd^Mi I ^in^ifinr i ft^ ^m fttrr ^nifft ^ mnnV i ^t^^ m ii 
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^^a.^ ^.^^ ^ ^ "W TT ^rf»T\j imw: %^»rR: ^ ^4i-Mfi<pa iwrf^ vift r 'if> > ^rfn^: i 
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^ij^i ^ftr: I ^f^s^^ I ^^ I ^sfil: i %tt^ i ^rTRtH^itsfii: i 
^: if%i^in«)ii 

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^: I 5t: I ^T^Tft^ I ^rf I ^ I ^siriTfV?^: I ^ I fire I ^^h: I ^fy s^^ im» 

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^sr^JT^ II II !^o II 

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craf^Tjf^: ^f^^ ^Tf+'l,^ >^ ^^ ^^Rim II S II 

fRT I ^ I ^ I ^S^-^l I f^^ I ^35: I t^ I Hfff I f^ I ^Wl^' I 

l^s^i^ mil 

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^^rf^ W 'TTtwr f^5iftfi|vqlf1.^W If^ll^H 

W I'l^lf I ^S'n^ I P » ^I^ ' ^^^: I f^si^fn: I ^' • 

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ininir 'r^rar ^t^iir sen ^ tj[T^: g^^i tf«r: jk^ h 

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fmr H^iT%ai% m ^ I fii^ II 
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WcEm ^^m^ ^ifti^i^ ^^ ^f^^^T7( II 8 II 

f^ I IT^nt I "^^S^ I %^T I ^ I 5piTT I ^fH I ^H I ^^ ?f?* I 

m^m I ^i#T 1^ I ^: I i^S5^^ I ^: i ^^ i^^v^ ii 8ii 

WT^^Tft M^nvrm i i^r^tm: ii ^it^isn ^ h^ i ^^i^ -^r^f^ ^rf^: f?1*T ^t»n%- 
W^VT%^ ^ ^ I H^ 1^ 1^ itmr^ ^ ^m ^t<m ^ i^ '^flasiTT i ^ ^n i»!t>iRT?r i 

f?^ m m^ ^?jm ^tN: TjftwT m ^w f^ ^s^ I 

^^Tftlt^t »!%fT H^l^ rsi ^^vk^M IIM II 

%: I ^T I m?! I ^tsni I ^thii I ^fq;5iiT i ^j i -rv^ i f^ i wi^ i 
1^: I 1R: I JTf^T I Hfrt^s^: iV i T^ I TWS^: i \fi^ ii mi 

^^ ^?i I "awm H^»^<«r*: ii ^mfSi ira^ »t fSt^mr: ii gflf^rr^ rnirft * )mi fa m^m 
^^^f^ ^T ^i f^ ^ JT^ I ^dii^T^qi^tftM^j^jim ^ x^: II gijt ggftft ^re: f : u 

^ ^\^ ^5Jrft ^'^ ^ ^ g^Jt'^tl^ ll^ll 

VOL. IV,' • " ■" p f 

^S^ II If II 

1^ 'jftTmi^ fiffr ^wt'^rer iffirrr fffn^ gftr^ ift»T?r^^ vsMiMH^lm^a t* ^- 
TT^ '^t^ T«Ri ^n% f*T ^R[7n I (M^n^fll I ^ ^irfV BH^ trr^rerm^ ^ gwf ifrJTWviSt ^ 
^ ^ g^^rt^ fwtT§ 'snrfr *nX\n^ wn^ ^^fr ^rff^ <*m*<*(i'ii t^rot ^ '^ ift^ i 
^^rf^itg II 

l^m^i^^ ^ "^w^ ^^11 iT^mw ^«ii ii^ii 

^«l: I TH^ I ^fi^i ^[ftr: I ^s^: i fvm i umtf^ i ^^: \ ^^s^ i 

^:sf^ I ^feq I ^ I ^w^ I %:s7ttT i #i^ i ^ i ^^ ii^ii 

TTTTT <n*< i f*<N< ! m ^Tfr«4 'swjft wrfn 'RST ^ ^w^mjiMfM: vfwi\ ?f^f^: *j«<«0>n H^ 
f^Tffi^ f^fSTT 11 wt^ wsraTT^ II n < <3 i- rt*n «j^i*<n«'*<il ^fw v^mr ^%^ I 'if^^'n^: i 

H^Kjg^ ^fiim pV^aet "^^t ^ircHt i^w ii t ii 

f^: I W: I ^|: I ^ I ^: i in i %! i ^^l » ^J I ^ « 
H^^^i ^ I gsfMin I pW I ^ i"^ I ^s^i^ I ^^ II til 

■^^1 ?^: I nn^i f I ^5i^"i m^i ^1 ^»iOT I ^P^: « 'f^^JJ > 

fl«^o.^o^.^«»«^] II ^i^s^: II ^<l^ 

^^ II ?m <«iHr'K«m*Hi4 v^j^ «i»Tr^ irawq: i^ ^ftfiiit^ vi^ ^: tbtt i^ir ^i^: 

^Tjzfn I ^: TTira? II 

^^Tf7ra1% f%%^ TT^ Ttnt^^^ fiirg#?n i ^M ^ i |i|»^ i^^ fffft 

^?T^ T^^t f'T^'ii ^'n vii^ ^ ^ f^riT^ I 
^^"1^: ^^r^'^^HT ^TFti^^ 1^ ^ moil 

^#rr i"^: I ^^1 f ^4 1 ^^m I '^N l > {r g [4) ^fit 1 1^ I ^ mo ii 
w I ^ I ^ I ^^ I ^ m:\iii f^^: I iT^: i ^mft^in^i 

ff^^Tri i:^^iT^^ g^iW ^ I 4(fnr<«^ |t*M^<i^ »nr»ft gRn) ftrsr ^ f^: i Ti^m 

''T4 ^ ^-ill'lldHtiMT^^ I TftTTR^rfwrgFT^ ^RT^ fi^ff^: if^. <10«8. 1 xpf I iljti^ ^ I 

!?^ ll^rfNi^ gwT »M^ «R7ft II ^wr«ini«>i> »jn: ii ^^r^ ^-.^ ntnr^^ [ -mn - 

lt^ w*t ^r^ ^ ^1^ 5Tm^^ ^iit^n: i 

%t ^i ^TOT^^sn W^T f^ xj^f^: II «i II 

l^i^ I v^ I ^: I ^ nn^i m ^^ I ^jvn i ^vI^tt: i 


I'J^'rf'n?*^ ^ rqr^fl'^^i'^ i miiaiofgi ^rawpi: ^rarrt ^frsrif i ^ ff^iTrnain, 

F f 2 

?nirra[WriTt I ^i^ <^ i*J W< t n aH i ' ^ T^rptrgr i fl«><it^*»m' ^ ini^iTm ^nrarrfrit trnn^ 
■^?[i«}tii«««i^<1 tr^ !T«im>i jit jit^ f^rfiTt 'fn^ aS^oit ii *<««K«fllM**i<*J-' ii Jt'=»!iTf%jhrf?T i 

*iK«!a««*4*i*ivr!T i'^" ^o <». ^. §. n 

f^nrsTT I ^rf^y^i'J^-j'iPifd I ^ra[T i "wm ff\*^^\ ^h^ttt ^%frr friTi^: n *r1^^: ^p^ 

^renr ^T^: ^UsHiIm WRfrr i t)i<«<j*H«i^<iiiwT x^: i fl^T^it mf^ «^ Jii^r# f^tfm 

TR^^wqiff^g^Y^nnfr^i ^n^ ^carrfl^ "%, ^m^tvs ^n^ i ^Rh "sr i ^t ^t^: 'j^^- 
^wnrf^ffi % ^^' TT^^T^nTOTT ^^: i '^* ^- «:. i t^t ii 

HTITT^JRIT ^^v: ^^T wt ^Vl 'tm ^f>7 H ^4^^ II ? II 

^%54 1 m^: I TT^s^4 1 m^^ I ?Tt I ^^ I ^f^^ t ^f^^ I wsN^t I 
wt I '^qs^si I f^ I ^^: i ^s^ i rri i ^ \\^r. i ^fn i ^ i ^"^h ii?" 

'?rem?t I ^?rt wt ^'SRT^sniw g^-^ ^irj ^tg ^^; i ^9^: i 'Btpng^rnran'rawrg- 
Tifini: ^'i^ II 

^rfi r: I tTW5i[ I H I ^^ I ^T^ I ^ I f^: I ^^ I 5f I ^^fn I ^J 

i^ t^ I rf^ I if# I f^ I ^% I ^^S^ I X|^ I ^^rft I ^S^Tfli: II Jill 

ga I i^ I H5^ I ftjn:stii'if i w|: i ^ i ^^r i ff ^tfa i ^t[ i ^if^i^ i 

^t|;^T I ^T:frT I HR^t 1 ^^: I ^T^ I 'J^S^m; I ^fyf | ^^eqi II M II 

^(ft ^q^^vTiTW^ f^RTft?t »i^ isrer f^ f^ h^ i 't^ i f^r^ n^imrn^H i ^? : i ^ra[T i 

^q^Midtft f«N% I ir^f f^irnn^: g^i^J^^ ^g^f^nrf^rrar ^rRTTW^trsajT ^^^g^'^g 

W[i ^ W^^rl^Pl, I ^^J^f MI<i*<I^I«f ^TPl'Er "^fTT I TeTT ^«n ^J^ ^: 1^ sftW^N "fit 

^tnJ^ft* *(i * )r tifM t < <Jt n ^Tfif 'WT ^^ f^i^rr% Mai<(if<<j»: ^t-tje-uiflr ^m^Vn Hffng- 

^: I fiTRiT^ I ^^sf^^ I ^m\i \mjr^\ ^Tf% i ^aftt i >Trn: i ^w i 

''rCI 1 1 l^tftt I ^H^ I 'J^lfir I 'rfl I TTS^I ^S^n^ I W llffll 

"^mTTjiTwwTTO tm 'mif 1 TT^ ^ii-iiK i rgtf ) Ka « M*<iiI *f «rmf?r i (Wnr^t^f^n^wirfti 

^^_ti^h: ^^^'h: «^^ »^^5[ttci^HT ^JJ|: i 
^.^TT^ ^ira^^ ^ ^ 1^ t^ ^i^ ^ R ^^ IISII 

^TTW I ^^s^^^: I ^ t^ I ^if^J'si^ • ^^TRi* i^^fi* «^i^f^ ll«ll 

^iKT I ^^Rn3T^5>»gti»twft 'stniffjt I TTBTT '^ ^^ I nmi\^ ^im^ x^ i Trrf^rrf^rgTBr: 

^ ^: f^ I < < \u[r« ) < <i < ii u iitMai<i<i: i Tf«n '"rprra^ i •^^■^ t^ % ^a^jfmfirR! i mf^n- ^m^: \ 
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^r^^T 'rwf^ 'srr?m t^t 'I'Pr^Tr: tthtot: i ^«^^*it ^ni^T ^^33: 1 »t^ i1^ t^ ^^^t^vto: h 

■^ \^ II ^'t^rmwr^ra: •sftHi^: 11 ^m«*^i«: wsrwttmrnnfr^^ j^ x^ 1 'U^^srr xm^: \ 
^ ^*i i '^Ht » i« iif I fi'n w T^ ^trtt: n ^n^: Bntrf^ '?rwj: i m" ?• 8- sS- 1 59 ^f wwg^ 
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fferwTf^ f^w ^ai I f^T" <^?- «»?• H 


w ix^ m^Ti^x?^ TqW fHtt#^ TT'^^ ^^^: nail 

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^ 1 ^ 1 ^'^ I ^STRt I TTTT^ I ^<^: I H^ I H^ I ^S5f^: IK^" 

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I ^» 8. 8. 1 TtTl II 

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^^ i^ ^rT ^TcTf^?n ^^ TIT^ f^ ft^H ^ iq: || <)e| || 

^^t I Fart I ^^ I fITO I ^|gEqi7|;i nm I Wi I IrIh I "sM^ I 

^ VTTjTg'TT^: I ^|[H^: H^g^iiwrt i 9r tjui ^xm nandg i ^rar^ ^^: i ^^nft^- 
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Tmt?[f!!^» i«j*( iXmi^i^TOTf^ I net fgwf?ffJ f^iiV « ( i «? gsr^ ii ii ^8 n 

%^^ H*i!!*i Tnft nt f^f^K^i H^r^T^gft ^*^lffli■^ ^ l<^'!?«^^^^< : ii 
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^ i^^'<(i^i<<«flr<rflir ^« » *<i«is*'r*<fj > « »m: ^»r q f» i<nji: « 

"^cjT^f I g I ^jj I 3n^t I H I ^"^TH I f%tT?q^t I 
^3^ I ^^T?T^ I TT: I X(7^\tl ' ^ilS r!^ I ^^t II «l II 

f%*H8<»r m'^ I «n^f7T ^Pt^T^fyf '^W^ni g^ ^m^ i ^^ni^Tf i ^ ^rmt ms'. ^ 
^^%rarfq g5t^ j|(tg «(r«^ ^^WT«ft ^^ TW^' II 

^^in^HpTT H ^^it f,^y^l1^T^f 155 ^S^: ^^T^H II ^11 

^^n: I tffH: ii^m I ^ I '^illt:s?5 I ^Wrf^i"^^?!! I ^^ I ^^ I ^^w: 1 

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"^^f ^Tj TT^S^Etw: ^^T^rT I W^m ^^5n^ H^^R«J<¥Tft II 911 

■^^^'f I ^ I iJ«m I ^m: I ^1 ^3n^ 1 im^i ws^' 1 ^i 1 w^r^ji > 

^rf^^^ ^nn^ ^^tiWt: ^t II Jill 

Jj: I ^ 1 'fiT'TS'i^: I ^: 1 ^^: 1 ^ifFTiT I 

^f#: I ^i \ ^mjim I ^^ff^l ^ ^ I ^rf^: I trft II Jjli 

^^-HMM<1 f^Twnl I irar ^: ^wnn^nrr ^wnm 1 Trarfgj^^^i^T'mi^^' ' ^^ 

,if«a ^ d(*«v!)*iMM«id B^n'i^nm^ ^nmmwfq ^ ^nvU^frnT^Pur^ ^nmnnT^:?TTTref<ft 
^ifj^mf^ ^^ 3n ^T f!^ I Ht ^ ^5TT% H^T ^'fNlR: II M II 

^f#:iff i^?r^i;^^i^i|%TirT^iHti'^^T:i^^i^nTRrn 

^ jRpftm '^ff fT^^irati^TT'ir^^'n: II II <\ II 
i^ ^^: ^<^% g^W ^fH^W I 

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'"'J^^m^rnm^ I wffRw: II 
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^5 1 "m^i I ^f^s^: I f^Ts^: I m^ I wfksw I fsrf 1 5iTnni^ii 

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T^k^ I ^frisf^w I ^1 ^: i ^w- 1 "it^ i ^^' i w^vl^ » ^" 

^'^i v^_ I tfn I ^ri^i ^^frr I #^^: I W I ^rTI ^^ I ^ I 
H^: I |?n^ I f^'^ I H^T I ^: I WS^$ I t'i: 1 ^^ 1 ^^ H *1oii 

dtm^M ?R> I wHTf*? I ^31^ %^f^«4 fWT ^tiiifMri tTtt %^t »Tt7Tt I TTW ^^:^i^w«n^ 
^f^^l ^3 W^i^ ^T JT^ I m^m I ^^i^ irati ^fTa TTff^ TT^^ I ^^w^: I «^ ^ ' 

^: I ^5^1%: I ^ I %^: I ijji ftifs^: i ^in: \ ?Tnbn^: i 

^ HrrK'. gtn^: ^^^ wf^mjjfv ij^ %f: i ■^nmx ^^\z^j^: i fira^; 
ij^fi I if^^Ti^ ^ ^ ^ j ^gt: I ^mi jft^ii ^gn^ f^^, ^^^ , f^^^ ^^^ 

^rft ^ ^ tf^^: ^^ ^^ "SIT ^ ^'«|Tn ^^Ht v: II <^ II 
tp^rit I ^ I ^|q I j^(^r^ \^yj\-^\^%\m\ ^^: I 
^f fi: I ^ I ^ I t^stH: i Wif! 1 ^^ 1 ^ i ^ 1 f ^^t$ i ^s^: i v- 

ft:f^^: mil 

T'l^ >iRTf^ «[Tg^^rasCt 'r^ 'q^it ^nm^ m 'q^ 1 wimi^ 1 fV^ tt 1 >ft: ^ 
^I^Ni^f^"^: ^fvfH^tjfg^t^: I ^mft ^m^ tfT^j ^rfn lr«jf!fr 'tt Jragrft Tf^nmt 

^^i^ ^i ^ikm^\m gr^t ^ftTwf: ^^^w #: ii^ii 

^il I ^t 1 ^T: 1 57^iT I ?n I ^^^WT I TiTTHT 1 mWH I ^t I 
^^fw: I ^ I ^f^^ \\^\: I #: I ?r I ^ftfn: I ^^w 1 #: 11 ^ 11 

^f^ i^T ?ftigT t?^ irrf^nrr ^fw^n 1 tsr^ftTrr ^^tr^: ^^f^tira ^s^fS ^'^^ht 'ri'bt ^ 
^^ ^ ^^ ^ mVH# ^ Wg ^^^TT^TT II ?ll 

!^ I ^t I ^pprNt I »ft: I H^s rfhrr i ^ i f ^^h i vr i 
'^^ I ^ I ^ I ^ I ^h: I ^ I ^: I ^g I ^^^ 1 ^dfii n?n 

^^0 H ^^. « [^•b.^R'^.^oq 

^TfrTE^^ ^ ^f^ ^7 ^f^hlRt ^?ff ^^^ II 8 II 

w I rirf^i ^ 1 1? I ^^^.* I ^«T I ^fn I ^ I ^f I 'trsi^w I frfiji^ I 

^fr^S^ I ^ I i^S^t 1 1?f7 I ^l^SVT^ I ^«t7 I ^^R Il8 II 

^ir«i«ji<fi4.: II ^ -^iPK*!: «»<"M i 'n ^rar?^^ ^rr ?ren^: i fit f>a<v^irii y^iy^i ^tjWV^^t^- 

^^^ fp\^\^ g^f^ »T^T ^ ^^ ^'^ ^^: II Mil 
^"^S^: I i^ \ ^i^ I ^«4 I ^^\^ I ^H^rT I TJW^ I 

^^ I TTEis^i?^ I gs^f^ I Hwt I ^: I "^^ I ^'If I ^s^: iiM ii 

1 w^' ^^^ ^«i«iii: 11 3i(g^%5ir^^ II t^[^^^ K^mn ?rap4 i f^ i 'i^ssjWij^ i 
-vn^ «*4ir^<rij q^TTRT^r^ ^^-qd*!! t:wh'- wg^^iyf^ '^ vm^n ^^^ JTitfi ira^R 
*pm gfRfi gjfH I 't: h^^^h^ t^ T^ 'JT'jfl fici I '*i*j<f<tMif7iisrT?i. i m^ 't^ «^ 

q. ^. ^. I Xfif II 

^fH Ml^ ^^ Hi <^ f^ wq^^Tlfq ^f(% ^^11 ^11 

^ I W^ I ^SrT^ I ^n^? I ^ I ^SIT I ti* I ^^^^ « ^^* ' 

^litfk I WS^: I tlf?i: I ^-WC^ I li^l 1 1 ^^ftt I ^^ I ^1 '"l"^" 

f^t^ ^ T « iTi g^ ii i i ^w T: I i3C«rf5T 11 ^m^ Tem: ii ^i^f»tg[: irraf : ^Tfrirt TT^^nrrtHH^ 
^: ?NNr ^TT»ft iif%«»n^ I g^^ ^nnrTH fl^i*<«?ii»f irfTpi^ i ^^v^ ^= ' ^'' 

B g ^ wit ^ff»!l?r^ ^^^^fff «^^ f^^rT: I 

Tj ^?i^ w ff ^^: ir ^i^^oT^ff %d5ieT ii <\ ii 


»3^: I ^li I ITS^iff RT^ IHT^^n I ^1 TO I ^ I ^Wt I IJ^qf^ IRII 

^wrj^: '^iwm^: i fcji^ ^ ^j^n ^^ngtrf^ ^t^ ^^i^ h^ jrfihir ^tRt i vr^flf i ^: 
^g '?'t?nf^^T^ imr i ?i?m tiyRfeVj^ m^ »raRt ^^ ^^f^ ^Rm Unmm inftpniro 



^ I ^^t: I ^ I jji^ii I :s^k I ^'w I ^ I ^ii^i 1^ I m^t 
^*^si^ I II I ^ff?T^ I ^li: I f^^": I iin^i ;^fff I ^^: I rf I ^ 

.^''^ ^'t^ JW^m^: ^irt f^ ?ni^ I jRffTr i f^ instm i %^ fii ^<.«<>*m<I«< 

^= ^^^ I ?ra^ firgfi^ tre^ 115^^ fw\ 'T fw <^ jRgfti ?it^ *rif7i ii 
^ ^ ftfvt ftr^T?^ WrT^ ^m ^^fff TT^ ^5T4: I 

^^ 1^ 'nift rTf¥i^ ^^w^4 nwrftf^^fe II 8 II 


TT^ s?,^ I igs^ W% I i^ I ^1 f«^ I ^1 ^iWT I ^ I IT S^rlt I ?ri^ 

% f«>?r WT c^ r»!>3f*»a ifrm.' g^t'?^ tpsu: w^v;^ t^tt 'wftiwnifn i ^rf»nr^ i 
xj^w ^fif^: ^^mj ^m i^nffH^ it^ t^ i f*^ g^^ <j^9s(i^«i ^f*nq%^ ft^ f%^rm»ft 
TOT I'nf^^i^ 'T^sr^frt ^nrm ^m «? i^^gcft^Ji^nre i;t!t^ ^rrjftf^ '^^ret g^ jj^^f^ | 

^ Tf Tift ^% ^T^rffT ^3^% ^irH la^HT xi^^5D?n i 

^^ I H I ^T^t I ^% I !RT^ffH I ^^ I ^'^ I w^_ \ ^fm I m I 

^T%PT I 'T^flS^ I f^rl^T I W^fM^ | v^^ \ ^ | ^S^^ || q || 

f^mf^ fT^ ^^ I e- ^§. II II § II 

IJ^T^^T IT^ ^TT!% ^^: ^Hitt mm ^j^J i^T I 

i^ f^^ f 4^T 'Tt^TrlT f H ^ff^T Ht^ ^Wt4^ II % II 

If^S^T^^T I B^ I ^Tr^% I ^S^: I gS^ift 1 1^^ I %^T I WT I 

!^ I f^yt ?fw I f 4^T I 'Tts^TrfV I ^H I ^1?!^ I ^zx^ I ^if^^: I t?i% ii^ii 

1 f^"vt w fg ■amw^fNrt 3?t»?<ff t^' ^Tfi% tiTHvi^ q^T«[^T^3T Tra»i gsw^ 'rax fw 

^^ I T^fH II 

^^ f^T:qflMxi^TiT^T ^ f%^ ^^^ ^'S^m ll^ll 

^^rft I ij'pfl' I ^^t I HffSt^ I Tif^ I wriiB I m^ I T5rff^ i 
^^an I ^^: I ^^m I ^xi: s ittit i ^^ i ^ i f^^ i ^Is^^^ i ^wt iI'Sii 

•JwrfTi I mf^g^abnffflTtTT fK^x^i^ ^^^^W jr^iTr^mr ^jit^^iiI^ »wtn i ^rar " 

^^ ftt^: i^^t g^«t f^im^_ ^^HT ^f^i^fNift I 
^^T^ ^^: ^<^Hi^i^rnfii w g^^nt *i^ iibw 

gs W I f^: I ^sr«Ti I ^s^^: I ffprfl' I ^s^ I ^q%(^s^,^ 
gpini s^ I ^^: I ^<T»!t s^rft I ^ I ^ I ^ I ^ s^nt HT^s^ II b II 

g^nr*iwfl^uft H'^rfhfr^m *n«i*<iq<0 i 'Efh;!!!! ^rtftwr T^^^^rer ^^ ^ ^tilrfn 

?|^ ^ H^ f^f^'i ^ ^ ^fiT M<rm'M i 4t I 

RU'd^ T^ i^z^m ^^hmt %fejfj: ii^ii 

^s^ I T^ I ^ 1 1^: I ^^ I N I ^if I ^f^i ^f^ I w^ I 

^?T^ I ff I ^s[w I Hff^n I iT'T^W I ^j^iiw I ^s^«: I I^STifistr^^ 

VW^ I ^rfwna^ Wt5l ^ m^ ft^T'rei »rfl»TT *<|lf*f tTT^ I ^^»?) I »| f1|mg i^ I 

^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^rgj^ fl^:^^ ^ fi ^ m i r t ^f^ mil 

W I ^: I ^^ I ^f T I f^s^ I ?J I T^: I trt^ ^ I ^R^ I 

'iH 2:fit I ^t I ?t: I ^1[ ?lfit I ^s^ I ^:s^: i ^t^RUTT*: i 

^SJ^^f ^T»^_ "^^ Hit TT^ f4^^ ^rf: IRH 

H' ^ ^ I ^ I JH^'i I ^^tlpT I ^: I ^ I f^s^: I ^: i ^Hft: I 

%'i;f ff I ^^: I ^jjf^S)^ I ^f^ mf : I TR I f^i H# 1 5^1 ^HMR II 

^^^mmir: fjf nf ti^ %i* jmt ^^ 'JW gfmn i irfw^r i '«?Nrflra[Tf i ^rf^^:fira- 
^^ ^^J^ f^rwt ^: «wtft »( ^<TT ITT v^ ii\i\^r*m^^Hv(^ i ^ inn 

VOL. IV. Hh 

^$8 H^j^ta ; [^•t;«t«9.^o,i 

i H*<i<j«j<< : n v^ HTT TM^ Tr% irg am^nr^ ^^ttut ngjirr^ i f*^ ^ft^nijflj ^t^ 
•^unrqfn ^ «j 111*4 Mi: II 

^ irT T^ ^tt^ct: ^m^H f^#W %y?n^fw I 

crerr ^gwr^m ^ 'rft?^ f^fn m^i^m i ^^m^ ^ Tri^ftTi nm i f*^ %w! f«ftvnn- 

^: I ^HimT^M4A*g: i af l tjch^iw r xm^: i f^rwrr^'^TT ^srarxin ^«*iif^ialw*4 .'"^^ .' '"^^^ft 
^TT^ I si^ir«<^<rn' ftg?Pfn?#r^am»m^rTO%Hr: i tf^*^ 'n^w: ^^npira t?'^^ » « 

?nnfr ^irf^^ vm^ ^ sw^ ^ gTWKre: ^^ T^ ^ i ntg i ?rt^ ii 
^ ^ f^^: I '^'i: ^^ r*i«<«^<.*jMi«u!iT: 1 ^ ^tfjm%fW 11 

^If^j?^^ II 

^^W ^ f|^i^ in% ^^g ^i" Tnfe(^R gjq?r ii bii 
^s^W I ^: I f^^ I in^ I ^s^ I ^:'i xnf^n \ ^^ h tii 

1^ ^ ^ TTRTW ^ra?[H^ vj^mf^ ffrTf^^sirm >in% ?i^% f^ 1 n^ ^f^ *)<j > ^m4^<<i 
^^'wfti n^ ^ mf^J^rra g?^ «iw»nTra f^ 11 11 o. 11 

^M^^ Tsiaf 'm fw ^j'ft^ra ^*<u5li,i^ Ji^l^fiTt I <mt oRwt fwr: ^ f^: 1 

^}kii_ ^ ^j^wf^^ ^m^^tw(j T ^vr^ nil 

?sm^rf I ;t I ^m4 1 ^t^ I JTO I ^arah[^ 1 ^^t 1 ?n 's^*!?! 11 <^ 11 

^5^ T »)mft<J i ^fe^ ^^^sfj*^ T^ "en^ ^m fm jt^ 'rg tpt ^5^ i f¥^ n 

^ ^Kt^^ I yim'tiMi g»n^ ^ n*^**!* ! !'^! iw s(9iTiir »T¥t?i ^niRitlr gj^i^ irij^ 1 

H h 3 

^iftTtT!! ^ifhR^: II 

f%r^ UT^: I ^^t^ I ^^iMri I gs^n^ i ^ i ^: i wRt i ^: i 
%: I ^^: I ^: I ^ i %fi^ i ^f%«^^: I ^ i ^rmi I ^ I ^: irh 

f%i^ ifmr^ «4nr i TR^BT »»^p8r^«n tt 'R^: i g^ »t»i^: «n : T9T?^Bmfti^^ ^f^r^ 
^^a^9l 1 7ri ^^Ma i «>i'«m<mMa«m< i i fiffTi i ftm^ i f^ *5«mO<»n*<*ii«J i ^P^n^ ft»nTPiT»rt 

g^ TpTT ai ^ i O t 'rf^ I f*t'i'^et7i i n ^nf^wwti t^: g^ ^rarr ^rrwranft^ »t^ t ^rrj^: i 

Tii^h^ ^ ^Itr: Tck^^ ft^it ^ 'wi ^H^^: ii?ii 

Ti I ^ I f^-st: I Tjftran: I ^ I "^ri^ I W'rt I ftft% I ^>Jn»^i ti ^^: i 

TTTWri: I ?! I ^TM I TT^T^^: I fbuT^: I ^ I ^^^^ I ^S^^: 11911 

^tJTnR I ^ I ^ I ^Tl ^TT^H I Pij^^rri I 51 HTl*) I ^^fl^ I 

f^S^: I ^: I ^^1 ^^1^1^: lU^^: I ^ I ^^: 1 ^ 1 nn lUJ" 
frm^^ I 'r ^r^ 1 Trfi ?n^m 1 1 frsMr H^fri 1 ift^RTnfrm ^jsj^m f Tft^W^ram: 1 

51^: i^» ^o s^. s^. M.^. 1 itn ^: » 

1^ I ^:sg I iTS^: I ^ I ^^sf>4: 1 i^tfrtiiTiT: i f i vipn i f^s^' 
^^: I ^ I ^s^^: I ft^^: I ipn^: I ^T I 'isftiin^' J ^^^* "'^'' 

^ I JTOT 'rfrfiT'R^ 1 7!^t*T '«iif<wi<<i T^ JTrer ^wr ww 'Jfsi^^ff^^ i f*^ *wmt 

n I ^1 ^^ I '=r^: i ^nj^i ^^Iit?: i ^s^it'irCT i ^^: i 
f^^5TT^: I m^} I TT«i^ I wfmj f%^i l^t I w^: 1 1^ ll^ll 

^ H^ ^ ^Mt^ 'T^ ^ in^ ^]5}^i 

^: I 'art^s^N I ^ I ^^s^sn: i TOlsW: I ^ i m^i I ^^f^i 
\^fi;i ^: I ^: I ^ I ^S^ I «: \\m^ I ^ I '^sxj][^ i ^ ii>9ii 

"n^x^ I T^ II 



^ '^s^ ^^^^^'^I^T ^f^ ^T^^^^'t "^^tt: II til 

^ I ff I ?rS^ I i f ^M lm I ^: I ^^i^f[ I ?r7^ i ^s>4f^^: 

^ "!* ' ^^ ' S^Si|: I ^ffht I ^: I ^1 ^rrj^i iR^ i W'Tt: iibii 

'^^ ifHf^: g^irei m qfV?iTT: I TKT I ^i f <ai^' » «rrarTf?[aRT»J%«T ^^ ^ iprftar: i % 
^3 1 '*^ftrT% I ttkh: ^m-q i ^M i H* ) ^rfr tt i -arqq qii*!!: wR^r*rRT: u ii <\<\ ii 

f^irk: I ?! I T^s^sfvi: i ^s^^: i'^s^'4: i ^t i ^f: i ^s^rsi^: i 
Tjmh' I H I f^^: I ^s^^: I f^rft^ I ^ I T!^: i ^^4'^ ii «i ii 

f^irralr t f^HT ■sr^nrr t^ ^ 'wt »njr^: ^f?r^; ^nr«T: Tft>Tm«n^ «^ tt^ »r^ 

l^S^: I t^in: iftHn T!^: M 

^^ ^ )jn^T ^^^^^ ^TfTf^ ^ ^^: ^^RuHi: I 
TT^cn^ ^ ^^: ^^'^?t4: ^^^f^ ^ ^^it mw ^ IR ii 
^W' 1 571 ^ I »^^ I WS^^h: I ^Trrfn: i ^ i ^S^: l ^li:s^irR: 1 
ns^TWit: I ^ I ^^: I gs^'^TT^: 1 igs^^: 1 5=r i ^M: i ^ i ^ iRii 

arcnrsf^rr ^rm^ 't Tm^rnrr r^ ^^: ^rag5imT«n: «<sj>*d«j: *«<sn»H»ii; ii^rrmft 1 
3i9RqT!j iTTrJTft ^Tf^ ?^ #^: ^wi: *i^1d<<: ♦i*i*(*n: g^Mrr^t 'J ^Ptwr: igq^: 'fftm t^ ^ 

^^!^ ^ ^m: feft'^rr: fxi^^ ^ ^: ^gqw^: 11? 11 

^TrTf^: I ^ I ^ I ^^W' I %TifRri ^^t I ^ I fi^: I fNs^f^J I 

^#nns^: I ^ I ^vt: i f^^ls^w: 1 fxT^^T i ^ 1 ^: 1 gSTTrni: 11?" 

*i^(H*^.!> ^aid^v i «i <i -tj<t! ]MH N qi<iM<iv?d<f><*< i r* < ^ <i«ii ^ ^^rrf^^ 1 fi'uiMl'n ^ f^ 
w^TT ^rrwr v^ fnftf^iw^ R O- ^ *tir><»i* l^i : 1 ?r«n ^*!^ 1 ^fTMi: '^wf^ ^^^^ ^ 

T[^?r?Tg»ni^ ti^ »nnfr«t«*i<ii*i*<wi^d 11 

^irat ^ -nii ^wpf sfJrefm^ ^ ^ ^4: ii B ii 

T^ I TJ ^1 mfi I ^s^vi^: I f^rM^: I ^ I 'iri: I ^s?h: \ 
^s^i- 1 ^ I -Rih I ^HS^: I 'qf^TS^Tt: l ^% l ^ i gs^: 11811 

^^«: I ^T I ^ I ^^«: I ^^: 1 f^f^ii^: i rti t^: i ^s^T'i^: 1 
^xt:Rif5T% i^sfit:if^Tn;T^: if^s^T: 1^^: Ri^Tisfn: iiMii 

f^i^fr i*nnft^: 1 ttot ft-a^m TRT^m: ymf^j^ r "^afipc^^ itfti^ ?tj i ^^ 
f^FJT ?f ^^: ^rT^ JTIT^T^ 5T ^T^i^rT fkqi II ^11 

^^^: I ^ I ^1:^: I f^iJsTiTrrT: I ws^^rafi ^m I ^ I f^^t I 

f^<^: 1 57 1 ^4: 1 ^SWifil I J^iTS^m: 1 ^ 1 iiT#?i: ' I^T l ^^T \\%{\ 

fT^ ^^^i^ ^^^ m^m) f %^T ITT flr^irmft ^<lR4imT: 1 '^JT^f^re wfTWul- 
^'•*'^ 'I ^^raT^rrgvT^ f^^rr ^nJ^ ^riiint wti-r; ^^: 1 ^?t i ^gjr^t t ^^ ^j^r 

^f'T ^ Ji^Ttnift 1 iiiT^'RR T^ <4i*<'«mfq JTR^ f^m ^twr ^tbt h^ i ^iw^rv- 

^^^ ^T ^^_ m^;^: uTi^iit 5=r ^^^if^ ^f^\ 115 11 

^^^1 1 ^ I mf^i I ^js^sf^: I ^HS^: I ^ I ^sfii: 1 f^ 1 ^iT^ 1 

^^: I T I ^^: I iJn^S'^^: I ^TTS^: I ?! i ^^rtT^ i Hfift 11 « 11 

^f^ B^ w %m "^mi TTHf ^qm^r^^t liTsrerraf^mTTt w^ 1 n^ ^'ifr 1 
!5^T»n 'TTT T^mrf»r^7HT%^ftnni:^^ II fgm «it 1 'srf^ ^ 11 mr ms^ t »w t^ 

^ I ^^ I TOT^ I ITH I H^lTfl^l f? I ^: I Ti'TS^'rtf^ I ^ iibii 
^if^ ^ '5R?ra wT^^ ^rf^pjji ^t^'rfv Tr?i i ^rfVT^Tr i ^ g^Tns <.(!»v|*iifn ■^(^^ttr- 
TraH^g^: I TTm ^rrgwtti i vw ^ *n-«n«iriifM^^i*«0 nr ^tfK^ 'mwr ^'n^ t??t?j n 

m^ ?^f^$ ^ >^ ^aflNrft ^rft ig,^^: mil 
wnsTi ^^ I ^^: I ^Si^ I ^r^ I TT?^ I f^^ I 

^rft ?f^ I igft I ^: ll«ill 
f%^T& ^ Hx^ I WT'Tt ^: I ?raT wmtlF^nft ^nwRjwfr ^Wit ^^^ h^^sj^ gfX ^ 

5H^ftl I ^# I ^s^: I ^ I >Ttfw I ^ipis^^: I ^1^ I ^ I ^.^ "' ^" 

n I m^: I HSiTt I »I^ I ?.^^ I ^i: i ^ i ^1^: i httjI^i x^: , 
^ 1 5T 1 1T1! I ^f^i 'g^ I f^^^ I ftx?: I ^s^ I mfrfii ii^ii 

^Tf ^^ TTi^Wimf^ f^^m: H T?^m: ii 8 ii 

(Tfti ^t I ^ I ^# ^ 1 1? I iN^ I in^TH^r: I THrni 1 1^: i ^ i 

^ I ^f i"!^ I Hf^: I fw I ^m I ^q I f^5%T: I m I ns^m: ii B ii 

^>irM4i<i<,Kw^ ^if^ JT^rafTT I ^'T^ •■<nd*iifi^jna*jii^;il.f^ nwf flffi^i? 1 f^n 1 1 
'T sTT^mft?!!^: I ^mitiranan'i^n #^t^ ^f(fi\ i iiftn:^ f^^nx ^vt ^nTrm 'ff Ti%m: ^ 

nil ^^^H^fnf^ ^^s^ f^^: wsT^ r? iimi 

^: I ^ I ^^ I pi ^s^^vtfiT I ^^: I ^: i ^ftfM I ^fk i 

'T'^ I '^f^ I ^^s^: I f^ I ^ I ^W I f^ft: I ITRT^ I ^ I (^ II mi 

^ 'T^^FTsfriw '^r^ gg f^nmwm^^nfri t^Orfiia^^Tl: ^^f^^ ^irrt^frfn 
^ H^mfiT %^ ^int: TTfl I TrfimnJ: i H ?rw 'g^<!<^'<^i'ti K ^f4TT fq*^H"l«if*<< M Rr*{ fli n T- 
^T^nftf^ ^ I f?f^% I f^nrofn i ^m TT«nre>7i: i % ^ w f^npi: €^: ii3r|if% i Hwt^i^ 

"^^^ ^^^^^S^ Tlt^^?R# ^r*ic|iRj: II ^11 

^ > ^%^ I Hii: I ^: I ^ I ^^ I Tpaifit I ^ 1 3t I ^f^iT^ I 


VOL. XT. I i 

^?^iiT^ ^fn: giifiT: ^??t?pj nff^^^Tr: ii^ii 

fi^: I ^^ K I ^% I ^S^: I ^^ffwsfn: I T!^!^: I 'J^^trTT^i 

^^ I f^^: I -^zf^: I gsiitrT: i # i m^ I ^^sf«: i ^^^: iisii 

^rf^: I ^f^ I ^5TS>^ 1 5^ I ^ftr: I ^ I ^ I ^Hf^:s w I 
^: I d<«t ^ I f^ I ^to:i ^ s^^!^ I ^i: I ^1^ I ^"ks^f^ I igtsfv iilii 

^ata*^: Hfti^ H5Tfwit d^# ^ f^%^ I 

wfv: I ij# I ^?^i wm.^^ I ^^' I l^rfti I ^ I ^'^^ n^ii 

^nm: vsA^nTi^: ^irsjT%\^M*{r'AAi\ vi^ ft^ < iMi ar «i *mq i fW»»ri ^'r'<»-<'^' 
^arer I no i «<*(fMX^*<ti^m*^q =€t^^ ^t^^rf^ ^T'rfTi ^jg #<n^ i ^ ^w* ^ «^= 
^^f^ tuO^f l w^ ' I <i«ifMJ^if ttr H^ftr '»«**^i'<(,«<^ I ft?t N 

^ : I f I Hf I ^itiT: I ^ r^^ I ^ftr: i ^r^^S *^: i f^ : i ^[^ • ^ ' 

^^ftiftf^ |«mTr t+ffTH|?i^mll?T f^ntin ^^ 11811 

^: I ^1 ?f^ I ^s^tijT: I ^: 1 ^^ 1 ^: 1 w^ \ ^Rtfi* 1 

^: I %5t I f^q I W I HcipT I ^: I mTrff^T I f^s^ I ^s^ |l8ll 

^jft? I ^: I ^[^: I f^ 1 5^ I ^ I ?Tt: I ^^if?! 1 ^f^Hwi: 1 
^ 1 14: 1 ^ft§ I w: I wjifTT: I ^[prt 1 irft I ^fir i JTlRif iimi 

^fti^: TT#^^: ^ f^ 5^ I ftf^y«i$*iffl ^ ^^ i '^rf^ »rfr iTgigr ^mrf^i ?rin% i 
^ f^ t^E^ HT^'t^ ^ H^^ ;^^ f^ 3lTm: I 

^fti'fnNt' W'prwT^if^rri'JcT ^ f^^ II If II 

^fti I f^: 1 1^ I TTT^^: I ^t: i ^ 1 n^: i rf^m \ f^ 1 5rn!T: 1 

^' I ni'^^i x(wi I ^H^ 1 ^: I Ti^j I '^ I ^ 1 Ots^ ii^ii 

Wr f%^; irar ^ft!tJi)««*)iM'!nm!i tae?) i ^pifiT i it *<i*i'n4i5«at *i3wi(«iiiTr: ?tt taeSt i 
""Tfti if^ Ji*pn Tyqt TTir: 'Birnrr^rrm; intr firf^^ ^i^jftRr i ^i^i^fnwt i qrjrSJwi; i 
^ ^*uiRt I ^ifiO liviqT I ^BTHsi lira 'wt Tf^ ff?rt 1 ^j^^irapft i^fTT^wf ^ iiw 
^ f*nmT fliift fiini^ jT^rfTTii 

1 1 2 

^ 'rf^ <i« i d*4 i ^ ^rf?:<nt ^ftmt bt^ i htt i 1 th^t ?Tf? HUffnnr vwr ^nra i ini^ivtf : | 


^ wftj^ ?;f^^^Trt5T: n^^^^-^tu ^ f^%^ n s ii 

^: I fRTif^f I >|^^Tf?r if^i ^rf^: I ftwi I f^ I ^?fl^i fwRM 

^a: I wsfW I #N I f*3^H: I iT^Hs^i ^Ntf( I w I f^ in II 

^R f^TOR I Pra^T ?r^^ fl^Tfnr »jmf^ ^wst'^tt ^ w«i«i*)«i?»'rii ^f^tr^isTx: i 
ff^f H« ii r<^m4l'5ir ft ^ TTT f^r^ jj'RTf^ i5t3[t?T I f^" <Ho. ;^^. I iffn n ^ f^<**frtrtm* 
THft^ig^ wtfn frnt^nirr^: ^f?^^ ^r^rftr g^rmf^ iiA^*\ f^ i n^ ^ ^ar^^^. i 
M<a i <Ml sanfrl^ ftm ^rfrai: i ^i<«a^* t «ii^nrr tft?^: i i %^rer ^•«(^«i*«nt ft^^ 
nifm%f ^rftT^twtirr'OJC i « v:vvn «^fn i ^» ^» '«. ^. :?. i itutH^^: i ^^t '^fwfwftr- 

<'^ i fM«it i m.fl m 'ft^sf II ^RmBrraniftraft'??^ i ^f^^^wr bt^^^ ^^ twr ^T»rrf*i ^{^(V*!^- 

fpR^ ^T '^i^rNs f^rrr ^r'Nit nm«i<( ^ f^^ni i ^swt^: i iniRn«T% vi^ ?rf^ ^rWift- 
^ti^trt i K^iii^irti w^ ^^- ^^^ ^ ^nr, ^^ w. m^^'HK' ^^^ t^^toK i ^rm ff ^?ra: i 
■^iran TT f^«i<« TT^Txj w^fi: 1^" w» 5^. 8. <i. I ^1^ *r\ «!<*!*» 'MnS\n. i bet* ^<» §. ^. ^. I «,«nM>' ' 
^ fTTfn: ^<*^'H^. ''sjiftrm ^f: ^ ir^n^^f&w?^ ^'-W^- f«**t>*ii 5[t%wf*n5BRTn: vrtiraf^ 
aRift'un^isnnir: H«<*<-^ft< ' i>*j gi^ f*ranH M i <.*< i Pii?*« ^pwTfnsH^rn'^^HT'mftre^^- 
UT^ tW%^ I wf^rerra^^f^w I Tmr 'g ^^^ i ^ti^mfnm ^y: ^ Tnn^^f^ « TrfTf^wi^ 
flM4«'^< ^^*<<i^d -^f^ f*^ 5T<^ ^^T^mfwi 1^" w» c. §. I ilif I H'W'flT vg'^^ra? 
'ar^Tfnh: n 

^^'T^ M an<?m«ii Tig^msiT f^ rt jif<<8>m i ^f^ m i f* f*s<i4n<rM»i»i ^ "= ^^ 

f^ I %ri^i m^\ ^y(%mi4 1 wst>4^ I '^•TTRt^i f^i ^ ' ^n^' 


fwn^i: I ^ ^<<Ji.<rw BMi<K WTin? fw«T^: «^ f^^^ ^n^^ gfit flr»nn^ ?nrT 

f^:s^^: I ^ I f^;s;5^: i fW:s?T|: i ^ff \ f^:sx»Tltl 

f^ %^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^Ht ^^f^^l f?T?W^: I 

^^^■^_ i^m ^"^^ rra^iflfc^^^Tiif^ VTT^ 11 ^11 
^ I fefi: I ^4 1 ^: I ^ ^lii I «: I ^^: I ^ 1 3iiT: I nH|(^rq4) ^ i 
%-SrnTW: I 


^^^^ 'Jnrr^Frft ^ *i< « i^* ti <i g^*ii< i <j 4ii<(iap!i41 f*rBt?rg: Tr^t^r ^rmrgf^ 
^"M^: ^ f^ f^ f^ TR ^TRi: 1 7!m SB ^ « f^ ^ura I flrerrfift <<fM s 1 iag3i i % 
'"'ff^'V *T^ t^ij: TTprti Jnrer f^nrrer^ f^eg^^ i ^^^ i fiii%=ffft g^nn^ vtt^iw- 

^'>VTwf*Ttr^TnfiB'!rrajni^»!?.<^c.ii;fiTiig5fw^ ii^ 'tnwn i ffw ^ i m 

'' *n»nf»r xn:?nf^ ,,Tip;n ^ 1^ ,nm^f^ ,irfipj^ , ^. ^. c. I ,^ 

^iT«rr »ft^ t^ra«it*r q m<^ r \ iff f^«ii^ ^^Mif i ^ f«nsM»i. tt TrfSr % m ^n:»nflr 

fini I tff I ^ ^^in^ f f^^^^rra^^ '^rq^ w ti^ 'S'W ^5!* W^ ^ifH fsrmt ft^ 
TTf^ f*iaa^y ii r* » ^ rf*<*»)d i f<mO<. i fu i ^ Mr<.*{^n i fi i 1 f* ^ynr ^ t^jt? irm h^ i ^h^. 

^^: I nfW I f^^s^i^ I ^li^ I ?pT:sf ^ I "^nl I ^ I |tH 1 
^: ht: I f<4H(irH I i?^^f?r 1 ^t^i f^s%^: 1 w^^ 1 ?it^s^t ii^h 

i q i f^r^ *! ^ni% Triwra jni^ 1 'W3[«rm 1 « ^'Pr ^*wrti fwrf»j wArfnt i^frf*! *^ 

^: I f^ I Ti'^^T I ff I ^: I ^ I "^ T^ I ^sra^ I ^ ?rt% ?fit I 
?r^ I frf^i ^frt; I ^r^fw I ^ I Wf^i ??l,i ^^M ^ I ^aiT^ II 'H II 

ti^^: ^ HTTOT ^iq i ar ^i ^"^ : ^Wftniti^i^ f?T wrn: i ft^aTii^n fir: ♦iMifttfli 

^^ffjmfir 'afii^ ^^^ W ^ff^^j i^^: nii 

^^ I |?lf5* I ^ I i?T I ^^ I 'l^ I ^T?S^^ Itr: ITJ^ I ^: IR II 

r^fT^ ftftv^nrn i »nrrr»wr^: i vrm f«yir<«*<?i ^ f^vrm ^nnr: inh ^ tcttt '"^•^^ 
W. vj: ^<.<fl|^^^«^q^fj [«l«^l-l ^ tiir«^^ : » ^Bwranm -a^ i f«ra^T 'i: ^^warr TiripraT- 

?*!r^wt^»^ ^ tix;: ^^<.^fl l ^A^^l» l r<^•r8(«l l ' ^^ <^ <!*<«» P<,*<i<vi»i*ii*«wrfl<: n ^ f^re^wn 
^ ^ vrmTf»i 'irmftr '^rr^RT i ^» ?. «;. n:f?i n 

% 5*: firm -^JiJ ^ Nvjm ^^tH^ %^ ^^^^ ^^ ' 
%^W! ^TWT v^^^ ^ ^i^ "^^^ "?" 
^: T't: I ftrm I srf^mr \w, i f^,smm i wrd^ i H i g^'^Tf^ > ^"^^ » 
i: i^to! i «fWSVT: iir*: i ^ i H i ^sff^ i )f^^ i fn i ^T ii?ii 

^re ^g | i »ii *<fMqim i cO* ' i TmvT Trart 'trnrr t^f^^^T^ ^Mifij^if^ tut wm ^?q^%5 
Tf wi^_ ?f^ ^'t^T ^^: ^ ^cTT% ^ ^ I 

^w 5gw t5t% f'T^t ^ ^mf^ ^Ti^^^j^ifv^ II {ill 

^ I W I ?ii^4'l ' ^^ ' '^ ' ^^ ' ^^^' ' ^ ' ^fpTTt: I 'T I »|Tn I 

?3r^ I ^1 v^i^ I f5TS^% I ^ I ^-[f^ I HS^T^^ I v^^ nail 

^rfxTrrfr t g^rr ^Pmift im ^^^ *rfm ^>%t!r ^nffn 7ii?i: t ^ »i?^i^ ^T^iiqR i^ ^ 
?nT!Rff^ WTTT^Nrrraf^ T^ft ^1^ f*rcr% f*ra% f^rg^R^f^ T^r(fM jj7rrf*T ^T!prrf% i 

^ f^)^ Tm*t ^ ^% ^^ "I^t: ^^thcqiT f^ II M II 

ir: I f^m I ^^: I ^?rT I Tjf^T I TT?:: i ^%1vt: I ^?^: i ^i ^rf^ i 

^ I %rll ^^ 1 1T^ I ^ I m^' I ^^ l1^: I '^S^nhWrl I f^ IIMII 

^^m ^JV{r^vm^f^ri ^wm^gif^ ^^^itOi h^: ii % ii 
ff I fiT^i n^ I wt I ^y I m^' i ^^ \\^' i ^s^»iw i ^ i 

^5T^ I ^ifr I ^ I ^^ I ^f^ rf I Tli^^T: I f'^^f"'^ I ^i^'Tlf^ I iT^' " ^ 

Twrrfq fuft I ^i^tf?T ^TTMrg^^ I TpwTf4nfiTO^Tf»nnWrm i ^ri ff Trrw^rrmfir^ 
fmfr[ I ?Tfw^ f^Trf^ g^TTf^ ?r#rf^ jjfT^rmf*! n^: f^refn i Tm^rsRT ««'»)<r«''^f^^ 

^ITO m<i,rij 5r^ ^T^^ ^^^^hjtfi! lis II 

H^^i<i^<i*n^<<.flT q^w^ i^y qm I f^3i^ I wt^r^^Trr^ f^ft f f^ fifrr %?i: ^rqm i 
^^fftnr mfNT ^ «fi?K*i^i(*iitn%»ii^iaT: i '^ «f wt*?^ i ^t^ 'ftfrft iTftifl* < ^°<li r- 

ifTft ^fwn^fSt^J^m??: I Ua)*i IT 1*1*1 ^ 5*^: nTfrrr: i «t %w mfTW ftig ar^^zn ^ 
fiRRPHTni ^ T gtin^^w^: ii ii q^ ii 

WTTtitvRi ^fnif«w w^ ^TTirw I ^f>w%iT i%»r ^TV^i^fir <!^^ i «?raT g^ ^^ ^tf^ i 

Tl: I ^: I w^': i ^ i ^^ i"|^: i ^^: i ftrff I ^^'H: 1 5iTrTS%: \ 

^^V'^t^ T^g^ ^: sBTrfift *i;q t q m i wr^ i T'j^ fmr fwf*rarr^ifnT: i ttot 
5' "^^ '^ m v^ 2^M\dof ( I mfn i^ »i^ 7jq%7mT»i^Twff«r^ '^^t^- iWT'nfttTT^ 

VOL. IV. K k 

^fH I iff I ?T5^ ?[fii I H^^: I TT^itqfT^ I IT^m I ^3!T I f^ I ^ 
^^SfT I ^^SfT I ^^S^ I ^ I f^^t I "^^ \m\^\r^mj\\^\\ 

fi ii -^ wT^^i^tmi ^>j4mf ^fJiinfwm?: i 

f^tq^tftq: ^f^: HfHn^^peft^: ^TT^ ^11811 

i^ I f^ I H?^ ifH I ^>^rrs^wr: I ^Sij: \ ht^: i ^ftiWrfiTS^: 1 

f^^s^^To: I ^ft: I l^^T^^ I wm^ \ ^' i ^^^ i ^ft "^" 

^mn: ^^^ TRfft ^f^ IT"^ ^ fff^^ H^W: I 
ft ^ ^^ ^RfiffiftaCTf 'esTT H^#t^^^i^ ^ft i'M II 

^«Tn: I ^5^ I ^ I xTcts^w: I wf^ I f!^ I "^ I wf^q^l I TT%H ?fH w^ 

H I rJT I TR^ ^ I ^^: I fw^ I ^f I '^ I iT5|: I ^ S*^^ I TH I ^ I 
?ft II M II 

^ W ^^PjxT ^?i^TT iH^^'t'T: ^ f^n^MT^: I 

T{^ ^srfWn T?T?1T ^r^^ f5Tt^ ^^H ^^: II If II 


^ wt n^ ^fr^f^ f^^vmt f^ps^ vnW'^t ^ ^M^^jf ?r nrnflir ^'^'^' ^^^^j 

^ ^ ^ft^wt ^^_ ^svt Y^ ^^^_ ^ I 

^iif^ % VW '^_ Wif^ ^qj^ iWhT f^^T^ II ^11 

^fm m ^ I ^wh: I >t^ I ^ I i5iij I ^^nftj i it^?it^ i v^ i 
^ttf'* I ^ I V^^ I W^l \^\^\ ^J^ I iraiHT I ft^^ iisii 
% Jiafr ^fH ^ I ^fwT^ I im gi »mT ^ % jm ^^f^iirTfr »T?r i ^vmr^ prftr ?r|^ 

iwffr wff ftrr^ II II '^^ « 

3?n »isft i;fiT fl?rt fra^r ^ i ^f^7TftT^f^rjH^fTrg?r^ ^mw: i a4 <( jN^ <i ' ?l i nm 

^^ \l €[im II f^i ^fir^f^ Ttg^ml^ ^ *i ^<« id ^ <i N t:»qt<i <n : Tr% I ^t^ -^ I 

i^t I H?% ?frt I ^S^ I ^5^^: I fiiTTi?!n«: I ^f^: I ^i^: I 
fwHTsi^^: I m^ I ^sftj9!t^: I ^H I n 1 4^ I ^: I ^ftis^i: ii s ii 

^■^ w^ Am^ ^ ^i^ f^•^f^_ f^ ^ ^^ ii ;> ii 
^:s^^ I ^ ?f^ I fkftTT: I ^pfi «^S?ft: I ^: I H|\ i frr: I ^v i 
f i^^ I ^*t; I f^ I wrir^ i %^: i #it: i firHi^: i ftf i ^: i ^^ ii ^ ii 

^ ^(^ ^f*ttt^ f^^ ^^: ?Jf^ I ^I^WT TTf^l I ^ iBlft ^Jf«Ilf\^ %^T^fV ^ 

^'WTMti^iT* ^?r fSNgv: n^ g^ i ^?i^«r<}: ii 

^ ^ Tmi ^j ^^v -w^ ^ Hm Tj^ ?? ii?ii 

I'' ' ^ I mi: I ;fg I ^ I ]5^ I ^ I ^ I wvk i ^s^ i ?7 ii^ii 

K k 2 

^q^ II ^»%^: 11 [^'b.^^^.^oc^^ 

% ?nq^ '«(^ '«*Hi<**<f}<*<ifci»Tf«'iflu wi ^i'^ I ^rfw^ I ^5f^ fifOT; fini Tf^m^ w«% 

Tjsir: I -^irit I ^% I ^^ ^-fii I tf^w: i f^^sW i ^^ i ^ i f^jfvi 

^^S^^ 1 i^^t I ^WT I "^^* I ^SHiT I ^4 I f^S^^4 I cpr?7| II 8 II 
irm ^ HT^ 5B|t ajTolmf^ f%^ rT^ W ^^;>|^ II M II 

f^^^Sfrt^i ti:s^^ I ^'T^SW^: I ^wm I H5% ^ I ^Risth: l H^ l ^ i 
ftr^ I ^ 1 5=rm i ^ i ^^1^^% i f^ i rt i ^m i ^: i ^s^^j^i ami 

t T^ t^ T^ f^3iMal^*iii<<«(?i rr«rr'i^^>sf^Tf^7nr^^: i '^'T^wfti'raf^TT^r^ x^ ^rm: 
fira TTH ^IH 5an*(fti I ^wtT: I ^: i ^tmt tto: «tJ^^iT«»«i^g^ fSHwqfic n^ K^rft fnpj 


^SJJRIT I ^S^Tt: I ^ I HT^f 1 5H^: I f^>^f^ I ^HS>^ I ^Srlt I 
^f^ I ^: I H?^ 5fft I ^ m^ I ^ I TTITSuJt^ I ^S|ff I ^S^ II ^1" 

^t ^ifwr: Ht ^f q g^?<(«i^<*it^s^ t ^ ^ f^«f^ i VK«fii 1 1 'i^ ^w^ ^'^ ^ 

f*T5i ^ii^TT i<^ w^j vj^wmt w^ fk c^t iish 

5EfS^ I V^ I 'fMf I #5^^ I ^?^4 I ^^ I ^TSr: I ^ I H^l' ' 

M I ^vt^: I -f^iig I ^m I Wsftnrw: i ^ i f^ i <^«t} i'^" 

Mjjga neii iKii 

^?lt%i^ftrt^ f^^ ^ ^M f»!iw: ll«ill 

^^^ I ^r^jqm I jj[f^: I ^^ I ifwfkm i ^: i 

^^ I ^rtt: I fffffir I f|f^ I ^^: I ^fii i ftm: inii 

^'^'^ ^i^L!'^"^ ^ ^^^^ ' ^^ ^"^ ^^^ ^ftrfimm I f?f ff ■i|<ji<H.<mr^ii ^^ i 

f^^i^ II 

'it^^TTf^RIT -^f^j ^^^ Tjf^ ^^ I 

^ ^^rammgici^ #h ^%: irii 

#r^ I ^rtt: I '^%'t: I #^5T I ijMt I H^ I 

^% ^frt I ^^^Tot I TO I ^tis^ I ^: I ^s%: h ^ h 

^'J ^ ^tjft «m^?n!fT^ I sf ^ ^TOi i^ 'J^RT < j ^x)nt i i4 i<: 1 7>m;^M i *jn @ Ht^ Twrara 

^wt I ^r^^i^-^vniiT^Tpn igfwr ^mw^ i ^^^^ i^rthit^w f^f^i: ufirrr ii 
^ 'I W# f^ H^Mlfff WSri ll?ll 

^ jo^ K(% '<njrramfiTOTf?mf»ni7rn: nj^ w^ i ^i^th^ i ''TT'i fi^m. ?wn. Jf^nni. xwr^ 

flf^^SRIT H^^ ^^'^T^T ff ^ HfMl^^ I^^TTT^^ ^^fiiJ^g^^ ^ 1=^ V^ I W^i^jfin 

TTsji: I -^t I ^% I H^ ?f?t 1 1%??: I f^^sf^^ I ^^ I ^ I %?Tfvi 
^firs^^ 1 i^^i I g5TT I ^^ I ^STTw I ^4 1 f^s^^4 1 fTsirl 11811 

W ^ HTTt H|\ l^olmf^ f%^ rT^i^ W ^«Pf^ II M II 

f^^s^i ti'S^^ 1 ^'T^ssr^: I w^i^ 1 ^^ ^ 1 ^f^snT: 1 >n 1 n 1 

flT^ I ^ I ^^t I eft I I'nlHf^ I f^ I if I ^c^ I ^: I ^S^>3^ IIMII 
fan TTT mt^ 'juH^fy i ^w^: i ^: i ?nfr tt^: «sn-«*i-«*(*<i^^ ■^jtw^ JJf#f h^ ?Tgw 

Sf^ ^ TT^ ^ ^Ifftl H^'T^ ^[^ ^^ II If II 

^s«jrm I ^|s^t: 1 ^ I HT^^ I ^^: I ik^f^ 1 ^ffwrs^ i ^Si^t 1 

^r^ I ^: I ?p% ?fii I ^ I ^ I ^ I WS^^ I ^S|ff I HS^ ll^ll 

^»r ?rf^r; ?rt«f")f*vri*;«Jft)<yf«pa<i< ?rft ^ fM » f^ i VTX^rfir i ^ »r^ ifwr ^fJwr wf 

f^ ^J?it^ f<^ 'S!r«N[: xn^iTF^ ^ ^ cWht hsii 
^s^ I ^4 1 ^p^ I #s^n^ I wm^ i ^ 1 ^^: 1 ^ 1 h^* » 

fle<io.^»^.^«bM.] II ^OTtSi?^: II ^M9 

^^tf|i^Tf^^ f^^ #^ wf^ fm: \w\ 
^^ I ^Hm I ijf^: I ^% I "^mfl [ #: I 
^^5=1 1 ^n%^T: I firefir I f|f% I ^1^: i ^fv i fm: 11 <) 11 

fh^^ II 

^^5TTf|RiT ^^r: ^fl^ ^jM^ H^ I 
^ ^^^TOT^^igil^ ^m ^f^H: II ^ II 

^t^ I ^hit: I -^ffJJ'^: \ ^^T I ^Mt 1 'rft 1 

^ ^fii I ^^^Tot I ^ I ^trs^ I ^: I fnsftff: 11 ^ 11 

'^T^anai'mft ^^ ^f^f( jjfjr^ iif^t w^a 1 wsran ffsaiK^^^rf^fJ^: 1^ 
f^ ^ ^tfl> T^RTtn^ I ^ ^ ^T^ tRt 't^nr w^^rr^: 1 ^^^^^^ ^^ ^*"«'' 

»wH jn?ranfT5i 1%" ?n« ?. i?- -h. <)• 1 Twrflrsi^: " ^^nn^praYirq^ 1 'Jl^^nf^T %^ ^ ^^ 

^4 1 '^ I ^^^: I f^^: i ^ i Tm i ^mrfk i ^: i ^ ii^ii 

?fr*nfmfvi qa1^M ^ifrtfTT i ^m<4ii(i*ii<4f^qnf: i t -^ a' ^rrrn^fm: i Trft ^: i 'grej^ i ^ f^ 
*i5(fi<«jif<H<i^'iKimfiT!rT ?:T?n5:i^ 'Erf^t^ilr ^ra^rR^^n'wra'njTi^^ai^f^i^^T'lfnTj^nifi 

Mq<< i q ( i n >i*4i<*n «si«i«»«Ji 11^^ itm: I qrerft i ^ s^nwlr mipn ^rf*njT ^leniT %: 

^i^RJflT 'qs(*<4J T a^HSlfd SB'<a*Il^<ft ^^^isq^ IT'l'^Tt^: I ^ ^inj^^Tr XTimt ^ I 

^T^ft!^T!^fM^ 5T W ^rmfw tTTfii^: II 8 11 

W^^^sNyrt: I ^Itttt: i ^t|w: i ^h i ^f^rf : i 
m^Tof I ^1 ^"^w^ I fw^% I ^ I ^ I ^;'3TfH I mf^'. 11811 

1^0 ^» ^. <». so. q. I xfn sngnj 1 «i<»<!iir«-^»wi(r*<M«(iii<!'X!rf "t^ ^mt(^ f^reft 1 ^ wt ^nfJ^: 

'I^ ^ irfxi^ffk rTiT ^ ^t^ ^: I 

^^: 5fftT|^ Tft^cfT W^^l ^m miflf: II M II 

^' «^ 1*^ I ITSfxRfrT I T!7T: I ^ I ^qT^« I ^f^ I 

^g; I ^pfer I Tf^m I HTTi^t I ^^: I ^S^: II M II 

QTR^ ^ i^«»^<i^<^^. I i^Tj irra:^^ ^ % ^rotfli i^»^w-«4«.i I7gfl<*(t: «<'''^* 
< i m i «<^ I fijfq ^^T^^ *ft*i»a Tf^rn I ^mr »> ^^Jrf^ 7r«n 1 'rrg: ^fm^: irflwt ^ 1 ^ 

TTTT t5TO% I ^ng^ «t»l^ ?T^ Tf^TIT I q | *4vn« I W I ^'^< l ^ : I f«im H^TPft #«IWTT<in ^^ 

t)flf I WHTrti ^s^ I vTTTj^iEft I f^s#^ I ^iit: I )^ I ^1 ^^: , 
ru^ I ^ I tlf5^S^ II % II 

^«iti«(^p!i*ri^«>i«iiTi«OM*iiii <i«<*s(i*n<i I nm irrnr^ i iiTrrr x^ \^'<\. q^q. <\. i ijiin- 
^ JT«IKiHHi 'g^'ft TTTTW: I ^ 'TTTnW 5^^ I ^3^;i: ^^rranh i m nf3?m^ 

f^^: I W^ I ^5^1^ I ^: I ^: I ^^qs^NH i ^: i ijfti: i #^: i 

W«^l ^r^l ^^Hl ^ I ^fif II5II 

^^T^ ^f^?rt ^feNftf^'p: lib II 

^TTt: I ^n^ I irfksv^: i f^ i i<: i ^xrsji i 

fqr^t: I ^f^?ft I ^T I ^: I w^\ ^^s^tr: ii bii 

fir^ ^rviif^sft TTT < > < i ,i« ) i<dif*ini it^: I JT^rr f^^ gfr^: 40'tfli g^"t »im n: 
^fNY 7?^ ^ ^ TTT 'JtT J i -^fdrti i f^ ff mww I'^'aT'S-^. I ^RTOn^nmr: 1 Jj^mfa: 

^'** I ^y S^: I ^W^l ^W I ^^t Rm I ^ I ^ I ^1 ^^ I ^TOrfYl 
'l^^T I ^HT I ^nt^ II ^ II 

^^ W ^ ^^t ^f^ x|^|^t:i^t:: II «^«i II 
^^s^THwrf I ^sf^ I iif/ 1 ^ I ^m^ I fw: I 
^W I ^ I ^li ^ I wm I f^ I W: I "^jr^- II «»«i II 

^^ ^ ^ ^mj ^Mt ^^ W^: I 

^5^ TRW^ ^^^llrlT^fft ^fiT II <H^ II 

'T^ ^ I ^ I ^ tfw I ^Trqr: I f^5^5=i: I ^: 1 ^S^tt: i 

^: I H^kHM I ^% I ^ I ^^fff^i ^s^ift I xrTflf II «i^ II 

mw( ^i ^ ?qT ^ d<(H«^1h t|**4<!j9n?l rytf^ g^ ^eh^ ^ireri 1 <*ir»i«fl ^rr^ mgr^: 1 

f^lTi^TTf : ^i^ 1^ pfw 1^ irfn H*<<i) TT^if^ JNpirrTtffT; 1 w^^s^^ 1 ^f^ ^ f^ntft- 
»n4»n^u*ji T^rei T?<g^TrRTfwt ^fi^ ^ ^ ^!i^ sTRt >irn^ <ii<i^8<«ti'^i'jf^w^= » 

^smr^ 5^ nT^5f% Tf%m^ in? II 

^^ I f^ I »n^J I ^f 5^: I trft I ^^ II <^?ii 

TreiT ^(ft? ^i j ^ ai ^^ I ^ ^ng 'Brf^TT'reiT: ftmr^TTO^fi ^q*ta«iTn, 1 HKif^w^.' 1 ^^ *""^^ 

ilrl^l ^f^'IT I ^T?t^ I W^ I f^sV^ I ^ I ^llt; I 

f^ \\^V. I ^^ I rfrti "^T I ^Wf^ I ^^: I fxTrrff I ^ST^lir I |^T H <)iJll 

^ ^'^^I^i.'''^ g^TT^ Ht^RiTt JJSHw '^R^ I ^ ^nvsmr^ npu^ i 

^fin^ri I fjT^T^ 11 

Ti;^,^ 'i^^ift ^"^ ^j^ I %^ ^^ ^Hi%^ \^ Tm%: II «m 11 
^i^i ^^ I ^i^: I ^j(\_ 5.fH I ^s^ I fix I ^4 1 li I ^ I tr; I trt I 
w^^ i I ^^ I rmr^i II SM II 

I ^H^ '«<^«ii*s» ^Tf»?«ft ^?n^^ ^fir^ I ^ irfn I 'ft;^ ■ q<,an*<i<< T: ^jSrm: ^^ftni 

in€t?gTT I IR ^ H^t ^?T^I ^'TT^ HfTfl' IffWgftBlt^'ftfifTra g^?f?I 11 11 :^^ II 

li ^> ^^'^^T^ WfU %: I ^^ ^^ ^^ rf^TTrT^ ^%: II <i!, || 

1 2]Ri I ^ I ^ ?f7* I ^ I m\4'. I ^s^ I %: I ^^ I ^ I ^ I 
^1 ^^ I rTH^l ^^H^: I ?f!;i f^: inffii 

^tII "^t^qf fir^T^ ^Tin^ ^ I ^ ^^ n^TO f^ ^v^t s^ ^: ii <)^ ii 
15?^ i^%«i: I fw^ri I ^TUT^i I ^ I ^ 1 ^TRji i ns%^: i f;^ i ^wj: i 
^^ I ^: II «1n9 II 

1^5^ I -^h: I Tipiiit 1 1^ I f^?fii i^m I xifti 'JTw: i^«ift I 

VOL. IV. L 1 

^Mb II ^»%^: II [^•b.^«^,^«»^^. 

thicb^i<i<iR^ f%ft?rra^ ^rft ^nn-. i ^ wfTur^pi: i if^tr;^ ^i(<«n fwrf*i gipTRj^r^, 

f?TTf^ TTJrrft ^^ ^^ TTf%^^ TTfHim: i "^^ g lTOf^^twnnfg^:g»nii-m7j ^^. 
^T I =^»n ^ 3rra^ gn: i> m" 9 d- m. 8. 1 ^wrrfi^: 11 

^^ts?^: I vf^ftJ I ^w^: i ^f i i %g: i ^^ ii^ i ^^of i 

W»f i'^*^: I f^ KMTfw I ^S^ I TI I ^Ht: I fkT^ I ^^ I ^^: II sail 

^ 'gj^in ^t^t^tt: Kfrrf^ ^t^?ttt ii^^^^Tfv^'ftrq^^T'Pi: ^w^^ h^ i t(M^ 

m<^*< i n(«i^q«i*< i ^ : 1 aHU'M^ijf ^g<^g^^rrwRf?i^ Tfft% 1 ^%»^ »rpi ff^^ f^ ^^rfir 1 
iiftOfH I ^airq^^i^ I f^ 31^1: 1 ■^tni'T; trfnf?^ ETOfsrr xi'gT?T»rf*ri'5E?»i: 1 TPf^^rrerfinini 1 
"tsyrt Hn^^ m\ ^^"^ ^JiTgfw?^ 1 "v^^ffff 11 

^^ ^f77 f^W? ff tl!?T^^ ^ff ^^^ I 

^ ^~f ^^' ^^FI Ht^ ^^ ^^ ^f^ ^'psi IRo H 

gsf^i^ I "smfr^ I f^'^sM I f^t^s'^in i gs^ i gs^ i 

^ ' ^1 ' ^ ' ^r+^ I t^^ I ^^ I ^ I ^ I ^f^ II ^0 II 

gfjJPJ^I Tfr»T^^^ffrf«lfi?rt TRTT ^PSrf^ » }<!> { f H ^^ l f^lf^ri fW-S^ IMlM ffT^^ 

?^ WR ^fN g'a^ 'T^ ^»iT^ n?g <ns*i*iianM: mm sf^ 1 f^[«? 1 ^^ f^^ • "i^- ^- ' 
^s^ II II ;^? II 

^T^t I ?:^ I fq^sH?ii f^s^^ \m\%i mn: I ^^ I ci^ I ^^. "^'^" 

^ H if44j< ui f^nrrf : fsn* 1 % f^^r^t ^<m: *aMit*(i'*ii^*nM i ^^»4 1 'at^ " ,^LS 
»i^: ^ifM»T^ 1 ^m5^ 1 ntN f^rfT^ ^ * in ^O*firfl if^ ^ niNt f*J^ f*^ ^ 

^n^ifthak flT?«l^ ^ 5q^T W ^ ii ^^ii 

T3?f^l 1.4 I ^: I f^^^ Zf^ f^'^S^ I TfH^m I t35pT| I r^ I 

^ I f^ I ^ST^'^ I 'FT I ^^t n?Rit I ^iriR^ II 

tjm ^ T': « ^^ II 
^W^ ^^N- ^5 ^^T ^ft: ^#^ ^ ;^ ^\7i I 

^^i^J ^mi"^ f^f^^ii^ ^t^si ^^n^"^!: ir^ii 
w^ir. I ^^pN: I w^ I Ti^qf: i ^: | ^^^fij: i ^ , v?: i ^s^i i 
^ I ^^n I # I n't: I 5t: I fir^rl^i € I ^:^ I |S^t| I ^ i"^^: IR9II 

f'im^T ^Tt ^iWR; ^ R«n*ir<i I ^«i^ Tivi^ i rrm wfr ^: ?[ f^nft^nJi i \ ^t: w^- 
ijmg ifnf ^rfSTfw ^: i ti^^ mmm ^^^^^\^^ g^wn^ i gfi<^*i4<<g ii 

'mnfi:i^'»q.«iq.i ^f?iii 
fl "^t ^f^ ^^^^ tiT^snt^ f^T^Ti^^fTT g^^: I 

IT I i^ I ^fir I ^^^!M I ^T^l ^?I I RT I 5I%Tr!^l ^f^ I |S^^: I 

^W^ I ^^i* I ^S^rT^ I c^% I ^ft^ I i^ I ^ I W I ^Vrfti IR8 II 

^ mfJipr ?rf%^ irfr^ «t'5'!r ^arntwrf?! i <TWfn!i^ ■'mm, 1 ^^ ^ 'sr h 
^TftT ^ m m ^Tf^fTT 'T^i!!^ v?:^: gt^: gifr^t^vni: ^v^ sra^T^ i ^rsjtjrat ^^ ^fffw 

^TRT ^ ^f^4mslnr«)VTfi: I fi jfr^twT '^^ 'T^^ 'ft'ft' ^% Vl^lMl g»<T^ '^'^ 


? S~^^ I WS W I ^J^rT IRM II 


nrc ftggwTRq ^^^rfw m Trg^ wf^^TT^nj^Tfii i ^n^ w^ 'jsnrt ^ i ^i^man ^ 
ij_ ^: %w: gn^T gwrr gj 'rr^'n ^t«^ w^fir ?raT f^ ii » <^8 ii 

|5T ^^ ^^ f ^l^f^^t rq Tl ^f HT ^^^ I 

^lElT I rsn I iw: I ?l^g 1 f ^S1^ I ^f^^t I i^T I TTI ^frTT I ^^?T \ 
'JfT'i: I "T^ I 'JIST^ I W I ^^: I ^f^^l I r( I f^^^ I ^ I ^^ IRf,|| 

I "^H" ^o <i. «:. »=. I Tf^ II 

w ^f^i iN^ H ^^^^ f^Sf f%^T^w "^^^t iR^ii 

?f I fw^ I TTS^^t I ff I ^ 1 ^^^rq I ^%^ I ^1 1 nTlsxTSmi I ^ff I 

TJHT I x?;^ I w4 I H I ^^ I ^ I fif^ ?fH I f^"^ I W I ^^^: Ii^^ii 

% 'T^ ^ i?T%?Tf^''Tf?Tf% fJi^i innrr ^ ^g^m i ^f^r^ irt^wrif ^^^rf^i^Tsi ^rr^fi i 

'g^ f^^ ^I'n 'T^T^: i ^if*<*i<§l«» ^^ ii 
^ItJ ^c ^t ffft »^^ ^c^wflfi^l^^ I TT^ ^^7 ^rT^: Tlfii^V^ ^^ H^bll 


^^T TTlrff ^T 3n^ N^ trfl^ lR<ill 

flQ<^o.^««.^«»bM.] II ^re^s^qi: II ^|,<| 

ffit ^ ^3^ 1 1[^ wan ii^ xrr^^ ^ ^7^ Jjjsft g^ t^tff f?rn^ 1 srarr^pm^i^i^irRi: 
sran ^TOT ^^ f^TUf f,«jM'*i«}^ I "«ifl«fMR«i»l \s^ wniT H'Pi^: 1 ^ ^r^^rre: ^ 

^In «?^^^ ^^ Tqq^^T I 

^tr I ^ I i^rarfk I Wrft I npjjf I ^^^T I 

TjfTi: I m^ I ^s4: I ^^T I ^ I ^jI I ^i^sfllr^ ||?0 II 

^wr^^ ^"^ 'T'ifw ^w ^nwT: II ?«i II 

^ I ^s4: I ^5 I ^ I Wj I ^ I ^'Tti^ I ^ I 

flf^fH I m^ I ^f^: I *^t: I ^^ I ^: i ^s^im: ii^sii 

aTstT^mr^Tfi: I m^g'mg vm^ ^ftr^ ^nntr ^^ is^icc^j: i ^fi wmr ^iw^ 'iwt 
w?m: 7R ffra^g ii 

*IT f^^R-qftRt ^ W^\^_ i^ I ^J^fJ^l^rrTm^Itt ?ti^^rT^: II ?^ II 

^ I %^ I TTfts^fti^: I ^ I ^S#^ I i^ ?fk iZT^ I is^TfJ^: I 
|:sn I ^ I ?Ht I ^xt 1 5m I ^R^^: ii^^ii 

_^ irft'jf^: t?^q«ajmT: w^^ wr ft^m Hm*ji.^ yRiir«i*i1 ^m\ ^#^ '^rftJi^fd i 
l*^"!^^ ^^rfpit ^B^ tiidw I J^iTFiIT?^ ^T^T^TW f^ TT^ ll??ll 

?s»T'T(^: I ^^ I ^v: I ^^\ \ ^si^ i ttoIh i w^iirzi i ^ i ^ji i 
^^ I ^ I f^ nrri I ^h^t ii ?? ii 

^ff^ II W^^' II ['i^t.^*^.^*^^^, 

^»nTr^ ITf^rr ^anntj ^mw ^lerro ^iflmiw i ^fm?i?T?<: i «a«a*i^fv^ ft if^ i f^^ 
PTll^fl II 

5|% ^ ^^ f^^cW ^^TV^T^tfrr II 9^ II 

^ I ^rTri;! ^^ I T^iTrt^l ^^IJS^I f^S^i^l T I ^rfif^l ^^ | 

^^T I -m I ^^T I f^^Till W: I ?rl^l ^n^S^ I ^fw ll?lJll 

T^fteffT^^^^ I TTffi. I ri^ ft^f^ri: I ^rf?[^irfi% I ^tN I ^g'HT^ I 'ft ^T mwn'- ^4in<i(H'\ ' 

^^: -q^ ^xiTf^ TTlf^ ^^ g 'J^fw II ?M II 
^S^^5i I f^S^^i I Wi(t ?fH I ^^Sf^^5^ I 

^mT{\: \ xr^ \ ^M\f4 i rrrf^ i ^t i g i ^^fw ii^mi 

f^^rf^fWT g ST?n!i Tl^ fT^fT^T^re: ^rarr'arr^vfTT i ^^Ri^rfw ii ii ^if ii 
I ^o ^» <^. ^. ?. I Tf^ II 

Tjmjf^ ^ mmm^ 5^ ti^ ^^ ^lAM^m: i 

il'Tit ^^7 ^f^m ^tf^^ i^T|'^|T?f^T^ "%,^T: 11?^ II 

jj^mfi? I ^ I ^u»fTSi^4 1 psf I Twi I ^r?ii I ^T»!^s^if%: i ^ i ^^■' • 

i^q: I ^T7T I hTw I ^tsf^: m^ I i^ I ^: I mis^i'n^ 1*^1' " ?^"' 

1 ^ ^ 71^ f w^ ^wrfir I ^firrfJT i Oot4 i ^frwi^^r^ ?ft*rnii'ra i i'IT ^imt ^ 'f^ 

tsR??^ I mt^raiT^ I f(mi ^?Trf7i: 'STfiTfTr ii 

cTT ^¥^:^^^^^ ^^T ^^ ^^A ^^^'T ' 

ITT I ^^ I f^Si^^t I m I fe^^ I ^i^T I ^m I iig^: I ^'t^'T I 
iIT I 'TM ^^ ^ I ^sjfft I f^S^^t^ I ^^f I ^^M: I us^rtw I ^ " ?^ " 

T|o^o.^»S.^»bM.] II is^s?^: II 


^ I ^ I nft I ^^[f^ I ^^ I ^?!t I ^ I ^ftfir I qf^s*irri 5RTit I 


^^f?T I ^^ I ^ftr: I ^q?^i ^^ I ^5 1 cf^^T I 
^s^^: I w^j I ^: I xi^: i iiI^h r ^: i im ii ^(> n 

HtTf: HWRt W^\ ^w W^l ^^: I 
ijfft^ ^% xif?i^7iiir t^^iit: 1180 ii 
^^: I iti^tr: I f^f^ I mi: \ f^f^ 1 ^s rTi: 1 
ipf^'i: I ^: I ^ I T?f7i: 1 ^^4: 1 ^ 1 ^T^sin: 11 80 11 

5JTm ^«ft ^t»T: PWWTT^ jffst f%f^ I ^ratrrr^ i jM 'Tttt: ^ f^t i ^atr'^T'i i 

^#f ^^^W^ mil i^^ I tT^ ^ ^^T^T^^^^^ ^\ II ii«| II 
^T^' I ^^1 tMt^ I mi'. I ^1 ^^ I tfii I ^ I -^^T^ I ^ I ^3^1 

^i^ ^m^f^n. II 
?l^ ^ »?T f^ ffF f^W^^i^liRt^ ^5fTjfH?U^HT5ft # ^1 118^11 

^^^fn: I irt^Tn^r 1 ^ 1 "jl 11 8^ 11 

^^^rv: T^%; ^^^ tf>^«<i«n w^Jimrvi ^: n 

^ I 5t: 1 Tjs^r I iR'i^ I inrTS^fn: i ^S"wpT^ i ^ i ^^ i ^tr\ \ 
^:sTrnf^:iT?fHS7^^i^if^i^i5T:i>T^if^sxTliiTJi 1^:5x^118911 

^^t^^iTifTOfii f^^ TT^*^: gTicii: ^^t; i 
%^^^^T1T ^^T ^ ^T H^ f^xi^ ^ "^t^X ii«Bii 

ftT:S^: I^^SSRTHT I ^?TT I ^ I ^f: I >T^ I fwsxf^ I TJJ I -^^IZ^ Mw 

?Tif r^^^ 1^1 1^^ ^>int fCJ I 

?T?t I r^ I ?5 I '^f • J ^S^ I gsW I f^ I 

^ I ^^T I fSTT^ I W I ^1 I ^H I ^^^ I ff^ II8M II 

^7fi^ WRJ^ H^ H^# ^v \^ \\^%\\ 
HSTT# I ^"^ I ^_ I ^StT^' I ^^t I ^ I 

^ tT^ ^: irrra wfdH^i-Sfe^i^ti^'fcH ir Tnrtw i^ 1 ^'' ?• s. «=• <i. ift^i « 

a I 'm^ I f^^ I ^^: I ^ I wA: I ^^Tf?r I ^ I 

^ I wnM I ^ I inm i ^ i ^ ^ i "^' i ^w i ^ ii^sii 

^\ing I '^JPratfrt: m.<«<,i«i^«ii: <«<ir««i'S; i vrm ^ ^ ^vig i |ft ^ nwm i ?n^- 

i?TOt»rrg fiR.rtcjffi 1; -awt f? ^i?jt^tf?T ^?re( T^m 'M rsC'^ i -w i f*) i ^< n^m i Wi( ' 
'^•. 1 ITT ff|;fii TTTRVrrWri 1; fwt i ffiT^T'jji ^^stt^t^?!^ tW^'^ ii. \ m i ^w i fM i 

%¥ 1^^ trmMn II ^ifif«r«ii^i!]i^fti*> B5^BI^I^ Tismn i ^t%ft ^ i ^m fm^ fq 
ii%?raT fTrrrsm'srT ^g^ i w c ^. i Tf^f n ^ ^s^^e^w^nxk! fl[xi^ ^i <^<n<^mj |i 

f^wft I fTOT ^ ff^ I *je«ifS smnrN^^t pr^ ^ qfwii^ i ^^ «:. u- 1 Tfir ii 

'nf I ^Ti^i -s^vijdsrm I ^^: I ^ I titis^ i f^^*nr!;i ii} i ^Srit: ii s ii 

'^i ^Wrfir^ ^ an^ ^ d I trrt nfn *raT ft^CT ^sjf^nm: ^"^Kt fm*'»J«iai'?;: i 
^ i?7!r: I TT^ ^ <:n<t*< i *if«is( ?n tw^w i *raT ^frwr: ^ift ^ ^fmrft i ^pm: i 
^ "f H^ |T <i^rn^ jr ^7Pm: i tw ^ gtg ^ft^ w^ ^!n%^: ^»ft fm«fM4*i g^> 
'''^T »m ^tftrijTT: ;to»t^ <<t«<m*>*i i^i^ i 'ra^ fl«iinT^>ff frg^Riw^^n^^m 
^= I ^^fBTPc: u JTTV^wjT^ f^ ff <f ) «tr<a > «<r'ls^i* ! jJ i <ii*if«frt 1^ I Jrar ^ iRf^ i 

VOL. IV. ,^ M m 

^ ^f H f^f^^'^ ^T^xfta^ f^OT^ ^?kt H ^ II 

'i^ I ff 1 1? I ^^ I ^J^' I ^ I ^ftt: I 

f^ I ^ I i^ I ^T^^: I "^mi I iftw: I fi: i 

^^ I ?5^2|f^ I ^irf^l ^ ifi^ I ^ I ^: I ^ I ^SPIrl^R^ I f^^ron^l ii: I 

^T '^ ^f>1^^ ^ ^TOf^f^^^fH? ^^- II ^11 

^ I pr I «^ I ^m^ I W I ?5 1 ^ST^fli I 

^T I ^1^?^ 1 4%n' ^^^ ' ^^ ' ^f ^1* ' f^'^^Rlf!;! ^: I ^Srti:: Ii8ii 

fipiT W^lf^ ^ ^#^ '^^ I 

f^^ I H^rf^ I ^ I ^f^: I ftrs^hwT I f^ I •^^<^M«i^i 


f^ TTf*rt I ^[if\^n I f^ i^w *«*ir: »ii^ fm^pm^'H ^f^fq^i^"*'^"* 

*7 HrUffi^^^ ^T H+W^*ilft^# f^'^wfijg ^¥T: II I, II 
H I Tffl^l ^t I ^>TOtt^Si^lT I T I ^T'jSrnj I ^1 

^ I HH: I nfHs^^ I ^ I «W I ^i^s^^# I iky^^fni i ^: i 

•^Siv II If II 

^1^1 fF5Tf>^ I ^S^"5| I W\ I Hf^^ I 

iqwi^i ^1^1 ^rW I ^ I ftjt: I ^ I ^si^ I l^fn i Fctniwiri^i ?5l: i 

"^siv II 9 II 

??^ ^q^ ^1 jjsjiH^^tw t^ 7f^ Vt^ iHffli»gffi I »T^g I f*«^n ^<«jHlfd^iRi!ii ^i^ 

^ ^fi ^ T3^ i:^5TT^^ « 

^ < ^d # gS^ft I ^S^ I ^^ ^H Tf^S^t I ^S5TtI% I 

f^i^sxrfs? |5t: 11^ i^f>^i^^ft'i^^T^4 if^^cmi^iti'i^SrtT: iibii 

%5^: I ?r^ fmifVit f<t^«*) i ^ti<: : ii 

im^^tfer cnr<*!flUm4) w^w'^ fW^T% ^: ii^ii 

M m 2 

Tift I ^Smfxj ^s^MfiOy^ HT^T^fit^Tait ^T^Tlft H^^ JTUT^^ 'T^firtWT ^Tt% | H^^ft, , 

j^g ^mr TT wr»t I ^mif'Tft wwrmg Mvsm, i 'in? nft grr T^fn i 'nft^ i ^^: ^^^ 
=?[ I nwj im mPiRsO ft^s^npfnc: ii ii s? ii • 

'^TRr|»TwrfTf*T^ ^n;^ ^^"^'in t tf ix^ 1 1 'ag ftra^ i ^rair i t^ f^r^'^fwi i flf^-M^ 

% t^rftr ^gfiiii^ : h^^^ ^rf^ing7rr|m?ii^^ fira f^T^ifj f«nn t x:tw i t t^ i ■^•^♦^•^ 
«<^igfiH> : ^^««( i i^< : I '"[T I WTi}: i "^ t^rftr ?m^: ^n^f^Tivtif gm^ft^ THtu i ^ 

T^l ^JWc'ffTR II 

iJTin?['mT^'T I jHw^^w^: i nyg^ i th^ i f*? m^smt. 1*^1 ?i^rTf^ ^: 1 ?n^ 

^fTt% ^ ^^ ^ 4^ ^ fWwT% ^^: in^ii 
^: I ff I ^ I Tiis^ I ^ I tNffif I f^ , 

gw I ^f I ^ nft^: 1 5?!:i ^ I f^ ^iTfjfH I ^ I f^wnj|;i 

»m HT^^r^TWT 5ttm ^mrr: Tqfn 1 ^Trrft ^rn^rfli 1 m»H^^nf*i 1 3tn^ "^ ^^ ^ ^ 
Tf^ i^TJftfa ^: I t%^ % »T?ft»ft»ft gwt ?T!jf?i I 5j^ gxTjtTT ^rerr: 1 ^iffi?^: ^- 

^W: I ^ I f?PT?S'Jn: I Wf: l ^^4 1 ^^1 

'^IM ^ 1 1? I ^ 1 1^ R I AT I f^fH I HT^: I f^'^Wrl^l ^: I ^ilSri^: inM II 

^^'% ^ Tjipif ^^^^ f^^i^ f^wT% ^-^k: in^ii 

'^ I ^* 1 1^ I ^ 1 1^ I ^U I ff«qt I ^?^i 

^: i^f!;i^iil^l^5Tif^S%^: lf%S^>#lf^WTftitiM^S?tt: in^ii 

^ ^ ^ ^t^ f5^^^ f^^^ r 

^90 n w^* M [^*t.^oii.^«^ 

% fmsw »<l*«d*<«» l «(i fi Sift I Pq^'tlmMi^ I ^JPiw ^ ^fTwur^fTT^T^ ' ^^^^^' 


^\ft ^T^ ^i^cTT ^VtM^ir^l • 

3i: I ^: I ^s^N^t: I ^ I Tff^ I TO I g?r: I f^WT^i ^in TjT^STJ^: ipc,ii 

gfrm gf^mrfii w»pfi T ^jftrnftfiniiTTfisr ^^rftr ^mn^ i T^Tujrf ^m^ ^^r^ir^ 

1>^ ^ ^^^ ifi: ^■*l'|3s).fi|lil% f^^T% ^: II ^^ II 

'rat H^iTTJm fff ^iftfii^ f^fi I % t]^ ^T^^^ ^ iht^-^ ^^rg^^ ^s^rm^: ^ 

F: ai ^ ^5T^ W- ' I'ff ^n^iHTrai^: i ^w^r*?^ ^nrotim: if^ioci^.f 1 1^ n 

^^: I f I ^^i I upr^ 1,^ I ^ I f^^ I 

^''^: 5^: H2?rre^ i im PJW^ n ( ^< ni^'H<,: ii ii ii ii 

"^ II in: fftr«if»njt»i: H ^<iKi f*if< i g< ,u| ^ cTTO T^^ Ton i fM ^ i fv«miT^mfH- 

^^J'^ ^: ^!^: ^ift^: « ^ %j ^ fttj: trfg r!^ imi 

^^^ II W%^: II [^<»t.^«tJ.^^. 

t:^:s^ I ^f5i^ I ^ I f^rxrf^ I fM I iiW i ^ i ^nftr \ ^^ i 
fsj^^: I ^: I ^ sIh: I ^ s t^: I «: I ^:i f^^t I h: I ft^n m^ 1 511R II c| II 

wmv fff^t g^fW ^^ 5f^ ^Tfw I ^qji'tijiffl I €ti«*<r^: ftriTT^ ^i^T^rraVwtgi^ ingfj,; 
m f^^^T ^^TSIH^ ^««n^ ^flftt W^«^ II ^ II 

^4:s^: I ^ft^ I ^hsmt^tN: I ^ I ^^ I ^«!S%^* ' ^S^: i 

m I fsT^^t I ^s^^n^ i~p^^ I ^s^: I ^# I ^ftt I ^FR I ^^ ii^ii 

% aiM '^ <0 ^rrrrtR mmvrtf nt ^ 'frfira: *i«iJ<OH\^'ff«i^'S'^t»T^^: t ^ft^^JT^: ^rfwar^: i 

^m I ^prorf^ I ^ I ^f| I ^ I f|¥: I ftj^^: i ^^t i ^it i ^ i 
iiT I ^??rf^ I Tift I ^ I ^^ I ^^ : I ^ I vff I ^^ 

f^ dMn^ii-Ma mff I trfrn^ I ^lirym ^ ?rRrrgvT'iMi^+ii3H^^^n!reTV'i^mm^F^r(^ 
^ ^ I :?rat^ra I H^^^: ii 

^: I ^: I ^s^^feTT: i ^ i ^^T i ^q^^n^ i ^f^sft: i f^fpr: i 

^tW: I ^ 1 1^ I ^S^T^ I ITcft^: I ^T|^ I Tjftt I Hff I OT HiJ" 

\^^ << l| <<«i<)^4<H^\4i^l^Mi<*i<0<4< ^i ^WT %a.^ *iMnui«i^^w» rR: ^^m^^^ 

VTTprr ^f%w: ^nfrfr girra ^ HPi-»ifliH !«•«[<» »Tf|: i irwra^ n 

n Tj^tftjj ^%^: «!#% * ^ ir4. r<iM j|r 4 N% -^ MM" 

^0 c)o. ^0 9, ^ ts.] II ^rewts^^: II ^S9 

?si^ 1 1^ I ^^suTft^i I fJrf^ I ffiOT I ^tsrfri: i ^tw i ^ i ^ i 
n I ^tf% I ^s%^: I ^'^f I ^sw(^i ^f^: if^ I f^^i ^cpji iimi 

I ^7(^ ^rmvT ^TTnm m^ ^ ^rnjvnrei Tr^re^ ^ fttfv i ^^r i ti^ fim«^ 
jpiTJireH^^ f^Tfl[f^ f^ntg I H^^rf^w^; n ii qii 

3?BTf!ft^ VlMV' XlifiT IfJlWt f^^ W ftj^^: II 1(11 

iM I f'^#l' I W% I ^S%^: I flT^ I i^ I ^?n ^T I ^trT I 

iRt^l ^ I Wft§ I TTf^sfwf: I TIrf rf I rt I ^ I ftw I ^1 1 fW?i: || ^ || 

^ I ^l(: I fvT I i|rf| I ^^^15t: I ^HS^: i fg^: i if i w^ \t^: \\n 

^amft '^ 1 Brm'%^i?r wnj^ fg fwr«rnRTT*i m^ m wrmt ^rcrt qT% »< 1 * 11 4 Rw yr- 

S'='<»'ft ^ I Tf wg^w mgvT^ 5(m^ 1 fjR^ 7t ^TgvRjninfritiarer »n?p?i JT^rarr: f^w 
^'^<niR<»(: n ^^ 11^ II ^ra[T I f^m tr tif^irf^^T: 1 xpftiJ^i^ 1 *r«Rig 11 

HJ^T t»l^ ^ITljt ^^^ ^^^^^ tV^^ II til 

II I x» I ff| I ^1:1: 1 53: 1 ^ I ^: I ^^sm?J: I rti \ ^\ ^^n^ 1 

^\m\ v=\j^_ I HS^t I ^f^ I ^s^^: I ^^^ 1 1^ I ^'! "til 

^ ^f^ g^m?m> ^ mgvrnt Tr^i'^i^mf^^^TT^ ^r^rs^^ft ftiiNif^R^ ^srufTcrrf^ 

^^^ ^JR^^T ^^rer TH^ I ig Trn^rg 1 ci tt ipi mM 5^^ gnn ^^^ =^ ^% tv^ 1 
^ 'Rr I ?|^^ v^;mi: n 

VOL. IV. " N n " 

% ^ 9t (flx^-i f?n^T ^r^m %5i^T ^njn^ff^ ^!rr»i Tr<i iimmi f*^ ^ n%!: iT?retrnn^ 

5j^^T T.W ^fi xnw f^^ rf^ ^^t% irfw iTol^ i 
w^sri^ Tj^^lt^T "j^ w ^f7 •JH^^T'itei ^ moil 

^ Tf^ f^ I fwf^ II II ^ II 

f^; I ^T^SVT^: I nsWrf I ^ I ^ I ^rf I ^: I ^ I ^^^ I ifii I 
rt I ^rf^^l I ^^;#4^ I ^T1TS%^: I^S^^ 1 1^^ I ^J^ I f^ I ^ ll'^'ill 

j(^ "^w i?fri vfi\Ji ^T^^ ^ xn5i% ^qrftiT'^ i 

?lr|^l ^ I ^^: I Hffi I yf| l\^ I ^S^^ I ^^ I XI5?tf^ I ^S^'t I 
^nr#S^r(^l 5^frf^T I'^'l I ^ I ^rf I ^f^?r I I^T I ^ H *^^ " 

TTTPi ^§m f^ H^ 5*frf7i^ ^y«i«i4«i?trm i fnmj ^ i 3[«r^^ x:^ f^ "I'J'" " 

^1 ^^ I ^ I f^TTT I ^qfrT: I ^1 W^: \ ^ I ^?T^ |\>1T: \ 

JT^: I T{^' I ^nW I ^^ I ^ I inrt I %^i ^^ I ^svi^ii^ in^ii 

^ ^ ?ni<niif«fl<sRi f»T^ ^ftg^ iT'trm: y\<}j<.»ii»l'iin; i ?r?r^t»n: ^tmft ^n^: 
^ ?nn 'TOT "T 'Hw: i *{^<?^fl<ffrHi*4<i!: ^tv^ifr T^^ranWr ^ it^" <^o. ^o.. iffifi »nre: 

Tiri I i#rf I Hxtw I ^smthH; i t^^I i ^^ i t^: i itm i '^'tff i 
n^l I ^'t^ I ^s^^F[ I ^^#f| I ^Ti I ^sipt: I ^H I ^W^h: II S8 II 

img'^^T -^ji ^j^ W^Tfrf ^q^ ^g ^: I 

q^ I ^g 1*^1: 1 ^^'T I 'J^^ I ^31^ I ^'T I ^'Bjt: I ^^ I ^: I 
^^S#T I ^: 1^^^ |T1#5^ I f^^^ I ^ I ^sf#f I ¥[WSMFt: inmi 

iRt.' WTT T^ »t 4 »8i^g b g I T^g I f^^^ «nH**n^: ifftifiT ^t^ i ttot ^ tt^: i JiWa: 
'"nmrrtijfr m^r tt 1 f^" §. s^. 1 11^ 1 ^th mgvr^ tj«w tjtj i »ra?g 11 11 « b 

% ^m-^l vitr?T ^'k^ ^^ ^l^Tf% ^s^Tftt ^ in^ii 

1^: I ^^^^ 1 ^cftrt I ^s^% I w> 1 W^ I ^'Tt I ^^svi?t: I 

^"^ ^ 'ngvpftiwror aftj^HTftlTf^i^'^^^ ^"fTnRf^ TT^Tirt ift^Tfin 

N n 2 

^■^ I ^ I fmw. \ fwiJ^Tfi.' »T I TfrH I ^f^ i"i^ I ^R^ a ^9 11 

^n^r^ftif^ ^gvpft TT^n^ref^ ^m^ 1 7t?q^ ^n '•r'nsin 1 f*^ ^nttft •^ TT«ra: ift^ 
Tfh|i^ II fwfw35w^: II '^r^^'n 'ft: tj^rtt f^g^^Tii: ^wiran't fl'Sr ^Qf^^ fd n imK ^- 
^rran'f jrf?i'm xj^^ ^^ T^tw Trn!if%''!ft'rwi^if^^ ^^^ t^^tot ftvr i ?rTi^ | 
Tn:^<5^: « 

TRi^fg I ^(ft "^ ^i^ft TT^vr ^M vn «tt ^^ Jm *r^'ft'P:'m ^ru ^^nri 1 'swmf'TW^: ii 
H^^ ^% ^T^'FTT^ i^ T^Tf^ ^^^ f^^' I 

1 -^ cq ^tPTrft < i^«i K« r ^ng>iiT^^T^reT'5wf€ 1 mv% 1 Tj^ft wr ^ iTprr^ ^^ 

qft^ ^T^ ^311^ ^^ ^e ^Hi^^l^f I ?m^ H^^ I f^^ ^^ ^f^^ t^T^ t^"^^ 

^ii{v<i^ ^rparriT m g'^ i gwT 'n ^[5^ 11 
BfH ^ ^ >5{5r < .l^(»< f M^T ^'3^^ ^^1^ ^ig II ^011 

i^ I ?t: I ^ I "mnjJii ^^rf^i i^ I -vmii} ^ k^ i ^^' 

Hff! r^ I ^ I Wm\w, I rTf4^: I ^S^ I ^^ri: I ^ H^^ll 

fT«rra?l I ^3^WTT?n7J^ tt 1 mf? 1 ^ift ^^ Ti?t w miiir<<p!i*<< t: H^Tcgj^Tra '"^^^ 

^}il\ Y^^\ ^^ui^i ^ii5T?!^i ^f^: I ^ff mft I xnff I tiw?^ i 
^ii5R^Hi^^: I ^^ I ^ I Ti^t^ I ^T^i^: I r^ I ?t: IR«III 

qft ^j\ ^ ^^ M ^fw ^nft I ^^^ f^<^ imt ^^T^Ht iR^ II 

i?ft I i^ I ^1 ^1 ^^1 f^PI I ^ I vWl| I ^^s^^'i f|%sf^^ I 

1 ^rr^ ?ni% ffTi ^rf?ft wm ^t^ gt 'ix:^ f%ii %vrfN ^^^ v^^s^q warrant fl^p^ii- 

^ fwT^^ ^f^^ r!^?:i7f>i^e15+: 11^? II 

f^qmi I HiJ^S^rf: I irfrf I ^ I V^l I ^f I 
^ I fiTTfl?^ I "s^f^qt I rT^:s^^Tf«i: I ^€sf5^: ii ^? ii 
t ^ «t »T5TT^fft »<<j|»i<*4<j(*H^^'^ TT^^rrfN^w ^n^ fiiJ+l»f ttN^ sftf^m l^^rar 

^ t^ ftj^iftr ^Jj^^ f^ff T^wifn: iRiJii 
"f^ I ^ I ffl^T I ^ I ^^sm^ri I f^^'tf^^ I 

^ I t^T I f^fjT I ^pjff I ^"^ I f^R I Tiv^sft: II ^iill 

'^'T^ if^nf^ ftift^imirfn ^T?l M^i f«(if»T^fJTf7T 'n ifiio^.'i^iTf^i ma^m 
^W^ I ^N\w^: I ^m^ ?n^ i f«T^ jit f^ \ f«af^w^: ii 

nfH I ^ I ^tfTT I ft: 1 1'^ I ik^: \ Tifrf i 
'n^svT^T^ I ^^: I ^77 I f^ I ^^ I "^3 II ^mi 

^[w I w^ra n II ^ II 

ff^«prfrrf»TSNY«Tf«nT?5^ ^ ^gif %5h i ^jS^^r^ft: i ^ ^liPKy^ tto^^ ^ i »& 

^i«»0*if'if^ II ^nr^ <^i!<,M^ 'j^ifs«)ifM«i<iii Trfi|'NMO*<f^f*i*ii*' i ^t^ ^ i ff%«n?f- 

JTf^m 5f^: ^ TT^ I ^o ^. «:. I Tf^ II 

rT^ H^ g^Hn? "1^ V^% '* ^M'lt tra^ II c| II 

ff^: I W I ^wt I ^:sW^ I f^f^swfaj i ^S^ I fit I ^ i 

HFI I VITT^ I ^4^=11^ I %^T: I ^^^ I ^ I ^^^t I TTW«i»T II '^ II 

^ trW ^trrraniwart wrirffft ^ ^<»Hi fim ^irf^: ^f^fc( ^;^^ %f^7rft f^ft<yfti 
f^ ^rewrrrF^m^TiFft frei ^'^mw^i^ ?f%wt »nf% hkww jj^'U^ wt^tto ^ ■^ 
Mnrmv -^ ?j! ^^ *j<si<«<.Ri«*4fM ^: ^vmt^ ^imn i Tj^nifn i twt "^ ^irw: i ^fwrr- 

rr^*^?: -^^ #^rTT^st^^^Wt: ^1^ ^W II ^11 

»ft^ I g^^ I Wf^l I ^si]^ I ^^: I ^: I ^>T^i ^ I ^ I 

f!^ i"^: nj^Rt I ^: i^rTi wet: i ^'Hi^ i ^^: i ^^ i ^ "^i" 

^%fHf^'f*irtl ^^f^^HTftr wt^mpHft ^i«T I 

^ HT^ ^Mf ^ng^^TTJTTirR ^r^ ^rrft^ ii?ii 

"^^fJ^: I ^ I ?fqTT: I ^'^: I ^rfij I ^iqftj i ^^t i ^i«^ I 

^: I ^^ I Tjf^^T I ^ I ^cT I ^ I ^s iTm^ I Tt^l ^ I ^t^ "^" 

^ ^jai^iO^fM^s^sTl \%t %f^; Tmt g^ ftfTT^iT: ^r^ tt -^ ^^H<^ i f^ j ^hrt^ 
|T!rm '^it^ ^WT^ ?rimf?i aiid'^.^r ^T<nnfr wr7w«fr m ^^r^m: q?Tf^ qjTTiiW ^f^- 

^i ftjH^msraTm; i ^^i«(ft, i tpjit ^ ?rraf; i ^ tmf^ %«M: ^mt ^»m '^ q ^ r ^q H^fM ^ q i - 

^H^i ^s^^: I >|^5T^ I ^ \ ^^: I ^ I ^ I %^^ I 
ff I t^ I ^liT I i?fw5f>4: I ^tjzfm I ^: I ^: i ^%t: i ^jt^: i 
Q^fesin: II mi 

'Tpn^g ^^Mmww^ ^ffif^tfTT nrn^ ii^ii 

^VT I ^^: I i^Rfn I »t4 I i^^: i rnt: i ^|^^: i ^^ i htw: i ^p^s^ i 

flRt I ^ ^fH I g I ^f^^t^lt I ^m I ^A: I ^tt I Hf4f: I ^tfrT I ITSifT^ II ^11 

^^^^^1%^% ^T ^: ^"^^ ^TT «^ TWfff^^fT: f?f ^rra% in<T^^(^ v.n irsrt ^ 
'f^'^-^^. urn II 

1^^: I ^: I H%^ I Hsi^: i ^^^?r I f^s"^^: i f^ms^ I 

fwnrr ^ f Hwi^a JHi^O^f t ft^ fif^r^-RTi'cfr vT»[}n: aiO<nui t^^ f%% ^ ^. 
^ n ><^ i^'^< ^TPrrsf?^ iwir <« i(i'ft^ «1ii«il ^r^%^ nr 5n»<i<3*53: i ^if«*i<il«> lir^: ii 

^^^ TT'^HH I f<^R^*l if^isf^t^f ^ \^V, I 

^ ^t ^ ^i^^^^Tcn^ #% rt TjfMt fTTjTxi: II til 

h: I ^ I ^^: I ^SRT^l «f|STn: I ff I #: I %^ I H I T|f^ I W I ^tt: II b 

;^ ^^^ TjMt* ^^^Ttl^^i^ ^rfTl^fl;^ IKill 

^ 1^^^: I ^^^H I ^ I ^M^ I W I ^^^' I ^J^'TTfH I f^f I 

H: I ^rfi^t I ^f^* I ^t I ^W I ^TTT I ^fff S^^i: l ?HHMrt^l lirff SR7 IIQII 

^ ^^TRTHftt ^TWt ^yn V^^*i<\ ■-3fmf<f!«(ri: ^f^^lrMB ^^T^tT^lfl f%^ f^'^Tf^ 

cTij^^^Ti^^ %rT >i% '* ^ ^^: M^n f^^k^v moil 
^^3ft^?T I ft I %f^ \\3n^: I ^^ I ^5iH?t I ¥^sfH: i d^snt i 

ft i^?f?ii^a^"?i:»^^»#'^'^-'^^-'T^^'^T^^'^^' "'''"' 

Tmgnt^vrnrrmi if^rajroTifT^ f^tn UTRifti: 1 1^^ ^[t^ 1^^^ Ti^^r^Tf^ ^ ^ 

^^ I ?r!^l ^ I ^^J I ^M^: I f^f^ \\^: I ^^' I wf^TJ I 

^ I ^?^^ I f^^ \,w^i I wfl\ "SJll H I ^vTTfpil if^rnf^ I 

fW in^ii 

^: I ^ %^ ^fi^ ^TTgnn^ ^^»gT^ myng^ WTfT^m i si i r<<*i><;> ? frrar 
?rafn^^ grm^T^raTW^ m 'ram: uft '?f^ i(*<iRi»iiq4^^ iraTft i^ipt ^ i 

m WfTT^ftTOf f^HTrft^^f ^wfH rT^ ^^^ H7T[ iiej^ii 
W^ I ^ I >3^5TR l"^!: I I^Rt I ^i I ^ I ^^^Mi; I 

^ I ^: I irm?^ R^^: I %m?ft: ; ^t[ ^ I ^TJrfff I H^: I ^^trt 1 117^ H^^^^ 

%-^ t?[T^ f^ra# g^T^T^ %^ptt fq ^ ' i<.r!§( i * < rM *< g f fg^<m i ^ i ^ n ' ^mcti*<g>ti5<i. i 

^^t ^^ ^^^^Sfti ^ ^5R1I^t| I 
^^■i BivTHr+i^^fi.!^ ^^^T^ rrf^^ ^iif n^ii 
t^Jft I w^i: I ^g^k: I wftf 1 1^: i ^n?!^ I ^f^ i 

^^^ I -m I ^ftl^i ^^ I ^^ I ^s^^ I Hf^^ I ^iif in?ii 

HTTi ^f^ "^TTir^ ^u^^ I 'imfn: ^[^: i n^rafimrRfl- ^Trn; i w r. q. s- 1 mim i?*!^ 

t.'ST^Tt f^^ft ^w nlkfti ^^^ ^gn: I 
^ ^^ t|f^:WJJ^Hf ^ wl|iT ^: ^XM^ II «l?i II 
^^'Tt I f^^ft I ^f^S^ I TiW: I ^ I ^^ I w^ I ^^: I 

'i* JHff^ I irft:?^^ I ^?f?t I ^ I ^^rarki ^ \^i \ ^^ii«\Sii 


ftfisn frrm iftmft »n^rrt wf^im ^\^ ^ »n^ ^qo i «irMj*< i uin«H i qf*<ijq^ | 

ift»r^ HHf?i ?if?[^ f^ra^Tftrwr ^p^ ^^'^^wt^ ftig'^^ ^ t^pi; m«n ^^RTTrfq^rmn- 
wr«rf m^T«n ?^ i 'ragf^ i ^ '^ w^ wt^m «[ft<^ i h» aft" «. i^s-ji^. i 

%^ w^ 'rnJ wTTs^tift fjsfrt 'Tg%f?f II II «^^ II 

MM \ ^\ m^ It < ji qiaf«i* q 1 "^tH T^ iR^: ftr^ mng?«m i "nvt ^ r^mninK i 'sm 
JT^iW^'m'mtft ftiwt'i^ irmifraci ^cfir i 'srarr i •H4faiO^Hi<ir<wi«iMr*<(»i'i: i jh^ i 

^^^rrfti: f^H^iO *rr3wpft <(l«i*JT'*ft«fMf4^ir*» g^^MTf*i ««|:f*<fiM««!H\ i fireft i cWt ^ 
^^ I TT^rn^ TT^ ^f^ w H<n4Jiif<f« n 

Tu^ Itji: I ^ ^rsf^ I TWT «m f^ ^i^i^ifn^m n ^ ^W fnfm ^nR^rnm'ri'w 
^ Rdi i « i ii 8 M i ^^W ftrt^^ f«nhr^ m^ ft 'fmn. i iratfH i »m«rf»Tiiif*w»rW '^" 

fqf7Ty;^rnT^ <j*<i» » ig)i«ii^f»<<n< i m i^nl <i*<^qi« » i*i i ^ t Tt ^^^^"^ ' ^ '^' ^°' 
HtMfiM^ ^: f^mft ^Rlfi=T ^[^Tf^ ^: ^^ f%W% * H^l7" 

^ I Wl^: i ^ [ ^%?: I ^ I ^: i ^ i ^ isfrt i f^, ^: , 
rf \^_sfwi I ^: I i^ifli i ^^ i t|^W i w- \ m^: i f^ i q; inb ii 

^n^: 1 1^: f;^ ^rfTra^n^: i ^otto ^3to^ asfTRngnm: i ^^rn?^ iirfTi i 'b i:^ ^^'. i 
innr^nw ^^rfj? f^i?i?f??wT^ % ^^ tt^nfinf. <jtmp<!«i> > f«niT»rre m pi ^i^jto^- 
ips: f^f fw»ni iTJjTi: iT^Pft^: H^fiT^ f^»nSrti^T«it%^^^ I Vc.Mt:.^. Infill 

fn^?^nr|4 ^grn^i^^ tt^^^Ct 1^^^ nan 

iiniTSTIT^ I ^311^: I 51 1 TIrfNi f^SlTl!^: I ^^fI^ I Mitfiy ^i | 


jn^rfj^i ^vfi m^mi ?rr^ gi^: jgxjTnrr tt^ht ^aro: jwWi ^ ir^rnrra ^ ^ i 
^ g?7!r: I ^^ ^i^i^iifd m^ sr^pft ftrrRft fw?t ^ta<* ji i^l?^ i » i <: ^ ^^ra 

^^ ^^ »n4f^: I ^^ d. «. I ^ II 

W ^: ^fll ^l^'t^l^^: V fi^*qt ftfil^T^ '^ffi^ nil 

tslt ^ I ^^^ I ^ I H^ I f^S^^ I d^fT I f^ I srr: \^1{^\ 

^ I ^; I ^m I ^ilfe^rf^l ^:5f^: I TI I l^swi: I ftft^: I 'TffSi^ in 

^ ^: ?T fiw ^ja*tf*i5^ ^ir^ I ^ I *(^'5(<ji JTF ''T?^ « f^wfwanira: n fv^^ "^ 


^: gft^: ^ Jiftnff t^ ^3^ fi^ ^(xjf^ %^Tft inSr ^fwrm: i M^v^^'ifn i tr ^7,: , 

n ^li'SrfST^ ^ I W^^ ^ ^iW I WWlf^ fWtf^ f^^TT ^FfT ^raTM I ?fn u 
^TipfTTW ^m^^ T^^T f|^ ^W4 ^ ^^ I 
^ 'i: Tjt^ 5if5+RTq^ t^r^*!^ ^ ^^^Ht^ II ? II 
^mi^ I ^W I ^XTS^I ^ I "^T I f^^: I ^rH I ^^ I VT^q I 
f^ I ^: I TJ^S^ I irfHi^ I ^^: 1 1^: I f^^ I ^ 1 'FT^ 1 til ii^ii 

^ ^^%^ ^f^ Tjj^ftff^^"^ ^fM^ ^11811 

^: I ^T!is^^ I ^ftat I '5T^1f*=i: I f^^i H^»4 1 Tjf^T I ^ I gt II iJii 

u^tfw: sR^^ ^ r q ql * i H i n< '^ 'sri f?[^ '^fts^ <.'it^<tna^ii| q ?ivn t^%w ?fiifli^^ v^mm 
#^ fW^^T ^^?TtfiT ^T%fHt Ilf?pn^5=I "^: II M II 

^trf risH'q: I ijti^Fsw^ I ^i I ftJWl's^rni: i ^st^'^ i m^l^ > 

rT ^ ^^^iMt 57 vp^ Htwfi:^ Ti^: it^ ^n^r: i 

f^ Wt ^^^ fVWT »1T ^ ^^H ^^f»»^: ll^il 

5RH I ^ I ^sf^fS: I -sf^^s^ I ^Tt^ I t|t: I ^it^i 7T I fn^ I 

W^ifirft I ^ I ^1 ^Ffi ^Ri w I tt: I ti: i^f^i^ps^: ii^ii 

tt^ f^ ^^T^ < W^^T^ I ^srfif 'q' ^f^rtn: tj^Tj^ ^TPik ht: it ^ ^'iO '^tt^ I 
sra «J Infill j»t '^^it f^^|ti;i fJTir^ I f^ji^: ^gfw: ^ ^»v*ii^4?^fa^i ^[^^rpJiTarajT! i 

u ^ ^'^^ ^^^ vm ^ ^ ^ fir^ifTf fM 11 1 11 , 

i^ I f I ^1 ^s^: 1 1? I ^M ^f^' I T m^ I ^f^T 1 1T!n% I 

^\^\ "ftr^^ I ^iQ^ mFl I ^ I ^ I ^^: I ftr^fii 1 iwi iibii 

'ner^ q^ 1^351 ri^ifm ^f^m ff^RTf^ ^T^inifjMs^^inir 'j'trift 1 ^ 1 f*Er ivnr^ ^ncw^ 
f*f^^^^hSnT VTXT* ^ gaf »T gwfiT^ f»nr ^itfT gw 3pn: n f»nif?i iraw ^f^r 
'^^^ ^f!nw\w^: II 

^4ftr^g Wh?: ^ ^;^^tT!jT?^^ f^#% II ^11 

It I ^ I fiN I iri ^ 4h<iI I |:sTy^: 1 n 1 ^sfnt: 1 n 1 ^^ 1 fiprfit 1 

fH I ^j^ \^\i^\^'\ f^ I ^Ert^jj I ^ I fW^ iiaii 


tst ^rfif? ^fr^^kTwf^: ^-^ %Jt ^ ^: inoii 

u ^Jim B'w: n 5iTt ^mrfi? flt^w^ ftfrt tt fefH^ii: ii c|«i ii 

II I -^TrT^ I II^JH: 1 1? I 5»T: I ^rTir!^l XT I f^S>^: I ftft% I II I fl^ff S^^ 

^^' I *t*js,«ai'^l*lv5K<*l<'*aMi4fM iTf?: I Tnref ^T^: u^^: Trf^rotiftr iffy: i ^: 

^^^ f^tzi f^^ ^ 4^ Hw fitter 1^ tt^Effir^pi: in^ii 

^rf^ ^# ^^^% ^T^^ ^illH WI^11T5i n?ii 

fi7^[f^ ii-«^% ?r 11^: ^fW ^m.-' i ^m tfj^ in^ii 

fir^Sf ^: I ^1 ^fl% I f I »n^: I Tjfw: I ^Stj^i ^i?t I "^i^ i\^}i\\ 

^y^JI^^TiHT ^Mn\ ^^t{^ ^IRWf Wfil ^: II «\M II 
^S^: I wfk I ^ I 5t: I HiT% I f^ I ^iiirT: i WT^T^: i ?5 1 
m^ I ^fW: I HTim I ^^fTT I |s#frr^: I ^i'. i ht^ i ^m 
^ftfii ^: II <)M II 

^#5 ff m ^^ iRt'TT ^^\fm ?t^»pqm^n!T i 
VJTTiTqt^^^ ?i^ fird f^'^ ^r^ ^w^ II «i!f II 
i^ I ff I FIT I m^^ 1 5Rt?n I ^^tfin i jtc^t i 'i w i ■^i(l'i!!i i 


^ tsT m ^ BpiTT^ #afvtf^ H^ftr ^^t^ 's^T^ ^i^Trf^ WTfti ^fr^Tftr ^ ?i^ I f^ 

^T W ^irf^ JJ^rft^lt f^?n^ gJlift'Tt 'T^Mt I 

%w ^^^T "j^ f^^ir*<'fi ^ ?f ^ 'i^'T in^ii 
?^ • ^ I ^^ 1 15 1 if^nft^t I fw'i I isiTfT>it I ?nt?n I 
f^grri I ^^: i ^^ j jj^sirf: i f^^T^Hr: i ^h i ^ i ^ i f^ insii 

*H]Rm^^?!^ 5RTTi^ ?iflf ^^ftl wfwiT wrt^ mbii 

vTfi I i^H I iTOS^?f I ?S I ^%i^ I H^ I 'jSftH I ^T^ts^m^ I 

^^~\ ^ I ^cT^ I ^wt^s5^ I tH I ^^fti I ^sftrw I ^^^1 II «ibii 

arnftr vjt^H mK^ii vrnrf ai^vi»»Ht ^fsra ^^jtSt^ ^crTTf«»^ ^r^wnrraa^ ^rnn^ftTi^ 

XWUJ^ ^ W"^^ I W^^ II II °t% II 

g nnm^ di l ^: H^: l"^^" «)■ 8- '\- 1 H^^TS '^ f^rf^ I ^^ ^3" ?• '^'^- 1 TWTfl[^f?Tg T(fm: h 

^I^S^% I ^^: I ^¥S^^: I ^l^S^nrt^i ^: i >3f4 1 fW: i ^r^ i 

^rfH I ^iT^fl^l ^S^(^ II «l II 

f^<fii :?i^ <*n«inr«s<d TW^' n 
15^^ TJ^^ ^ ^rf ^ra >^^ I ^rrnJWR^^^ ^^^^JT^^ II ^ H 
13^^: I -^ I ^ I ^f I ^m^l >|rt I ^1 ^1 >^ I ^Hl ^JJHSr^ I t^jt^: I 
^1 ^^ I ^rf^STt^ II ^ II 

.^r*i«ir *4 Hii<: I 'smftr ^ i ^fl< « <^ ^q^*ji i «*n^i« i: ^r^ft 1 ii«n«ii»*hKU!i<B*T ^'^^^Jf'^^' 
^^S^ fW »|rnf^ f^HT^^ f<f^ II? II 

W.: I ^ST^ I f^ I ^[?TfH I f^STTifi^i ^m \ ^ipf I f^ "9» 

■r jj ?ra q i «iq*flM I 'jw^ H^iifr ^Rffwtift wrrami ^rfm«>»iif*w: 1 tpwiw 

H^ %^ft^'^«w^!Fn'Tn5% ^ II ^11 

fCH: I f^^ I f^ I ^'!r[;i ^ ] ^MH^% ^ \ i[fv\ 11811 
nts^ RMif<4<m: <JtiKif|(f l s«r^^: 59^; ?i^ ^jt^ 1 irwT^^iT'm^TT^reTTT^ff^ 

i(m^ f^mt ^^ I w jfto qo. 8^- 1 TfTT I ?mt ^^^|•■^^li^l*^ l^ l(t^ 1^ ?l i : f^t^ ^^uprfHmf^^^ 
ftt^: ^ ^*i*<tC I ^rrrm^ 1 f^ii w^ 1 ^mpiTw* ^rfSr^r^ 1 atipt jfr^tsnt^^nrfpctw 
%?ni mfiprin ■^'npf ?i^fffm%fi^ fiiRi^rf^^ 1 nf»rit irar ^nmr ^^ra^ fifrtfr ^?sn 
3i!H*iTf*iai«f: II 

w^i f^str^ I ^nrwff i iksxri: \ ^ i ^^: i 

W. I 5fTrT: I ^ I ^^W I tr^Tri;! ^ I ^^ ^frf I ^: IIM II 

f^^ a)*i*<R^rei v^ n|^r? Tfw^ 1 cHtii<in(H<(mf ii<i|f i'^^fl ^wr^ 1 ^ww: 1 
f^^VTf^r Tnt% ^«g«j'^fn twz 1 f*rTnPr>ffv f%TT|?^WT flt^ ^!s*<fvicti<, w stctt g^^^- 

'"ft%ftmm^^iH^Tni ^-tf^ftl f^TT^ t^m: ^^ ^ irtw^> ^ ^ 
'T^frm^ m^^r ig» m"^. <». «i. 1 i:fti 1 ^ ^nraY f^RTz H^iwfr^m 1 ^rfJiiMtfgji: 1 

^Wt ^^T#^ iflW W^' "^WSR- II ^11 

H' B^^^ I ff^t I^T: I ^ I ^'^ I 

^HiT: I ^^ I ^iT^i ^1134 1 ^hr: I far: I ^^1 ff^: 11 tf" 

''^Tf^^^^f^j;!?!^ jnrer ff^ ?rat^«Jf h^"^ gvrr^^ if^^r urnre ^njwt'^ ^r^n^ 

VOL. IV. p p 

if I 'qf^ I -^If^ I H I #^ I ^^ I ^H I ^tt: I ^ \\^l I ^SW^u I 

mm'' \w^' i^i^ii^ii 

'srfV g:^ ^k^ I ^ g^^i^'sr 't^^ ^tt ^ra^n i m'RRmt fsrorf^Trw fwn^: i % ^ |^ 

TT'^t^ oi7^«iTNnp?IT5?qwim ^ II til 
WWtrl^l ^^Tr[^l H^S|?f: I HSijrt I ^f^S^5^ I 

^^ I m^ I ^^ I ^^^^ I ^miiiiK I mm'' i ^ i ^ ii bii 

^^^7i: I -^^imw. H^ ^iftRjfr ^^ ^i'i ^^T?l i fli«mi^<*)if<i5t?Mn«i*i«i4iiii?^- 
^m ^firf*t^*<i rti 'Efgfi I tiM i H^fl i jf^ "^nw ^aq*jif<*nJi<«iiM ^ ^RTf^rtfJ<<*n5: i im 

^T ^^M I *l^< | f«l'* l lt^ B fil4HI<.«a i vq'j[yi | i I ^gCTTrf^TT^ I ^TWT t^RuiK^^: I ?TOT ^ ^ 

^. ;^. <^. ?. I f:fn M 

^T^ ^^ riwi^^f H wK ^^ff II ^11 
rf^rt?!;! ^^Irl^l ^S|k: I wi' I ^v^^ I wf^ I 
^IfH I ^fMt I rfwt^i ^: I w^M.^ ^FT^- " ^ " 

H ^^d*d<« i Hj?i ? M< i ^ i ^^ : ^T^TTf^ ^tfin: I ^gf^wr: i ^^^«m^l^4i^€ ^n^-^n-O^ ^^' 

TT-^ f 5rf^ rf^'^T^Ti^m ^iTT^: noil 

irw^{ ^n^: i ^^l^jn i ^ i % i ^ i 'fH^iT: i 

mil \ f I ^f^ I rFirtii^i fTOT^i 5nHT: i ^sn*^: iisoii 

Tj^r? ^'tr: n ii '\^ ii 
3ir^^ ^JC^' ^^IT 'zNbI^ I 
g^ f%»^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ xiT^ ^^ Il«|«^ll 
^\ ^^' I f^ I ^^: I ^VT I f^ I ^jSh^^j^ I 

^^ if^ I ??^ I ^ I ^if ?f^ I ^ I ^15 # nrrt/ 1 ^ ?jf7t in«i II 

ftxri^ 3r^^: «*ft<5l*nfmf^fi^<i: <^v^ 3iif?WT ^ifn^: jwtt^^s^:!^ i f^f^rv ^ifliT7m: \ 
iTiT^ f^ffl3iif<«rr ft^^t^^T: TT?rr: ii 

^^: I ^ I gxi I ^^li^i ^|?f?t KTi'ii: I fir: I 

frfirS^iHf^frrat ^H*<' ft i % ^ g^?rf^f^ f»pcfwftw i^'^'^o. <\. <>. 8. i imt^ fWB*rrerraT i 

g^Ti^^rfti^ THTm^T^iiT^fT in? II 

^^wt: I ^4^: 1 5ipT: i ^^: i ^: i ^^«T i 

^^1 ii: I ^ I ^^' I ^ I HTW?!;! ^: I ^^n^ II*!?" 

^ ^jf'T^: '^twrt c^^ ^^1^1^ ii«iiJii 
^^' I ^#i^i ^*wft^ I ^>t- 1 #: I 'FT I ^s^_ I 

P p 2 


u w^^' n 


"1^ '^^ li^m w^iw^^ w^ II <^M II 

mi I ^W I W^ \ ^sv^: I f^: upra I #S^v: I ^: I 
"^: I ^1 ^ I h^57t: I ^^^ I ^^ I trW ii <^M ii 

Trf^ H^^: 1%" m' M. <^ <>o. ?. I T^ ^m: v^T'eii Ti^f«i »{ ffl^ ! ^gwv^^i »nf%7n: i ^: 

tT f ^ TRf|?!T?f: ^^ ^^ ^ ^t«tt: ^fi^ I^t: ii«l|ii 

^i%W I ^ I ^^«T I ^mi \ fTifH I ^#ft!! I iT^ifH I ^rw^ I 

^ I f I 5|T^ I 'T^RTrf: I W^Jl I ^ I ^ I 5BT«rT: I ^frt l"^: II <^^ll 

ing^ H Bleu M^ll 

^^ I TTOT f^rj^ ftrenr ^nrw: 1 ^rar ^gmn 1 ^ ^T^^ft: ^Ht^rnpfr %n^ ■^\^^r«fn » 

^ I ^sipj^s^: I ^TTn: I p^ I -^ I ^^^t: i ^M^ i f^: i ^ ' 
f^wi ftcft I fM: I ^'PT: I ^S>j: I f^^TS^ I gs^f?^ I ^S^ "'"' 

1 ^ aiHjqf^ati< i <.m - ifi^ : ^finkTrar: ^jtwr^ ^^ spmnr ^vntm V^^'*^ 

H«<»o.^»b.^»^^] II ^^s^: II ^^.^ 

^asr^rot ^^ '4'n<^^\r*mnmir»-«i\f^'^ ntiir ift^ ftm ifN^ gn.un«r > f^^^r^ 

intiT^ 5!^ ^rrfrt 't^'j^ f^ ^ ^ ^T'^^ Wf^ irii 
^: I ^^S^l: I ^rfi^^: i JltsJil i ^^s^% i W^ i Hii^:s^ i 

5t5lSlI5i 1 5pi* I ^ I ^fft I W^_ I W: I ^ I §frT I fW: I f^^sf^^ IR II 



^ 'sf^ ^ <^*l^: g?[^; '3'ratiflr i h^ i f?N ligTT ^Awi g^: iI^flisii^iRt i f^ 

fti^ 1 ^ ?^^ f^^ Tj^ ^'rflr I f^rrof^ i fm Trm '^ 5f«i«ft ^ 3rPTr*pft ^nf«! ^^ q^w: 

M W f^^ ^ti^tfinri^s\T|^: ^^^^ pj^'. II Jill 

^Siq^T^I ^ I fT^ I ^ I ^R^ l?35t^: I TT^I ^S^rt I W I^TO^: I 

W I ^ I f%f^ I ^«fs?^ I TJri^: I ^^«: I ^^^S?^ I n^t' II ^11 

^ ^ 7n^tn|7ft JT^ ^7T*fi t^ «ff?i ^W^ fitq m< aH f* <d b ii< H M < ^ariTt^'sn x^m'W' 

^ I f^^ " - - « 

H^ I ftrt: I ^^s^^ I f^S^: I fW I f¥«R^ I ^^*T I IT I %iT"4: i 


■■■'TOT ^fSg^w^ ^^fwt ft^ ^'ret »r ?im ^twt %?w: «-iiiii'or^i: fmrm: 

^ ^ a<4* <i a i * ii% Jj^iwrr^^ ^Tq i.' ^^ qi itt; f^ i MRf^v*I^wnS: ii i^o m 

rf I #^iit: I ^f^ I ^^ i ^fk^ I ft I ^: i ^ i ^^n[ i ^fmrt: i 

Wvirmt rnfvsn'. ^n^rt f<<<<i<<a vw^ trervi ir^ii mvm itniK ^^TTmrsT^Tt ^^■ 

<^ r^n;. ^^i T^ > msq^= . ^ . ^ . %iii . %^: I 

^ T»?J fmrt prm ji i fl i <.*«fM wifi<T<<i*<< i w i ti^njAwmi ^hw; wSnrt "«^ ^^''^ 

i'^TfwSli^ f^^ ^ yq^ I Tfv^ I ■^mi% I '!r!i^ ^^enhilr ^^r^i ^ ^^^ ™. 

(f^ W^ i^^^% ^^ Wf^ 'J^f?^ ^ ^ moil 

H^ I ^ I ^^ I cT^ I ^^ I ^f^A I'fT^ I %t I i^ I ^^\ WWS^: I 

rr^ ms^^ I i^ I ^«^s^ I ^ I ^ I ^f^ I ijf s4fjT: I ^ I ?r: I ^ in II 
^i: I g»4 1 ^ I ^rftii I TT^: I ^s^vt 1 7pk^\ ^rr I ^ I ff^:s^ i 

fT^ I fr?Tt I ^^ I ^fti I |nqf I ^4 I ^ I n^^ I ^s^s^fH infill 

^1 a^ I ^riWRf ^^\f^ I f*^ ^ ^ntf% I ^JaiflHt ^T^ ^%>#t ?Tfft ^Tft I f*!f ?t !TOT 

??n ^^ JTrr^ ^T^ ^F?^t ^% f^Tt: ^|rR: ^^^^t{ I 

I'll: I ^ mrii: I ^T^: I ?sto:i ^ I ^^« I f'ltn gs^|rT4: 1 ^ I ^ffl 
%^^i: I ^ 1 5!ms^^ I "^i I f^l ^^^: I ^t;^ I ^T^^ II «l^ II 

^ ^ri fitei fir^ 5rr^^ xTsi ^^ ^d: ii<^?ii 

^ f r * i *m< ?<i f^ «ii »tf%m ^rnitinf^ ^t««*<i«h ^stwt wff^ Tiff^w^: ii 

^if^ I ^sc^W' I ^i^: I ^^^: I ^^t: I w: i ^s^T^: i ^s^m: i 
^Hp^S^ I ^^STJ^^ I %vl I l^T I 'Tfrt I ^^^ I ^T% I mi^ II «l8ll 

f^m^ tin: ^*n'^^'«iTg *^m^N«ianf t ^tnT^?nr^¥T: Mr<«i»i: ^nfti^g^ ■^Frn "vfit- 
twrrxjfY »Tffi ^fH ^r^ i ^r^rBTTfir i ^fqi<<4if»T ii 

•^J^^A 5f^H# ^t ^^ ^ff ^ li«^ II *^M II 
^^tf^ I ^^ I ff^: I m^ \ ^ I ^si^ I ^ I "^fNs?^ I ^t^' I 
^T^S^f?^ llf^ I ^ ?f?[ I ^S^t I H^^ I H^ I ^^ I ^H inMii 
^ '^ ^ Hm# ^% ?ft: gftrnrrf^ ff%<««ir*i<.^iR( i ^rnf Tifei^ i tht i^ft i f»- 
»nw g^tt ^rm ^ i "^i^ ^^: ^wr '^jt^ ^m: i flfliRfti'^: i twt w oiai+iRwri+JfTf^ 

^r«i#fn M' ^ <a}^ f?p!H ^ »»^: H^^ tn^T^i^*! wrtt titt^^nr* i ^i^ "^^ ' 
?r«j^ HFhTft Jn^nfr %?it^ g srr'mfHm ii 'grgfimn* ^wtHnft^iff^J ^^f^i^ ^^ ^ 

^ ^>%^ } ^ ff^^>| ^'^T^^ ^g^VriY in'^^iw mil 

^ r^: I p4 1 f^iif/i f^^i ftfitt I ^: I ^^^ I f^ms^?^ 

^^ I ^^^ I ffNlg I sr^^il I ^ I %g: I ^w: I Ct I ^^^. 


^ I ^:sTit I ^ I is^i^H I v^t4i ^fti i f%^ i m^H i 
^ I ^ I ^ I ^^^: I ^:sfirf I TT^Is^'qH i ^?f^ i f^ irii 

^^ ^tTT#f ^l^JiTrWTWf^'t^'^^ "^^ II? II 

^<r I %T^: I ^^Siq I ^^ I ^niT^i ?j|^i iR^ I'l^R I ^fl^ II 9 II 

til fMt ^T5: ^ iNf¥^S'^ )iW: ^m fn^«: ii^ii 
^H^ I ff I xisftifw: I ^: I ^ I «?^: I 'Ti:*: I ^^ I ^P^it: I ^Fft^# I 
?i: I Tw^i I ^Tji: I ^ I f gr P q iPjl i ^^ ^ffH i H^i: i^m i ^hs^^.' iiiJii 


VOL. IV. Q q 

rnK^'i^m^ ' I vHl^ i ^ittrft 'f?f^: mM*i ^itTTfr 'rapi. ^15«*f4^B5|: ^ft^ 'B[^ ^ir^ 
^ift*^ ^: I f*^ ^TT^i^Tf^ ^^['T^a^ gt^jq*qt tW^W%: ^ f^ ^i-jq^^ f^^ I i^^i 

^TO ^v w^ f^f?^ f^: ^HT5^ ^^^^ fftae^J i 

fifT^^: ^^?T^f^^ ^%f5T^: ^rHNti^'n^ *n*<qiai><a"& i viVfn i ^^Jire fir^^T^ ^ 

% »m*inm : aiai*( i «n ; ^sftTm: tt ^ ^^^ ^ Tnjnwnnr ^n ^i^y : ^ ^ ^ 
#^ tTrefn 1^ ^ ^ H^[*irMi^*& ^ wrg^ ii 

iftri^ i ^: I ^3ti?!:i ^S^^:V^5f?t^i ^^ 

It^: I itT'mM'in fkH^^:l 'wmg*^ ^^rafir i ^: 'sM^m wit w^ fi|3«n « J'W^' 
Hg^ir<8^i.<4<*4ia<»ri »Rn^ W»fii i irm ^ ^f^Kt^ ^rf^Ti i '^^^'^^''^fW^^i «|«^ 

^Ww: ^ffm^ ^ra^kra f^ir^ ftRR% in^ thbto ^^^t^i rnmHyi »mm^ t ^ 

^^^ im^ f^ vk?i|^ ^>|^: ^ NWrt mo ii 

^ I ff I ^sm^: I ^l4t»T I f^ 1 351^: I ^^wPi^: i ^«: \ ^zwm: I 

# I ^%IP^: I f^ iinr^i"^: i ?^^: i^i^t^: '^'^¥¥^^ '"*'<*" 

^f^ ^is 'Wtw fwtft ffsfliRui »i\H*ifiT Tt i gi n^Km i ^m i h^^ »r^i^ ^tvufSt: 

n^: iW5nt i w i. c^. m. itfTTi 'W ^%: ^ ^«rr f^ fo^r v^t^^ ^ UM^K i W^ 
gm^^i^ M'a«Mi i i<^« i fl : II IU8II 

\-^!^^ ?fi%T ^^^: n %^ 'T^^ f^^tr II <i<^ II 

^ ?f?f I f% I'OT^hjftr^ ^ I JjfitstrT W RTJ^: R^^ 

?^: I «^^ I #ro: S^: I ^^: 1 1! I ^# ?frl I W: I f^^: I ^fi|^ in<1 II 

^%»mit f^^T f?rf¥^fTl f^T '5ml^ ^^ ^Vff IIS^II. 
^ I ^: I ?t: 1^^ I ^f^T I ^: i ?i^: i "^^ i IW^ ' ^^f^ \ 

^'Tft ^ iPr«nrT^igflprt «i i nq*{ i « ii » ii ^f^^i*iri«nqt \t( ^ ^jft^tv*!^ iw V ^ 

[f'nft I ^pftfit «iP^»rnfrg trrrnr, i ^fvft ^.' i ^v^ m^«%^ i "sM^^ % »nft ?tot ii^ ^ 
-tfir I ^ ^j i^i^r*nft f^ ^H f^mr ^ftirar wv^n f^ i ^i'i'^'if*<«<5: » 

Qq 2 

^ ^ 'Tti^rn* ^^fv ^rr* ^m^ ht^ i in«^ t^ i f*^ fq^i^i^^ ft^^~« i ff ;ftfm 
^iH ^ I 'jopi II 

f^ I ^^ I ^>4^T^t I ^sf^ I ^: sf»i: I ^ ?^ I ^ s^ihw I J^TsIt^ 
mf>*: if^n^: i^rf^i IR^^ i^T#: ifsfH I ^STfTTt: I ^ 

t^Tmt trgr^: ^fSrJr^^nn^tfH: wi ^: i fwnfr Ti''^^qr » i ^Tt^rer n<J!ir<imi: 

^f^fhir ^ivNrf^^^: ^«l: ^^ ^fvfw^^frT ii HH ii 
>^i ^ I ^ig^ I -g;^: I ^cfrkr: I ^T^: I ^sIt: I ^ I ^: i ^V 
^: I f^sfj^n: i ^^i f^s^^^: i m^i \ gs^ i ^sf^H:i 

"^T^ I ^ ^T w g ftH i I ^TinnmltlT ^[^mr: ^i^ ^titj^rrvm 'i\*\HfH '«rg: i ^w^rrofn i ft^- 

»Tf^ q^;^ g?ft?j ^ I TTP^ wm g^: g^ ^wft: i fqi<ft« i g<f><> ▼ffr^ ^ f*"^ 
igpr: I *m*i< ^ <.^<^«n tjf^ xn^: i ipirr^ *qf^mK<aa'<m< » tqifla^q r ft i 'Ji<^ H^'^' 
I Bim^mm^^g^ i I ftTBT 'HI n<aK'Jfi i i'«»4«gi : I ^m^ ^rrnt^ ft '""'^L^L'^^I!!^' 
ft% ^ ^^nn I TTOT in^pirm i »rff m^: m^: Twrw* gr^rrpw* ^^ft^ig^ntr ^t^ 

^ I iTRrjf^ ^i^i^#iira[#i^#i^i 
^: I 5t: I tqw I w^- 1 ^J 1 55: 1 tmf 1 ^j^ h c^ h 

i! il« i n<iiifw Tftg; TflT'flTfi Tni 1 t^ 11 

^M% H 'T^ I^H^TT^rr I w, ^^v^ mU<\\m^^x^ 11 ^ 11 
^s4S I ^: I inil: \\^ i ^tfw i n; 1 gi: 1 ^j^siro: 1 w 

Sf^^hnfw I ^5TT^ II ^ II 

f^mfw:33nt^:m^ ^5: 1 f^% ff 1w*^ f^ ^ 5[rf^: ii^ii 
f^^^ I f^T^: i'^h! I ^: mf : I W I ff I f^siif^: I f^^ I ^ I 
^^: II? II 

^ 'I'Ot ^ H^: t[5^ H^: 11811 

^1^1 TRh: I ^^rtei I Jf5j: 1 ^»n 1 ftpr: I ^^: I ^S5iTT I 

^1 ^: I ^Tfft I ^: I w.* I ^'ll: I >Tft: 118 11 

^^ 'nm^kmf^l^ pit: 11 mi 

^WR;>^T^i^ r^y(H<j|,<rri ytT!T^s^iq^^pnqfiq^?T^>qsW^ 
^ I 'nt I ^1 w I ^^: 1 ^ 1 prtMimi 

90^ n ^^^t n [w^b.^'d.^^^ 

^RTift n % fiTOT^ q^< i m» i iqf^«n *i< i mMi^<t i imi ^^fv^ ^nwrr ^ro^ wmtvii 
^4i*<m i ^4 i T<si(*<<n ^^B^JTfT^ f*mTTOT%g %^ ^nft^fifwY t^ ^t^ ?Eft^ ftif 

^: ^ ^1 ij^sfff v;^ ^HT II if II 

^ I ^: i"^ I ^?f^ I ^: I ^"^ tiri I ^ sfn: I ftr^T^Tnt I ^^ 

^^^ '^>i^'?: tjf5t^ f^^ir??: ii^ii 

f^^^: 'H^nrr: '^NNmr '«n ^ ^eg^^ 'nWr 5njrR[^ t^: ^g^r^m n 

1^ ip^ ^T^ ^^i^^ ^ 'TT^- "t" 
^^i^i^n+if^i^^i^M'TiTn^: lit 11 

"cg^ JTiTfii^ 'w^^ mfn I f^ ftvTi^ ua^iifll ^ramrf^ ^ fffi^^ 
"nfji I ^ T? 'w ^'aqH<jiir«n)Dn*<n ( ^d<i ^ fft ^rar^ mf^nn mf^ ^^^'^i "^ 

«gfti I h: I ^t^: I ^ I Hf^ftfTt I sRn ^ I ^ I 'rat^ t 

TV^ ^1^ ^^ ^ TT^H ^^ II SO II 


^^ I ^^i^ 1 3BTiT^ I ^^ I tRT I ^cTI ^^^ II «^o II 

ijf^ffr ^nr w vTTt njnim i?[TTif*«r ^t^^ ^^rer ^tm^ w^nrr^ ^ mw^mw er^f < 

^ I ^ 1 15 1 ^?^s^: I r^ I ^sfNit^i ^ I ^^5^ I ?af>T^^ I ii^ I 

^^^ inn^ ^Prmt it ^^ 1 f«ra 11 

^^T 5n^ rrtc»r4M^rt in^ii 

^1^1 ^gNI I W5!T 1 51 1 ^ I ^ffit^s'itin'T i ^h i ^w i 

^^^^^ 1 ^ I W^ I rref S^ I ^RXIS^ II <l^ II 

^ ^^ iT^ ^^ ^m^ I ^Jif^ 'T trar ^ f^Twt II <i?n 

^^ I ^fff I ^HT I ^ I ^ I %I!^ I ^S^m i 5T I tf^ I 

^S3?r I f^s^ in? II 

9o8 n w^: n [«r«b.iR«iJ.^o^^ 

^q ia i j frsTf^ ^nrm wK% *iHir<il}'6nu 'STR^gw^ nr^PN f :if^ ^:»n*<''iinsr 5^1^ 1 

f<fai^M* i iv!? : I vrfd^ I f'is^ vjiff Tw gq»iT^»u*(«ft«a gi% ^: g^: ^Bf^aT^nir xw w «Tm- 
?rf?mtv f<f<8 I f^ »rra^ifq ^(^ Tprrfv f^f^ 11 11 ^«: « 

^ ^^H V ^^ ^^ acrH^qt ^T^ ^^HT ^^: I 

^'l' ^??^- ' ^'H- ' ^ ' ^^"^^ ' '^ ' ^ ' ^'^ ' ^'^ ' ^^* "'''' 

mwt fl i &<ui*<4m m^ nn^T*r I f«H^ "Ht^ni: ^^n^ ^^^"^ "S^ ^ •' ^- 
"^i^ ^Wi =st7n*i M> <( *<(*< Mq»i*^ Ti^r ^fhmn rr^ ^Ptf*m: iPr»rti!: 'bI^ gFT h^ ' 

jprqc^Tf^^ yt »T*r ^ Trying ^^ "^ '^^'^ '^ ' 'P? 

^ I ^^ I ^^^ I ^^ I Ji^ I fjT I ^ii^ I ^fii I n% I ^fifMft I 
^^ J ^^t I ^TO I T^: I ^ I ^+^: I ^t: I n I fi ^rof^: ii^ii 

^^iu«*imm<ii§Hi f^^ w^ ^^^ H^PJTT^ 'ijrh: Tft»nm^ fwr: jmrrf^rg: i tik^ i 

^^J^fT ?»f^ 'Tf^^t ^t^sf^R?^ T^ I 

^ST^i I ift^: I ^sf»^: i^aR%: I ws^^: n^^'i^xrf^s^: 11811 

'q^ff ^r ^ii<^ f^T^ ^tfflf <Ri\ gtfW: II mi 
|stT%: I ^H I ^^ 1 ^ I ^^ I ^s^ 1 ^sa^', I ?fV^: 1 ^^rf^: 1 
^if^i^l^3TiT^if5T:Sfrfi^i'^:i^i^sf^: iimi" 
?^: W^m vnrnur ^!iitw^ ^mf^ -n^tiiiR^ nit|*jf*iqq?[i^fl!»fl 1 jijfjr 1 ftwra?: 1 

^%: I ??5ft I fir^ vra^: ^W%7i < i $M<.<jnm««« sipnltf^ hW t*r ^ 1 f^nuRifTt i 
''^^ 5rq??p^ ?5nif^: 'P l^t ^^ ^^frTTftn H^tH 

VOL. IV. Br 

^r^TOT'jT: hW twitrt •v^jf^rg: ^s^r^ fl<i*r\*(Mi w^m ^v^ ift^wt g'm^s^; 33;^ , 

< 9 jlcifH >^ <ul«haS*^ ^^%*^ ^^(i^^wi: I 
^'5H>^'3*qt ^^rn^'^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^J ii^ii 

Tn^\ cfvcsft^: I ^t^j^rgn^i^ ^rrv'jgm <»tia«*4^ ^(^ ^n^ 1 ^W^'^: 1 '^l^^? ^^ 

cT ^ 5^IT^ €t«I^WS^: t^ HWiRat ilftn: lib II 

^ I wh' I ^^S^to: I ^^^: I ^^t I ^Sin^ I rjft I ^ I f^f^ ' 

^ I ^ ?.fii I ^7T^ I ^t«r9t I w^m I ^i I #5^ I w^^ • ¥^ " ^ " 

*!< < <« I fi<afl*a ^tJHT^ ^^^n^r ^^ftnfti^: «a<*a^M<ait i^ig^ ^ft^jmin n^ ^^ » 

^: I ^ I xTf^ s ^iPt I ^ I ^ r^: I ^ I iT^ « 1^ 5 ^^ " ^ V 

t:^^ T?^^ ^t^: ^ 31^ in^^ ^^mhhs ^^ h c^o h 

^ I ^: I ^: R I f^ I ft^m I ^S^: I ;h^ I ^1 ^iHT I wftfm: I 
t:^sns?^ I Ti^ I ^it^: i ^ i ^i^ i irRnsr: i w^;^^ i ^«^ iic|oii 

^3|«|^*ai«tt 'HR^^ I ^%^ II II ^0 H 

^^T^ w^xjj wT^tf^^: g^^ ^njf^m ^nj^pr: ii«i«iii 
^^cTT: I ^f^f^^Fi: I ^i^: i ^^^tot: i ^T'jftim: i ^^^: i 
?RT^: I ^^rrt: I ^ I ^5Ftf^^^: I g s xi^: I ^r^fw: I ^^ sit: ^ 

^TTTt^fn: ^ I wT«r i P**(i«ift«!!^ '3? ^mi ! n'S ) m i !^ i (t(M^ i % T(vms: gfif^T irSrtf ^^ 

^^t: I ^^ I ^: I f^Jit: \ ^irs^ I ^s^t?to: i ^: i ^ i f^ i 
^T^: I fft:SHT^: I ffi^: I w i ^ i T^^ i ^jWt' i ^ff^|: ii '^'J ii 

^^m: ^q^ ti ^1 q «; i ^ T<«'ir ^T ti*n<a i <irfl i ir^^r^ ^^TTTffm ffw?: g>T^ wnrrft 

^^ ^^lifT?^ \i i ^ i< j;rj ; ^^ ^ ^ f»t^ ^^: in? II 
•''l^i^i^fki^: 1%^^ i^TTi^i W.Tn:s^mi??!:i^3^s15^: i 
^^: I ^s?:^ I m^s^frl: i r^^^ i ^it i ^r i fn^fff i ^^: in^ii 

B r 2 

90b II ^1^: M [w»tw>M,^,^ 

'ifif I f^ w^'. tt»r flMift 4iiqnu\ ^^ vrsrrem: wft^wr fNfi»^ hwt yift ?!^^ 

f^ l^^T g^^ »i^t f^ ^ritr!T?TiW^^: ll«lllll 

^ I ^5«^ I ^ I ^ I wm I ^ I ^3e4: I 'T I ?flmt \ T^i \ 

f^^ II II ?'H « 

^ ^ q l*<S^l< < lfa<l<<M<,*>^<.^f<«<»*4l4M' ^ A^^nq^<iaSR^Ml«ilHIMIWl^ tV^ <ll<<<«l*ll'Jtl|| 

^doqi<w tii^ '3'i^ fifn I f^ m^ Tf* f%r^ ^ g^: tirr 15- ?t^ ■<<'«< in R-^ imJjwt 
^T^ «t<nrM(Wi'«iir<d4H^n t »T^^g5^yFC^^n^WTfiri^g7rerm^'^ft:ifW»PT^ 

yjn: ftrf^rag: ^nirenjj* '«i< ^« <i < i 1 m unriTft JT»pwPrnn ^ wf^fir Tfr m« 
^r'^TTix: T35^ TT^ wnt: t[%^ ^: i *prat ^qm, «t^ ^n^rti f^T f M « 
^pr ^ fiTfTyn^ ^ i ^OflM«<a i ^■iif^at'H**''^^'^ ^r^^g^ ^ '^rf^ipiit 8 11 

Tfn ^ «^ BTWT TT^rmro 7i y^ 1 ^njr^ ^ tt^ ^^^<,m«4*j 1 <<o 11 

171 TTO mW ^wr 1^ Tpif « ^]^t I 'swro f^wTT mnTi^sSrt ^^H^riiim: 11 '^'^ « 

f«r^^f^«^«'TOTi^HW^:^:i^R^*ii«B*j*<«i ^^gf^T«fHi«i^ii 

fqf<<ft*<m01* T; ^ fi MWf*^^^^! : 1 g'r: ^ ^(^ »fhjig*ifY n si^v^iJ » *>'' * 

mft fmii«r<^u Hi^ ^'!T^1^ *^'^*'' ^^, ' ^ ' ^^^' '^^ "J^ T«J^ *<q^tMq i fti> - 

5T ml I »t^: I ^r^^m^: I ^ I irt: I ^p^ nrtsH^ I ^ I ^^ mil 

♦iitiitH^H^^M^iqni jprer gun ^ f?re i '^runrr^ ^f*ivf^ f*H^ n ?^ ttto t^rarmsn- 
T^^t^: i ftw^ *i*8ii»ifijffl Tnrm i wfir ^T^snrf*! f*<^ti i «wrffi«ffin»%-mfl i i ;^gi f<iii ^ 

jfw: wt: xhttt "TTrfn. i ^^ r«imifl*iia«(i«<ai«r i '<a'<%5 f^^ ^^^iirifn »ra: i g^mr- 
^^WffT ^^T ^^Jpn W^f Tn^M*JMyl*4(ll^ I 

f^ I ^ I ^q^ I Y^y I rT^ I ^f iin ^^fN I ^wf I ^^fipnsi^ i 

^^: I ^^: I ^ I ^^ I ?^ I itswT^ I ^:5?ci i ^^ i ^j^ ii ? n 

^*^ TifW^ ingnr^ i i t^fl i «i i ^n^ %»^raT g»j:wl1 *i <.(?<!*» i f* wnr^ i ft ^^n^ i ''ni 
f^^^' W(m> i ai i ft(mr«(M I sirfl< i iifl^aif<« i ^ifi™% l^: i 'dmi i 4<n<<>« i i ^5t»ngw m^ 

'"^T'l^ I 'IT ^mrfwrrt strT: i ^renr i^fw^n? i '«if Tm ^^ ii<iKi i<mii iwm irm 
^T% I irm ^ ^ ?iWt^ 4« i jgir«nirfl ll^t ?ti^T%fn ^rPirai>^ iiPT»q^M-^'Q- h 

9^0 u^^:n [^•b.^«M.'^^. 

?rTinn»Tf wwt *rTwiif*^T^ fN^f^ ^infi tt^^i^ ^rfTf j|f fi r ^ftynr; 1 <t ft^j^ , 
»i *<rtj i *<«? I f*^ ^'r: 4Mfq« it O ^ST f t ^ T ITT 'aftrt n gm 'ggf^rfir 'BKwrr ti^: 11 f*r^ 

^ I ^^ I ^^ I ^^TJ^ I ^^: I ^^: I ^ I ^ I ^fi+S»Jftft^l 

^ I ^5# I ^ftft^i: I ^T^ I %t I ^^ I ^^f^T I ^^ Il8ll 

r<*i^< <f>< ! in< » i»i I ''iTim H^rann w?ig^ f^r^^^fm 1 % ^: ^^rg^aft ^ ^rra^i 
^^«js ^'jTi»< iT^: yi^i*!*!: ft^ ^^ viti^fft f^t 5I fiiniT ^ ^ ^fs ^im^ Tj^tfii- 
^rri I ^»T^?fm^Trf7(% <4^'3<.*j< »fr^T5i TT^f^i^ 1 Trorrarn^ft^w^ 'rfTTfi 1^ 1 ^mfrfni 
^rf^^l ^T^iin, ii i *<q« ^"S^ I ^ ^Hift f^ •(»*<^fi» TT^ ^ ^%^ I ^^ \rm i^ ^^■ 

f^: I W m I ^: I T^^: l%iT^ 1 ^ 1 ^ I ^ l ^^ l ^orfe I 
g%T^: I ^^ I ^ I %iT I ^^ I in^ I ^1 -^ I H^: I Hfl^i ^^; iiM" 

7) !T5r ^ 5f*n»n^ 1 ^f^^ g^ i % ^ Tim ^ -^ % ?m n^^: »iO<«a nw^'- ' ^'^^ ' 

m ^^S^TO^ T ^^: f^ m^ ^T V^Rfs^^iT li^fli 

^T I gs^: I ^: I g^sirtf^: 1 ^S^^: I T I 'JfMt' i "^P^^- • 

rn: I ^in4: i ^^: i^ 1 W^- 1 f'^ » TT^- 1 ^ i ^'i^- ' ^^^ "^" 

jio<jo.«»b.'|f Q.M.] II ^^SY^: II ^()^ 


^^ I ^^fw?(; I ^^% I ^nWT I ^t: I ^ I |i ^r( I rfir: i ^s^J^: i 
iT^ I ^1 i^ I ^T^: I T^ I ^^ I ^^SfRif^ i"^^: ii^ii 

^ H^T^- 'w^imT ^ ?t| »T^^ xiTBTO Ti'^^'iT^ ?Nmn^ ^"pwra .^*i }f ii*<N ^Wr- 

^x^ ^ wsw^ ^ ^^m ^H^^^" ^n'^: II b 11 

^^t I ^1 ^ 1 51^^ I ^ I ^Tri^^ I TH^: I fHsP I 

^ I w I Hr(^i wtM I »T I ^35: 1 m: I ^i^?j; I T^s^: I ^ I ^rgf: II bii 

^^ f{^ ^^g fH?«J5RT ^^f>?: ^1^4 TpR I 

I'll W^ I f^l I ^cT^ I fjTS^^HET I ^^5tW: | ^sf^^: I 'T I ^ I 

hi: I WTni: i ^ 1 ir^: 1 ^^ i ^: i ^^t^: IH 1 ^35^: i^'sjrfn: iieii 

■o - ■ 

^""^ 1 ^ I f in«TJpif?i I '^rarot iwr Tf 'R^asf = *i<fcl4*) i ii iiv^\ t^'JTr f^rsrm- 
^^^^^: 'tarr h^^: i % ^im ^rrtr^ vt*it: ^r^ t H<i^f? i Tf«n«T^ mTi^ V^^^ n - 

T^rw afttHmm 1 "ft: gf^rf^ 1 'Jb^r ^rm^ 11 *?iif«}*<flrafl: 11 g^wra ^cftpii ff 1 ^riftift 

^rr^nft 5Erfwf^ < r ^f< ti d^r*T wm ^inN wr ^wttw i ftrf^rr^wf^ 1 ^ Sum ^^ it^: i 
^^■ft<NjH i *< : II f^^ f^nnt ^w^ itvtiB^i<n'»*<<tii<» Tt^ mR*^*i HM«nfMK»iM<Irt ^v\f^ 
'fmr^ f^: W ^KTfl %7I^ <^ *l w i f< q 1^*1*1 tj'sti^iW 1 

^ ^ w^ U ^^^ ^: ^^^ ^fi^in^ii 

^nm^ t^ gn^rnnft ?^ irt ^ f^ ^;iit;i: 1 fif»t^tci 11 ^ r«<^<qim^<'U«r t: 1 ^^^^^"^^^^^ 
<^Tjn» I <\<«r<KTrH^'itrfl ^^wt wg: « 

w^: I ^ "nrft I Ivfz t?i^ fTRFt jrWtfW ^r?ft iir^t^ii 

gs^: I ^ I ^sq^i ^ttI^i ttos^ I iT^Trt I ^ m^ I 

^ra irf?:fT»: H^T^ ^^TR I y^qt^fli^r h? g#j: qfTTXTir ifyt^ i 'ij^ nrrptg i ^ir^m^- 
I^TfTf: ^ THTTt qrr^ fTT^ f^ ^ '13 *<tin*8i i » i *m »i gr^ i ^wrarr «ngRTf«? 

^^% HT 4^ JIT n ti^ in i^ ^^ ^rftNiT^ ^ ^ i 
^t:^: I ITT I i|«n: I w I IT I tth: mi 1 1^ I ^^: I ^^«: I ^ ifrt I ^ I 

ftft ^q: II cnjT »n IT xin: I ^>^ ^nnJ »" ^irff: ii q » ^ ^l^ <4fJ^THHf»fM r ^«n(<« < i |t^ i ih: 
H^^ yiu TWT m t^mf^qi^t iyn f^rot pr »n '3 ^^i^TSr^^rrrr'^i^iniPi.i'nwpr- 

'^ I f^ r*<«i« t *(<<(iM^m^ ^<tft I »n <»i ^ r «t iv! ? : II si^^n ^^^^-fiv?;^ ittt«^. 8.^^.1 

^ ^'i: I »t^ «i%f?t 1^ I i|*<l{^«llR*nM'MN'lM : I inRd^lwiRii it(^ 1 ^ %f^ "^ 1 
^Tir^fqiT^^jj^j,; ,1 ^f^ tjn^g<ami<.a i *< i g I ^m9\ ^sfW wmfn ♦i<*ifn 1 % ^ 1 1 ^ 
^ I ''wt^ mx;wTnf I uTrrfn ^wrf*t tt i ^aig ^ iiTO T i^^nfn ?wr 'TJ^Tftnt f^Trrerwmt 
^^^^^^ ^m. I v«r m^ra%^Ni iS>n^Tf^ 'J^ 'M *i«sM*<n*i g»J^fTfnfrtn t^ «1^t^ 

^ ^ 'R^ ^ rr%l^' iTtipniiT 'W^ ii«^€,n 

VOL.|y. " " ~ SS 

n <m^(»i'<ii i 4 fipyr ^ vfm ^ y^:^?w myrm « a8i) 

fft f? iTlf^Hft' ^ ^^k%^ ffK f^ JHTT ^: I 


^^ I f'* gifir: I ^ ^iffv ^ ^rrirfi ^mr iM^ itot fft Wr fts*n: iM«: i 
^tfYrr TWT fft ^jftlHfjj^n: iMh: i ^i^ Im^ 'wu^firar »rwt ^rer plfii ^hjrf^: i 

^: I ^ I ^: I ^%: I ii: I ^«: I ^: I fsrs^: I fft: I ^ I »T»+Wt; I 
^ I ^sf^: I ffb^'fS^HR^: I ^ I f^ I ^ I ff^ I fwfiff^ 

^ f^m^ t*mTt innft^: i « ^ im Vfurt i mf^ ^ Tw^tfrif^nfjtWn jfH ^: i 

'TifmtHJiTn m Ji'rfn i ti^t i n^fm *h: «t^^w '«i^ h mf^ «^ i f* iimn i f^ Wf^ 
^'Tftr ?f^ fftmfn f»T f*<f*<r s 1 1 f*rftnrrf*r v^: it ft^: ^RTm^in^ tirfz ^ ii 

^ I fi ^: I ^ I njf^ I i^h: I f^^^i ^: 1 ^ftrr; 1 H 1 ttlrf 1 
^1 ^ I ^sf^: r: I W^: I ^^stSt^: I ^W^i fftsw 118 M 

^^'wrfli I ^jtgmrtv f*rffn: I f*^f^ ^ f^n: ^m^' ^ f«ra^ 1 sitjWw ^t^ 
5^ • ''^ 1«1h: I ifttfr t ffTTwiT ^WTfihrt iTVr 'wt^w«Nfv»r: iHw tin tflW 

'"^ tf^^^nr: ^tJWiTH^^ fRfl« i 4iir«om< i ifn^i fft^Tt f^»S?jir: Hf^oft^ WTOm 

s s 2 

Hf444^4^i i ^tl^ri : «PIIhR< ffTSs^ ^n^>^: i 

% t^ % ffT»^r <ia<iO*<q<^< ?m ?^ ^^ ^^i^; i vbt^i^t^; ^iN ifMr i ^. 
^m I ^i^' ^iAA^U^^' * n [ ^^ ^ ^ ^f^: ?nii ^ fft^TTr fft7»^: ^fmi^ fTTwni^ ^ i 

TT I 'RfT I ^nj Trf% rnfM fnYft ^^^ ?i?frf tt i n^t^ T»;a«ii*i*n«j«mKm*iw ^n^ i^^ 
m^ TT^<f ^ if^i^^ 1^ I wm^ II im « 

rn ^f^ »Tf^ ^'^ 'i^ ^ T^ ^fHt ^m ?^ I 
> l<^<i 4 ^ ^^Hif^ i^H isjN ^t^n it^ ^yfNt iittM 

m ift iTfir^ f*n f^ 'mrft ^fiifft tt fr^ «RflflulM'«n »Tf^ nV*«i*' ^^ W^ 

^ ^#q f t^ ^yfNt ft^ ff^-f t^ ^fH ^T I 

'g^: %^ fi<<m*ni<? ^r^m « ^i^^^ ^g?r m»t 'S'nfH fft^ ^t»pm «nnim • 

^S'siHsn^: I ffts%^: i ^inra: i p:s^^ i ^: i fftstrr: i ^"^^ ' 
^^Sfv{: I ^: I iftsfn: i ^^q^S"^: I ^rf?^ i fW I gtspn i ^t^^' 

fi(x^: sjfS^ir mf^'ft^: i 'nf%'m# ^f%*wi i n«[^ iraftfir mflrift flrar i %^ ^ \r 
U Uif^ ^% H%^ Tft«^ TT?t^ f^rT^Jri^: lien 

^(cw: I 

ni^i ^ i^% I ^^^^nt^i f ^ ?fH nfti^ i t?^^ i |^ii^ i ^^: h^h 

ffxTsj^ fftTJ^ •o'TlR^ f^^: sfrt irfTT f^nnra: i ?r«f ybttt: i ^^ i ^tot '^ ^[^ fft^r 
^irsvn ^fwi!: «iM«<n: gr^: irfrei 'ft^ra ^Wr ^^m: i mrr ^to?[t «% 'h^% ^»t% ^^^jm 

^t f^f% ftmi!i44<i^w ^ff^ ^^ l^fTf^^ moll 
^rii ^ I ^ I f^i!^ I ire^: I ^wl: i 5T i ^i^ i ffts^F( i ^f^^l^i 
^ I f^i f^ I ^Tjrt I ^^1 ^5|^ I ^fit^i ^^: I ^w I f^w: i 
f^i Alison 

^'^^''Tn^ f?^fff^iswT ^fv% I vfTT^ I ^H«<^f*i I i^f^n i^: II « §» 
^ ^-^ * ^^^ I^JT iTtTlf^It^^ ^ ^\^ II <»<^ II 

^ I ^^ ^fH I i-iNnro: I iT%siTf 1 5T'4s5T«i I f4^ I ^ I g I fi»^ I 

^ T? f^mtir: m»ramnt »rf?m irr^ Tt^ ^iifliaMiflr i i^^u^n ip?: i nv\ 
^^' I '^ « ?Wiff^ t: « mflfsr 'ft: I ^ttSW^ I T^ g^ ^f ^ '^ fi •Fii-^'^'al- 

fw w Tifii^ji!^ TR^ f^k^ ^^4^1^ ^^$tf^ m^« 
^ I m I f^ I TTs^: I m^{\^ I T^f I ^ I fftsftm I ?5 1 

'iW fiK ^BunnTPj: ^'i.f^ f^wf^ ^iwfi^ wt^ ^r^rpf Trar^ff^iw^: k 

^tq: "5^tn fft^: ^pTRPT^ ^^ ^^^ %#77 ^ i 

^: I ^%t I ffts^: I ^HFif I ^ ^^frt I ^^ I ^^ i %^ i ^ i 
^prf^ I ^ I TT^s*T»f I ?^ I H^ 1 1^ I ^^^ I ^ I ^TO in? II 

^(Twrt fft«n gw I waRn?r tt t?^ T^ i^»Jn»s^.^8. tI'^* $.«<.<{.■ ^.i wwi^^ t(M( 
?M.^. I x^ ft vxrnt I flf<«»'Hfl i * l % tj^ »ig5R7i ♦<ivj«rfijfl ^Yh »mfir i ftw i 'm*aK*l«>f: i 

'IT ^^^: "^ ^nHT ^%>^if«^'i "^ I 

1?^ ^ ^^pt'Tf ^ ^JTOtf'T wn '4 mil 

^: I ^#^: I ^: I HTm: I ^*»i: I f^S^ I ^ I 

JT^ I ^ I ^>JTof I ^ I ^ iMT^ltfH H|R I ^ II <^ II 

11^ t«)«ifl i «jnwn'>)f^^ ' ^w^ f^ 'gSlH 'T^ fTfft incf^ %w^: I ^ ^^ yaJi 

v^; ?nt vitii-nr?! ^if^ irrnsn vim^i v:n^\i TpnPr irw ?nf*i in* vrorPi ^ %ft ^ t^^ 

%fji I vrmfir wf ^y irfrfn wmm mjnfn '^^imftfii 1 3nirrar^rni^?iTf*i ^rH«nnf»i ijort 
qmrer H^ ^^^^ «n^ Jl*f <i- ^'s- 1 Tfir I 

TjiT ^ ^ ^n^5T ^wiT % ^: I ^ iinr^ ^^ifipr ^ ^^ ^rr iRM 
^ I ^: I ^ I urotfH 1 1^ I ^ I ^: I ^: I ^ I ^ s^w: I ^ i ^ i 

% x^ ?mn; ^t^vj^: ^ gT»rr* ^T*?Tf»r ^ipinf»T ^wrrf^T ^ n;t *mr<.f* < fl i f* i i ^ranft ^ ^ 

W ??( ^fini^^^M: T^itf^^: II? II 
#W^: I irfit I %«4 I ^s^: I ws^^^: i 
^:s^ I ^sfuSd: I ^M: i ^nrfW: ii?ii 

mmA I rr^ i ^ ii 8 1 



'Ti*^!^ 5f?ir^«^ -m^i^ ^^ iiMi 
^^ I ^: I fifs^ nr^ I ^: 1 1^: I ffn 
'^SHTsi: I ?j^ I f^ I ?w^ I ^ I fff^ I ^i IIMII 
^ ^Mrvi^q< iT; <ft * i«Hiii*mJ^ f*rtr^ fimrt <nW< wm ^ ^?m_^ 'wr it i<»f?i Ptqiti: 

^^0 H ^J^^: II [^'t.iT'q.v^ 

'TT^ I f*^ >ft»TT3r f^^jrer 3T^ marn*^ Ti^mv i h^^ ^^ i v^ ^v^v ^hw^ g^ ^ 

^^^^^: HTpriH TT^: ^i^HTf^^ I 

f^: e ^^^ fif^^^fTTfi^Trf^r: II I II 

TE(i \ w^^: I HS^»T^ I TT^'^: I ^rfTftflts^ I 

f^ii: I ^: I ^^ I fif^^ I T^:sfT I ^pft^s^^: ii^ii 

<^ l li{di I ^rfl<«xii d ^ : I ■M M\ f t[ ^Tfv: I Trer '^TTprmnf^mT Truf^iTrr -^ »r»f7T ?t^ii 

mfifm ^^ w^TWT ^ft^f!^ II ^11 

^S^* I ^H5^* I ^^rft* I ^S^SHET I 

w I ^Mm I H^: I w^i I ^^ I ^ft^srfiiT^ 11^911 

^ I ^^: I w^iT I ^^: I 'Tt^Bnrf^st^ 1 1^ m^f 1 ^f^rwifl^f 1 

% g^ f^ ^<i*^l'^^^^ fv^^ <^lf*^' ^ tT^T3^^ y|f^ ^ <<Rtt i d^» »i <l^aiqn«(w)«it ^^ ^{^^"^ " 

#tT: TtwT^Tiit': ^BR ^^pr^fH f^^ II ^11 

?^: I ^T* I ^: I TiTWr I ^^ ^ I l^'i I W I f5i:s^: » 

#n: I xrffsfj^: \ Wr^ \ ^i ^^^^ i frr: i ^ nan 

ft^T^TFT: 'rftBT: TrfT^: fjm ^Stimtf anifg: i gjTvH7f?frt?nTw: i %t ^^ ^ i ?m 
W' ^ 5JTtWTO*rf% «!f«[fTT II II Q. n 

^mi w^ ^^frT ^rr ^ff^ij)^ ^^ in«iii 

m^ I f?iT: I -^^M. I ^f I ^^^: I lif I ^j^ I 

'njflr Jn[<t I ^HT I ^#t^5»ft ^: ^ramm^ti^fi^ i tx^ ii 


w^ ^tH^ mi^ ^ 5M fir^T^T II «i? II 
^ I ^^ I in5^ I ^T^ I 'T^ I l^s^^ in? II 

^"^ 'T^ I Tni vix^ II 
^ ^ ^^li^^H'ilMW] ^MNrt I 

VOL. IV. " " Tt 

^fTRfr^iT^mWT ^ -^-^iB: II «iM II 

^: I TfifcJ^: I 'n: i ^c^t: i ^^t: I ^: I ^ I ^^^P^i I 

^[^FrfHsH^HT: I rTT: I W^ I TR^H I ^T^: II ^^ H 

^^ I HT I ^^^zrtrT^I ^^ !^fit I ^I!?rt»l,l ^cT I 

^ ?f7* I ^H^ I TTft'^nr!;! «f WTr!; I "^sf^f^Tft^ II '\% II 

^S^rft: I ^^^^ I f^^: I WcN'i: i irft I ^* I ^^ I ^f^^l i 'T i 

■mi I ^M: \ it^stT^: I ^: i ^sf^^^^: i 
rn^ 1 1^ I ^« I ^SH^ I ^ I ^nt^ 1^11^ inbu 

?n imrotft'n^: ^1*<<itfl : ^twt ^j^ ^n*ft m^ m^ratifT wa O^^*''*"^' '^; '^'^^JJJ^ 

^l^qfiin^m ^51^ ^ i^fc^ in(»n 

^: I wM' I ^STT^: I ^sftaim: I ijWfl ??g I 

^l^sn^m: I ^ I ^ I ^ I ^"t^' in^n 

1{\ ^ fi:^rl^T ^^ ^Tf ^^i? ^: I 
fk^:ra^^Wra ^^Tf^JH^t II ^0 II 

m \ T. I It^i ^m I wi I ^ I ^^ I ^^ft? I ^: I 

fkST^rl^l ^^:STI1!^I ^mj^ 1 5Fr*^ I ^ I ?RT^ II ^011 

^T^j-flq^jlHrw ^1^ it^^t^m: I fl^: ^^ ^^ S^ ^ ^ ^^ II ^«| II 
it: I ^ I f^ I ^S'JT^ I ^: I ^ 1 1?: I XRisim: I ^^.' I ^sM I ^v: i 

'I^ f^fi* ^^W tt^'TITT^mfe IR^II 

^^: I ^ \ ^ I Ht^Ti I ^ I Tj^ I 

^^ I ^i^tfH I wra^: I if I Tj^ I uis^l^^ " ^^« 

"^^^fwrmHt ^nwft ^: snutfri 'liTtfff f^f^R^ ^t vj ^ tt^»imk«i*iRi i 'JH^jw: ii 
T^?^ »rf%: II 

^3^*fW^ 5Hl^¥n'4i ^ mfu ^i%TOfTT 11^? II 

•^ I ^STOT I ^fn I W^_ I TT^ I ^' I ^JT^'T: I 

^^5 1 ^ I ^: I Wt4 1 1.* i.^TOPj; I ^s^T5Eif?r ii^? ii 

T t 2 

<ji i <aMM' fST^w^iTT: n<^ << P i I t'nfwrfi^: ^t^r^ ^"K^ 'rrfn^ ^^^'' i ^ 'i^: ^nft^n- 

^^ I TifTT I ^ I ^^m I ff| I fti'^: I ^ I ^ii: I -^^ : I ^ I ^ff^ I ^^ I 
^%^: I ^T I ^1 -^^s^: I ^^r^ I e: i ^t^ i ^Si^?T^ I ^^ mi 

■ere^n ^T^T. Tjf^T^ I ^fK ^ ^''^ '^^ ^"^^ 'T^wtit^ ^iT g:^Ti% ^vi<«»ir<8iii<!4ir<t<,- 

^ i^^: I ^rr: i ^ftiT:: i f^f^t^T^ i «^i ^s w^ \ ^ i ^t i wr^f[\ 

^i# ^ I ^ I ^s^?ft I ^T^i ^im^i 1^ I OTi^^t i^f^ti 

W I ^ I ^St<?ft I ^^^ I f^^: I ?^: I 'I^STIT^ I ^ I W^. "9" 

% f?^ ?^^ '«WTi w^ ^tf?wff ^n^ ^^ir**mi««i«i^ii^^jf^ 

mf^W I d^ I ^: I f^TS^^ ("I^S^q: I^S|?Tf?r I f¥%f^ I 

•n ^^^^^li^^v* ^T \^\f^i ^f^T ^fi tjuH'^ II 1(11 

^Srf^ I ^71p[ I ^^ I ^57!^^ I ^tt; | ^%1$^: | fTfS^: I ^fff^ I 

m: I ^55^ I ^ft^[%:t I T^: il^s^fqTTT I iTstfttm: i ^^^ ii ^ii 

'rffffr: ira^^^T ittttt: ^Rif^ ?f^i^| ?g^?ftg 'rfTfsrg ^?ft^^i: i ^^ ii ii i^ ii 

Hi^^S^: I ^Sfi^ I ^:sf|iT: i ft^T^ i fff: i f ^ i ^^^l 

'^'^'Jt lf^mft^;4l t^r^ ^T^?r5!?i « 

f^^J^l^t^^Hk: H TT^'^Wk^ ^^ lib II 

^ I i^T I ^^s^ft: I 'g^g^: i ^ i ^^^' i ^^* i #s|m i 

f^^fn: I "1^: I ^'gSHg^t?!: i n i iT^ i tj^ i ^S»m ii bii 

q ^ ^T U ti fi hxp^^ ^ ^ ^ ^l<*it^ -mh II ^" 

^ '^ ^ g^ ^[^ 'f^t^: ^f?it*rTT^i^ i 'wraapi, i <roT % "^^m^ 'rarfinmsTn^ M 
^■^^t ^i '- H f i'ii 4< aiKH T ^r»^TH ^3 ^tH^rir^Tftfij ^: i fw^ *i^m^ ^?^WTf*i ^- 

^rtr^ ^rrff i ~dm<i^ n 

^4t^^ W^: ^^ ^^Tf|^ ^ ^f^f^f^ Wff moil 
^tttN I ^^ I ^^: I ^-^ I ^ ^ I ^S^f?T I ^f^ ST'n I ^^¥t I 
^: I ^_^^ I if#:j '^ I ^^: I f^"^: I ^: I ^f^ I ^m: i ft^ « •^o" 

?^^srrir7nf*T tsrfTi tng! f ^cT§l q g Hj r a i Pi i 'tram ^ <*»«ii#7nf*t H?if57n^^w^ti^^= '^• 

nwr^ ^"^ ^^ 5ET II ^ ^ i^ vqn I 

~ ~ ~ ~ "" niiji} 

»ifq ntw* ^ »i«r ^ I f*J^ I ^rnra a 

^ I st: I f^^ I frof^ I f^%i^i^ I ^STJH^ I cirsi i ^^iSj i 
^1 ri^ I ?i7^ I ^im I fks^ I H^i ^ I ^sft I irfth^ii q h 

^' I ff I ^ I f^S^ I ^ I ^Tl4 1 1|^ I ^f^t I ?S[^Si^ I W I ^m^ I 

^^ I HS^'35f»i: I its^^tt: I ^sm i ^: i ^ i ^ i ^?t49i i wm: ii ^ ii 
^^ 1^1 ws^ I ^^: iir; I f^s^^T^i:!^ i^^w I >3it^ii?ii 

Ji^n. ^rf^TO^rw iifKrsrrf^ ^aimfir^pi, '^fx: ^^ i qft^ ^ i f ^ ^a ^i ^rtrm ^^Ipft 

^: I ^^: I w^^: i 'fr^ i ^tt i w i iftfw i ^s^^ i ^f¥: i 
^mi' I ^^ I ^5^: I ^^- 1 df^s^'qw: 1 1^ I ^?t I ^Tftfir ^: ii 8 h 

gigrot gsgr t^^ ^J^"^ 'T^ ^Ttrr^ ^nij.^*ft*n<'?l "HT^tn ir^riftfTi ii 
^^ Tl^ fil^^T f^^^l ^^^Ht^tft^^^^ "Mil 

^: I ^%f>4: 1 ^^^s^t: i ^*^ i ff f^ J T^ i ^ts^^^t i ^ i ^TTn;i 
^w^ I m I f^rg^n I f^^ ^ hs-i^ I ^^ I ^ftrs?H » ^^' 

^^^11 Mil 

?i": I ^"i ^ I ^f^_s?^"i t^h: I ^ I ^^s^^ i f^s^^T^ i V^^ 


«io.i Tt^ ^>i^«i <a ^M^^ K*<; I ?nft 'Jrf^' inni *?[jf\wrwT^: » t*iw fwn Tpmr^n ''^^L^. 

^: I ^^ I 'i^ « f ^^5f: I ^ I ^fw^i ^5RPTt4 I t!j^ I 

m I ^SriiR; I ^^^: I ^^?i[i ^s^rtrf : i ^: i ^jfH^TTt^i ^^ i ^^s# ii^ii 

^tt; I ^ H<.«(fd I ^ TT^^ T^^ Jipnfajfr »Tg«mof ^ft^r: ^t^ ^TTint twf^igTm: i ^^ i 
irw: I ^ f«i f^ ^f^ mit ?nn^ gx;: Trjwf ^0<>i«-if*t*«tl i T^m^^ ii 

it ^t[ ^ ^^« ^'^^^k »n^ %tt ^ I 

^_ ^r^\^^ ^ti\: ^^S^qjfVtfff ^^ lib II 
W. I ^W: I ^ I ^^% I ^^ I ^q I iTT^ I f^i ?t: I ^Wffit I 
^ I ^J ^ft^l tt ' ^^"^^ 1 ^* I ^^-S^qif^: I |fff I ^f^rj; ii (rll 
'9 t^if»»^ «» I T 'JT^i'qt f^Jinftf?! WT>irrti!r ^: i M wrif**^: i ^ xyi ?i^ 

Tig JiTJf f^^wH^i I f «1n fC'j: I mfir: ^n, '5r^i sfrt ^t^: ^nr^T^'j^t^^'? ^K 
"^w^fH II ^it^c^infli^NmiT: II Jt^T^" ^: I ^rrf^Jrapfti'i f^t^n: i frrofii: ^q^- 
'fhfim'fti^tnfs: i ^Wt^ifH^ ^ n^i'iTf^: vjf^: i ^^fw^ftimtt: mf^^ a: i 

^^MTlTftTJ I ft 5lf% II 

m ^■^ M^kMHl' in m ^ ^ ^f^^^ff 1^ II ^11 

^« I ^Tihf: I ^mr^J^: i ^sm i fmk i ^^ i f ^ i ^^ i ^?^« 

^1* I ^f^ I ^R^l ^WTit?f I ^ R: I ?^ I d^^WT I ^fT I ^W II ^11 

^ T^ mvTi: I 44gt<i^lfl(i. I if^ift ?n?^nT«T^f»"*«*<i^<ffl<i^^^ I ''^ II '^ 
^ 1 3w^ >n^: II 3 i<^i ^( i flH< ti« ?n?% ^1% I wjT^; '<|f7ra^T i ^ ift^^Jiwr^^^ 
"m^nn^jj^ iif^(Tm»i:i fWT^ TiPiTi t^ ^ff: i'^"«- "i^' q^i ^ ^wwU^iwra- 
f**sr: ^!f*r5ir»re i ^nftftfn ftg'Trox g^^nft sinun: ^g^mrn!: i ^r^^ 'S'^"**''^ ''. ' ^^ 
''T^'^'M^ f%frfvR I ^ra[T I jflft JTp/N^ ^tgfw: ii^i^ ^rnmT^Tu^ ^iftr^Js^^rn* 
^ «f*mT wm *n»m ii t ?ft»iiTO?rft ii^^ufiftv: « ^nrft ^ 5^ j^jrfl^i "' 
^^^ ^' ^«r: ^(Pmr i ?nr>retl[ft i 

VOL. ly. u u 

W^ I ^^f'PH; I'i^* I W^ I ^: i"^!**: I ^To: i rf i ^ix^jft I 

W^ I ^^'H: I ^sxn: I ^f^ I ^rfriTftcT i ^^ l ^: l ^:si?lft^n<^oii 

^^ I W^^' I #f^iT: I ^f5f^l I ^51 1 ^Ti^ri^i -^^4 1 ftwf: I 
g^t I ^r!^i ^^h: I ^^i nl: I igt: I ?5IT^: I ^H i ^^^t i Jji^ii'^'^ii 

=B^ II g^nftfl^Tf^fJi ^f^ I i^ra f^nftfn g^ ii ^rarrft ^atRi^ 'ft: ^jfn^rfr <{l<<)((, 
<{ifMa<(i«i I Tmr ■q^i^^rpfr t^^ gr: ^iigTTftr i ^^ i gr: HT t^r yvH^flini mmf^ i ^ 

^T JTlt ^X. ^^^ ^^: TTff^x^ ^f^ I 

« ^^: «k^ ^f%WT ?,^^ ^%fH f^T^THt: II S^ II 
^ I Hi: I ^^ I ^^^^ I ^^: I ^^Sf^: I ^ i H^r^^i t'i i 

f¥*nftT: u 

l^i^: Hf%m in^g ^fTTiT ^^rrtf^fif^ l^sft'il «*<" 


«Tt^ I g I irpr iw^ I ^^ii I n I mjii i ^s^ i ^s t^^ i 
J^^ I ^: I T?4«: I xitfif I WT^ I ^1 ^s^i ^^ i^1h| iRii 

^ ^f^: I rrar ^'^ ^g^g^ h\»?^ vr^ ifi^f^^ aif^iumii*! i Trat: ift^f'm^ ff ^i^: 
nai^: I m?wra ^t^.^^ u ht^ «T'iftf!r ^: i ^ ^ iftr^ ^ H i^^i gl^ a lift: irsre: ^ftft 

W r: I ^^: I Hf^iTT I ^Tf^^ I ^: I ^f s^W I ^^t?rt^ i ^^ i 
W l"^^!^ I T^fffSJ^T? I xq^S^I ^ I ^^Sfftfrf I ^ftifif I ^'O'^ " 9 " 

9? ^w^T I *'>rrf^: ii ^^3nJ: ii 

i^s^^n I ft[^sfiiHif?T I ^s^v: i ^ i ntsifffff i ^^rf i ^^rI iiBii 

t^ ^i^ ^^WT* gipir: g»Twtigir?%HT ^ i T^g i f^'^ t(^Muig:g i tt^ ^^^ 

u U 2 

^ T3?F^ "Trim v;^ <{i^'k nflOaimi^**' i 

^^* I "^ I ^1 ^^ I "^^ ' ^^' ' ^ ' ^s rftfff I ^rRtfff I ^'ot??! ii|ii 

^Sifim: ?ni, ^^ ?:<5^: i 'i ^Tf^ft<n ^^t«it ^^ WfK- i '^vt ■«mt ff^ i 7i?iR 
-s^n^fTRKiTg II I1 1$ II 

^ I ^: I ^it I ^^ I >3ft 1 5:5^ I H I ^T[f^:si^ I ^m^j 1*^51^ I 

^HTsq ^^ TTl | ^^^ ri ^^^T ^^fiflTTlf^ ^^ft*ft HbH 

^s^ trrat ^%s^ ^^wf^ fr^ W^ ^i^f % I 

« Hlf %^: ^f^rlT tn^^ ^ ^Wfw?Tf^~^J?| IIQII 
^4'. \ ^^t I ^W^: I ^ I ^fTft I T^^ I ItiffH I ^^: I :|^H I 
^: I 5T: i"^: I ^f^m I Tn^: 1 1^: I ^ I Hts rftfw I ^^fff I ^T!i^ 

^i ^TT^ '^^^^ Tft^ w^ w^ mi ^% ^i^ ^^ i 

^f I Ttjm I Ti^% I xj^^: I ^^ I ^rT^ I zit: I ^^^ I ^ I ^«^ I 
W^: I ^ I W4' \ m^ I i^^^ I ^ I ^^Srfffw I ^if^ I f^M\ II ^011 

fifl^f|^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^rftfH^ffl ^Totr?! in«lll 

^|siTT^ I ^rf^m 1 5P^m i ^^.' i ?5t' i ^f^i >T5n usTtf^r: i ^s^rri i 

9?« II ^^: H [^•b.««M.'?rP(jj.^ 

vfK ggi^fft I ^f»T«?;«jf?i II II <^"Q II 

^arp^r^ffflfn v^w^ fl^ ^ i 'a^T'^ g^rerr^ i ^ n^ f%raf*rf!T 'Mt ^i^^ ^r^ 
■^^ 1( WW I ^g^W »ii*j41 I f*rrr?TTrf^it?i 'M^ fSRft i rijaiR«s*r: i f^ ^t ^ | 

jn^nsftT^ 'M^ ff eft^ II iTi: ^»r«tr*i<i1fl: ii ^ 
T3^«ic^ ^Ti^«: ^i^to: ^^^finiM ^f^: ^^135T: I 

^1 -^^ I ^STi^T^: I ^^^: I H I ^ftr i vi i "^5^5 1 «s^fl^: i 
^fvs^ I ^ I ^H I ^ I'l^T I t^s^: I ^^% I f^ 1 5^ I ^: inn 

^Wtt: I ^?n^^ < »4 i ^^ ^i T^: i TTTfin ^^tf^ V^ ' ^r^fN i ^fn;^ tpum ^^^ 
^Mf<mfd I a«nW 'Bt^ I *i«j<<(l4*i'4 II f^rr^ ^^ ■fhnt^: i ^tft ^^^twt^ ivfin: » 

"3m^«jif*< II 

^iB^st I ^^uT I ^t I ^^ I in^ I ^ I iri s?^ I ^'^n* " ^" 

»T^ li^TftT JT^giTTftr «ri-mna arcp^ i gs^% ^rarsr: « wfn fi|*ii<*<.ui< n:j fv^^^ ^' 
i^^TW^: I ^^TT^TciT^ii: 1 v^ I ^r^^ai^ ^: ii mj fvq: isR^Tfti ■«(et*in^»i*'5«!T^ 

?;qi<j^ii<j v iir«i <n<^j |i «0'«<* <gt wf^r 1 1 ^rar^ ^Hfl^: tjN in^M tit 'srsanrf^ s 'f'Ti i 

%T ^ ^^: ^>^n ^l^ %^ ^!^*' IW^^II?!! 
^^ I #?^ I f^ I ^HT I Wf^ I f^ I It^Slf » ^^ I ^ I ^^ I 

iftSW^ f^ ^WT Tlll^in *II!I««I<* ^f^Tii ^WTT: ^HT;*!^ I W^ I Jnrg I TTOT %^ 

^PTTT ^ire<^ ^9^: Ma>*>*iif<(7T '*i'»i*<iifi><afli«ft% ««i*4ffl iraiT^ f'nEmnHT^: h 

tiT^ f% ^f^ I ftWTt^Tf^ f iftTr I ^f?n: ^^i: i ^3 f%^ vkr >i^: 1 ftw^ 1 g^rar 1 
ffirfjTfTt *i«gti*i I *i^^*<i II g^ifs^TT^mTWT^ ^ iraimf4«<*KH#M<<: 1 ^ 'jgf'rfn 
5^?rraT w^stt: 11 ^T«raT 1 vtu vWat ^ ^^ f^ i ^%g ^ Jjpn^ 11 fcrt ggfirf?! 
f% x'^4 i ^i^ ^: II 

f^: I ^s^prt^ I f 'otw'i I ^ \ -^r^', I ^iTiT I 

^^TTtI I ^if I ^f?^ I ^^ I ^SWR I ^^Sf^ II mi 

qi^T!iT^»Ttm»roTvnT^TT*( ti m 1 »m m 1 <bi -^ '^ 1 mTTfrrr^ f^tfnfH 1 f^r^f^ 11 ^s«Jfif^'»T»r- 
*nfr^: 1 in» ?. ^.^8. 1 fp( f^itnttm: 1 m^f^w^: 1 ^w\n^ 1 nF^wrf^ ^nr^ 1 Tt'nf^- 
'i^T^: I yr» n d «ft i m T^rarrr^: 11 f^M ' j* < nt i q * ft<ui ^r^wnm %fn 1 ^rfhai^ 1 ^RH'm- 

^^frTS^^Fi I ^ft I ^S'^M \ ^S|^^ I ^-^ I f^% I ^f^if II I II 

^ T^Kfrrra iJ4^di^ i q*<« i «*niA ^ f^% I ^"wmfm \ g^: ^^rsm^ 1 grr^ '^JT'raT^'ft'i 
'5^'^ ifw^s?%qfl^7f 'a f^ ig ^jstn^tf ^^?w>nVi!r 11 « <^« 11 

fi'tnt^^Ti^n^Ti^^m^^^^ fti^m ^^n^ ii^ii 
^\^ \ ^^ \ f|it I ^rapri ^fisrs^il I T^ I ^11 fl*^' 
^tHs w^R I ^^ I ^tiris^ I ^^s^ I f^ I ^sxn'l II ^ II 

% ^mf^; ^«*<^iMim« iv fi< fli HrHq4iHn'in (i i ^f%TraT*n<^ir<H<i^*f ^^ m^i i ^?^ 

• < ii ^ 9 j*<q(i*<<<a< » fi<'»i<ij i * < M^^ 5iTH**<'!!*«M««i^* 'TT'j'TO^ ^^ wr^ ^swt 1T^ ^^ 

jjTPf^^^: I ffTt ^^rm I fffTfjrfn flR^nftt^ i ^ 'T'W i ^nft 'tran ffji h^ ^ 
'ssrenTj ^ f« swT #frm»jf*t arm sitwriT^f^narT^^ t^^iri?nt% fn^ravmf^rt^ijjTri, 

TT ^IRT'Sng^^f^^t^ 'rf^ H I <*ITH'*)WH ^T51**IU!<ifl ^T I "^* "^T^^T ^t?t^ 1T*1^ 
^^ ^qcm^ ^f^T f%%m ^^TRT 3T«T^ ^cTc^^J^'^: I TP* f^TTT^T^TfMWrrf^ fWH^JTlrt 

^ ^s;^ 53 fl ^ ^T^ ^^ #3I«4 ^|7;yT "^"^^t I 

^: ^i55^ii#^^^T m ^: ^^tv?^ ^T it ii bii 

ft: I f^«^ I ^4^: I ^^T: I ^T I ^: I ^¥lr(^l "^W- 1 ^fTl rf ll til 

1 "^Iw^: ^gf w^ I Wot »ft3 f xn4 i wRiTftfTiif 'fr^?!!^ f ^<T i ^ ff ^ ^ 'ft ^tnrot 
%fn!n ^m^ vnnm: i l^xn'TOTtriT Tfw i ^TPSfj^^w TrfliT^W tt ^fr: xizraTrs^^ ^: 

Tii^iiR ^f^fw I HTf^ €t5n4 I ^^T^rM i f^^t^rsr^: i *f inf^ wftr i ^3f^ ^irainpt- 
^Tf'! I fnf% 'g 13^ f^^^Tt^ I Tim ht:: grrftF fv^wr^ <<a<*iMi ^f t ^ ^: 'Jirtri- 

^ H^T^T^WETt <<^ l ^"t H^nU^TtH^^f^ in ^ I '^T^ni^ ^l«l^^*1'«l'f I »n g^ I "T 

^%f^ II ^r^??fi: -mm w^fH ir: ^: » 7i f?<»i T^^^i^ 1 v^ fn^!^ n h^ ivn ^^^^ 
ft? f ift »ftTrf^: I d<« i^ '^Air < -Hi^H II ^Bfw^^f?ni'«!r tpt i ^i^vf^ 1 '^wJ^'itirKt 

tTmnif : ^ »ig 11 m% ^T!nfv q\< u! <n^r 7t 'w^ 11 ^ ^Tfw ^iTErrf*T €^5^ ^wrwrfn ^ 
^ tmr H^ ?nin I gr: gft: wf^^^msr^T^T^"^ 1 'j^'rolf-t^'TOTV^ »n g^^ ' "^ 
^n, 1 7i f i^fTT I f^ ^^mg^i^ratj^wt 'R^fH 11 

m ^ ^^^^^ 1?^ ^I^MTO tiiim iT^t J^: II <iii 



^ ?.^ I'ftTft* d^-q^ ^T^IfH^ET^WTOT^^H: I 
qft t^ii?^ ^ ^^rifn^^ ^^ Hfk ^^ ^rTi; ||<)oil 

^ I ^ I f^^ I fft 1 1 1 5l: I ^qs5^ I ^T^h: I iT^W I ^ipXS'nftfH: I 
tift I ^5T5^ I ^5j I ^^rlf^: I ^)i ?f^ I ^tr I xrl^ I ^ I ^^rs ii<^oii 

^Frfff ^ w^^^«^ f^ f^ ^f^i«TO^iT ^ II «i«i II 

^wfiK I ^W I ^ I ^?^«nw^ I % I f I ^^ I ^^^iw: I ^ in^ii 

ff^l*iai**i<al^ ^TT^TftJ^f^l Wf^ir^^TRt «tfiini<il^^i»TfT^ ^■TmfTTf h'* \ Vi \- 

^njrf^l ^p I ^ij^ I ^1 ^VTiR I ^^^W I ^ I ^TS^S^TT^ I 

t T^ irmr 'eftnr: it^ t^: '«??i 1 g^^ IS^ 'ff^ '^^ ^ ii^grf^tf rt ^g^^m 1 

VOL. IV. " X X 

Ti ^ rjrfirfTr gfT^TT^ g^ fw i w4^g^ ^^ ^sf^- 1 ^iniT g^Wwr %fn fJreft |^; , 

JTTK^ ^ff^^ ^^J%^ ^nfm f^T^fTf ^Sroi Trar g«ft^<«n '^ ?fw i^ 11 Jnilf WRfr^i; | 
^irrns': 1 gjrWirr »tT q^t*:w?*i ^^:^ 1 « tifs n^ w^rr t^ ^li^ifi 1 ^^ ^ 
fsiR in<m^ i q<JK' » i » I T^ ^in^i^' I^mj ^Y^ ^t^'^ ^'h Tf^ 11 twt f*j^l;ifw 1^ 

^Pw ^i^ 1^ ^^ ^^^i ^s^ II «H II 
u'l ^ r^ I fH^s^ I ^: I ^^_^ I H^S^T I 

^ fMI 4 I ^# I "^SliT I ^T^ I ^SH^^ "!♦ ' ^ "*'" 
^^^ >rfi!nfW T0i^ I v^ 1 1^ 1 ^i^'n v^wt%*r ^%w 11 '3»nT^ girf g^ftfir fit 

^qtm4<tn«(^i*>a ?r35 1 ^rarri 'fr^Frot^ »r^i%3 -i^t^ tTrSig wg 1 "fti^*!^ 1 t^ « 
^3?^ -^ ^Iffw ^#t ^l^ ^S(^Tyi Mf^^M^l^ I 
i^^*!'*! ^. ^^ '^! 'rf^ >^ fcf 4%%$5T IRII 

^1 m I ^Tit: I ^ffw I ^: I ^w: i ^rfV ST^ i ^i wkmi\ ^ i 
v^: I ^^1 ^cTT^ I nts^ 1 vn^ I frf 1 f^ 1 ^x^\ ^swn ii^ii 

^T^^giffTi I -ar^ vvruff[ 1 Aim^r*tfi^<iM'i^* i i«( 1 '^rsm ^f^^RTiVR'raft^f^^^* '^ 

<n^lM<!t*<««<*a i l[f?I m ^5^ » ^■: n <ll ^<< ^ *^ f*raT7»: « Ift^ <l«1l*IM4rtMi*lM5l 9»«^ 

^^ ^ TT^r^lJw ^ ^^-^^ -^ II? II 

^7i: I TO I f^ferT: I ^ I § I ^S^]PEtf!: 1 

«?^ I ^ I '^[S^ I ?n^W I ^ I ^^: I ^ ' ?* *^" 

w ^>ik: ^^ f^Tii^sf^t ^1 ^H^fm^^ II 8 II 

^:\ f^ I ^^1 5t|^t^: I f? m I ^[ ^»ST^ I irfw i 

u I ^s^k: I ^^: I ^^Trfif: i ^^ i ^^ i ^jj^i f|?^|^ ut^n 

|w: ?ra: I ^5<T ff7\ ?r^ 'snr: i t^jtr i^ar^t ^mTifNi wi wn( rnioTf ttx^ 

f'f I iH*<^vf^ I ^s^it: i vy{ I ^^^1?^ I ^>i i ^i^ i w%: i 
^ I ^^f I ^fTS^ri^i ^[^ I ^^ I ^^'. I irsv^ I f^^ II mi 

^nrsm: wfft »rae^ tt: i ?r«n ir^%^ ?iR[^ ^mt irlin: M«n<i? Tfmgs^ i f^ i gw ^♦ii 
1?^ ^ q q* ii «a T f< ai<i< ( ^ c fy w im «w gw?r inrarraTf ira^ wi% f^mrtr i ^i^ ii 

^^ I ^^>^: I ^: I ^Wij\^\ ^rI^rX' '^tf'T: I ^ i %^ i 

^t^ fjwm^ wf^ yttff ^rf»n jfr^ ^!»reH i t^ ^hnftiia?i i ^%w»i: in»fm»TO 

X X 2 

^ ^^<m [iijm\^i^i[ Wf>i: 4^^K IIS II 

^ I WSfii I ^1 ?^f^ I ^ff^ I f^^ I ^^ I ^5f5T^I ^^ I ^ I ftj^l 
t^: I ^ I m^ I ^iri I ^rsitvTt I ^H I TRiif^: i ^^^siit^ h^h 

^jf^ f T5^1% lT?lt^ jTT: 4W5JR^^^^lJ^ II t II 

^^ I ^p[Ts^ I w^p^i ^^^ I ^j^rq't I ^^ I ^s^Tn5i: i 

^jmi^ I f'^ I "^fi I 5i57f^ I ^t: I TTW^: I wN^: i ^^ ii bii 

^«rfirf?i g'sRm I g^ ^^ inrfn fjm i ^^i^rft i ^i^ uwt^: i irspi n ^jj\ ntfr; « 
^w«ff ^R^^«j^Tfl • ^^Tf^ I f^ f% I ^T^T^t ^twt ;^T^ qrre •^i^tttr^ittt^: ^ift 

Sf^n;! 'n: m^sjh: ^ini,ii wh ^TV^<HiI*i?rr: i ^t^ Ms ^«rq; ii tt^ gi<i«tiP^Ml4«Hvrai 
^^ fVn^ ^rTWl# ^^i 'g^- T?!'TT^ IHIII 

^ I ri nr^ I ^^>TRi i ^4 1 ^^t: i ?i^ i |S^?r i ^^ i 
^# I fiRT^ I ws"^r|^i ^f^ef I n^ \ ^w I ^ipn^i ii ^" 

^Tf^ f^RT^rgnrrr^ i ^ fwt 'jfitn: i ^inr ^'snifr 'i^ i % «% Trfim ^^ 'm i ^t?iif''- 
^ifirfTj ^^ « g%T^Tr% I in" ^. s.^<^. i ?rf?i Vt. « ^ i W^ ^ H^ ''^ ' I^'^ ^^"^ ' 
5Wt 'irtTW^ ^mirefH rti<irt*»fl ^minrtrfim^: i g^: ^R^ii i ^srrnn t^ i ^wsit'ft^^ *; 

4m*<^ fgRTq ^i^^rf^ itfim tjfrtn ♦i*<'«t*i: n «ra^^ i «n.f«e1afr<<w»*ii«n^<*^ ^ ' 

«<» c\o, ^« e. ^*> «io^.] II ^re^ts?^: n ?a<l 

^ I iffxn I ^ : I g I iiw I ^"^ I ^ I -g^ I ri I ^ ?fH I ^ I ^niT^^ 
rf I ^^1 il'^ I 'T J ^ I ^ ^ >TtfH I ^ci^s fit: I ^t: I ^ffk I II s^f?i^ 

ijT^ Vra^t^ I ''3wrf^ qrHi?rqi: ^^^tjt^: i fm^^ gw tt wtf^ i TTftfW i <mt^ 
»n?tf?r II iiif^ «:f?f »t3 ii t?^ ^^w ^arrft ^fw^ f^«^ <^<i*Jti<: ^ ^ i«j*<i<.« 

^^ f^^^^^lt ^^ ^Hc? f95^^^^ ^TW insii 
TI^^TSi^ I llfrTSf^^ I W^^l xft^kT I ^^%l»!SI3 | f^^ | 
¥^5^ I f^l W I ^H I ^SHHc^ I f^^is^l m^ \ Wrf II <^^ II 

OrMf^i I m v;v[ ^f?if%5r i f%^ ^^ 5f*nf^: i xrfWr^ f^^r^ i ^fTrf^^mr^ d^<Mr<i(<i- 
3II?T^ II ww^^ 5nf?W*T I it^ »t% ^^f^ 1^ I ^^f^ J^ I 'H' §. 8.^^ I i«i«i«i<(\- 

JT^fw I Osfim I f^%^ ftN^ I f: If^ I fT^figgfr ^?^: f^: i ^ ^rttjt^l^ f*ff*RN 
W^^ 4^%! ?T? I ^ ^rzitfrf^^ '^^mft-if*! ^^w€^% iTfT^wfTT fT^if^^mfq iqpr^ vj^itjj 
^%ft ^<T T3T^: I ^^'W I Tjf^^ 'ft€^ Ti^: I drii^^na^ itf^ 'fnn Tsn ^p^^tot 

<T?WT^ I 'H'^MW'^^ *r^ II 

^^ ^^rf^i ^;^ f^^t^H ^^^5^^innT pi ii<)^ii 

l«jf I ^\ wfsf I ^^T I W«^ I ^'N: J ^f^ I l^iT in^ii 

?^^%f?mgt*JT^R^T^T?q^?ft?g^: i ^^ fl ^wrt^x 'sr^t^ g'«iMnii'«ivraf?i i ti^ i 
^^?^ 5R7ft ^m^ -rgrf^ ^rerrfti -rg^^ ^^irfn i ^■<i«*ii|mf*<Hd^qqit yMiir^ gira^ 'w 
«'^»i ^rfwin int^ g^T g^ft ^ ^mx j^ q^^^ t^ ^ft^tfei^n ^t^^i^^^g ^^^ 

^''M^ nw(^ m^ I ?mT ^rgidTi i -w^: ^'^^iirm^.'^^d^ff ^ij^^ Jim wi^^t^^w- 

9lii « W^ » [w«»t,li»q.i»^^^ 

^^sfHftr^ T^-^i' "s^ ^f ^nr^i^^iWi: mil 

^s^5T: I ^rf^sf^^: i ^s^t:: i ^ 1 ^t: 1 ^^1 ^ i tii h«iii 

f »ft»?: I f^«j<*(if<rfl »ft»f: I mfifr pH T^ I H 'Brm TiWpift '3»n«n >ft»ft v^ :if^^ 
^rerar I ftraiwt'wpifi!: ii <*i«i<j*h<«^m< ii fwt «r »f^: fwt T«n ^^nwrt mnrro: ?i^- 
^ JT^nfRra I ^RTq^ ^mra: ^riwt ^ 11 ^fsrr^rf^ li^^ 1 qr* $. 1. «»i^.'5>. 1 xfit fit^- 
JWTBwrsT^ ^ "^ \rra«rRPft: 11 '^Wtt i M^'!!*ri »t^: i «*i«n«ir li^mnt fmw: 

¥<<i 'B fl*i«»^^vf^'i i «^ ' «(M'a*i ikW^: I Tl'S^: I "Cl <.*<«<(*< -4 (Hi frt ^: i H*^i*h ftx?8 i '^wm i 

^'ifV! II 
^^^ifjff^^^ f^^5=lt f^jt^ ^^^'l T^^ t 

^sM^H I ^sftr^^ I f5iw^ I ^s^iW I ^:s^^^ I ^^ I 
ffi^i i^ I wiPPi I Hri^i ^«r I ^: 1 555: 1 ?^S^5T I ^ II ^11 

w^ »ra«f«r: iTn»9. ?.<i;^e. nf^r g^ n ^^^ v^%!r titf^i^ir ^»^ ^^^ 1 T3H« 'l^ ' 
'^rfwrnn I ^ gvt ^ftirrft % it> ^mx:: h fwrM ftlp?^^ ^ir«nf nn-ci.'oij.i^ 

a: j <a i n i 'u*4H4-HWw i 4T)< f*Tf^ II gT: '<n t^ 'i> 'H <' i rff 1 ^51^ j^ ^f^ ^ » 

^;^5i^nT ^li?^^^^'^ nfHffmfjTOrt 11? w 
H^Sfsirl^l ^HtiTSXIT: I ^SWlflTl ^5 W I TifrtsffiniH: t^ l'^" 

^^Nj^KI 7WT finifjrfij^: I f*nN: 'ai: 1 7T5[tir^^ i « Wft gvt ^mm: ^*!^^i 
nw^wftf ^WTO t%wi wft %^ %m I Tmr «t»nn: 'JNn ^JW » '*t;»^ ' ''"^ 

^^ v;fi ^^_ T^^ T#^Tfi^^ ^m^iiTn^r: i 

^^ I Tift I ^ I T^^ 1 5^:sfT I ^^ I ^s^iiin5T: I 
^s^^n^ I %^: I wsi|in: I ^in 1 5Tt^ I ^s|^pn4 1 i^y I ^ifT I ^^;^ 

^mnpi. TT^ ifsii^ f^w^ It ^ fwfft I nj|Mv<<!i^U!: ^: ii ^ f?^ i gvr ^g%^ ii wt^vr 
^ f^Tlftv^i^w' H ^ralN «^ ^ Trf?R?rRTi: tfii^^rfl^rNi <t)Hi*ifa i TlTv ir i m • 

^^% ^H^j^ 5Er|t^ %ifjil xmjRi fi»^ j^f^ II M II 

^i^f^W^'- 1 ^^ ^^r^ 175^: I ^f^ »i?T^TTfK: iff^'Br ftK- ^(^^J^injfim^miwiieiw 
nt^t JTtl^ ^^^If 5IT(iTTT5i^ H^^iT5Rt^«T I 

1?^ I ^s^rpn: I ^ I ^^^ I til ^^' I ^ I H I t:»i5^ ii^ii 

'W ^^nt 'i1f^<< i<^*g 5WK ^^RTir ^fgf^ II TTiTwra«i: \'^' ^- R- ^%- 8- 1 Tf^ irf^Tnn d 

'f^wn trfM^Tim t?W «t|iti*<iof*<*< f* < ' f ^ 'Erarm: «?»fMar fTt^TT.* ^ra^rg ^k^w 1 jpm- 
^m: Bfmg Mqi<\<«<4 I 'flTW'l ^ J^ n IS ^ f^^^r^ft 1 fl1<si^i+i<«i(0ffl n^r^ tfir 
^«1 ^raro: 'ix::^ ^rf^pjm; ^f»mWt ^^*'*'i''i*'g ^ "'^'rfe^ » iu^« 

?rf TfTi fts: I «%: ^rra: 'i Tf^ ^?5^ir: « ^rg«i: ^^mr^: ii ^ ^Hff^ i ?ft^: ^, 

?.{: I ^nwt I ^T I ^^rfir: i ^^i i ^: i ^: i ^5 1 ^: \ 
^^S^^T^! I ^S^^^rftJTt I if^cft^t I TOt: I ^^ I ^4 II t II 

*i\f?t ^ I I'^g 11 

ti^ I ^: I ^^^ I Tl^: I ^f^HlRif I H^m I t[r^: I ^ I 
H^STtrf^t I ^^s^^^^if I %^: ^'^^^ 1 ^^m 1 ^i is^ii^iniii 

^^^^3!frt ^iftJRrj'^^^'lMt ^4rTt ^ ^^: II <^ oil 

^1 ft^ I H^S^ I W^Mlf^r I ^1 ^A'^J I TTI^^'lf I ^^^ ' 

^1 ^sf?i: I itrf^^f I ^if^if^ I ^1 T.^^ I ^m I ^ I ^' "*'°" 

^qT«ii ««tprt mftm %^^rRT iriTfti 'q^ir^^ 1 % f^?t^ TTfWT^'JfTn mf'nm^ 
^3^ I ?reT arewr *.«ti«ii ''^Wi ^?ig 11 

^^n^ I ^: I ^S^?rg 1 53^ I ^^m \ tn: 1 5:^: I ht: \ir^ i 
^pn^ I ^t: I ^s rift I H^^ I ^^*n^ I ^ ?f7i I "1^: I ^cHT 1 5^ II c|C) II 

,r«RT* ?hrfv#n ^^ ^rt^ ?nn^ ^^g M^nr^ ^fti^fMiO ^Nm jt^ i ttowNs 

^ ^f| f^^ |i^ ^^ftr^'nf'T^TOmwr ^^ ii <^^ ii 
^tM I f^^ I wfns f^H^rft I jjfTT!! I ^nt% I ^^ nni I ^ I 

^♦1 1 IT I ^ I fj^: I ^ I |r!;s^ I ^% I ^»t I ^sf^: I rP^^T I ^m in ^ II 

% ^1% Tnn^wTf«rf% ^ ^«»fW ■*ri|mi Trfwr f^ irfTratn^ rg | *ng<iai»»f *t ^^^ron- 

Pm ^4WT ^T^ t^t ^: ^ T55g I ^T ^: ^ ^?^ S?n^^ ^^T^Ei'T II «i? II 
Jl I ?]pr I 5f4rT I ^p I t?l* I H« I ^ I ^^^ I ^: I ^: I ^^ I ^T^^: i 
^T^im: I ^^t I m^^ II =i? II ~ 

t^: ^T^iPri^tf?!^ f;f7i fijviTflTHT^: II ^ g^n^ifji^: ir^ g^ T3^ i w^r^ i '^ ^W( 
'^v( 'g^T^^: ^g i *n^ I '«f*Ji^«)i ^r^xTffiwTsiT 'WT ^'Rr«i wftisra ?i^t^: ^ 'ft 
^Tf^r: II II ;^9 n 

^^Tf*R i[f7r y Jra: ^?»r« ( R*ri ^i: ii 

^_ fn^ f^iHtu ??^pTT ^^ l5 f^^ ictW mil 
Wf^ I ^'i: I ^sp I ^>4 1 ffts«rt I ^^ I ^ I ^ff I ^ I 
1«^ I friii I f^its^^: I f^pri: i ^vW: i ts « W ' ^'t^ " "^ " 

^ H^^ ^yft: *d"^gf*<i i j ; d g«f w^ ^tifti^rrf*T i ^^rfng^fr^^ ii g^ ^f»T^ xjs- 
^fT^fw ^ II Ticft ?fT«Tt i|R d< <u ii m i*<^ii«rt <<tj*<<«<l*i g?i gjl^ mff i -jmi^i^ i gwi 
^ f^rfti^lm: ^^ f^nnflTT: i f«niT ^vrf^ 'fru f^nr 'W^mTx:: ifrwrf^rrrrt 
'"^t 7!rai?twT: I ^?iT^ jm^Tift^rr ^y(P^ i thJ^ i 'sniiift^Miflnuj^N wrt gn Twj : ii t^ 
'f^ I Tiraftftra: TjT^ I ^t^ f^xtsm ^ I vf^'Jw^: I iR-««<i^*i. I «iP^ ^t^ ftr^ n 
^ ^J^'"': 17i^rrfHg?mTsi g^i ^W m f^ ii 

VOL. IV. Y y 

^ ^H^ ^^« f^ ^^' W^ ^^ ^^ ' 

^S^ I VrT^ I ffts^: I fiR I ^ I ^Sf>4: I ^rT^ I "^^ I T|^ I 

f^ftr^: I ^ I ^^: 1 1? i l«r J ^* « "^^ » '^^ ' ^^s^f : \m 

w^^mr m\ II t?ir €mf*Tf Tf9n?r% t^r^ i ^\m "^ «rat ^^^ pt^ i W^ ^ « '^rrf^q 
f^m^ Tram tTrffHfiit^ f^fHiTf II ^ «t*i+i!^*rtiftHfl«Miurt t t^ g»4 ?f^ ^^: 

T:?rM ^ w i f*<rc< 'srrain i 'sn* §. 8- 1 Tt^ » 
in ^t IT^frf I cp^ I f^H I ^t I T[S% I ^iT^ I ffts^'^ I W^ ' 

ii I M^fn: I ?i I TiT^^ I ^^' I f^^>T: i ^rart I ^m^' ii?ii 

5mi I ^i^ qlfn I ^TT^n^fi^ i ^ 1 1^ ir^n ir?pn ^^i^rin tt g?i?r ^'irT^: ^^mrt^ 

gfjnft't I ^idi'^i|< « 

g<ft% injT^ iiignm^f lw; ip^ ^srft ^rfhf t^^ ^n«n i ^nft ir^>TOT» *ra^ ^^an 

^1 ^'h^^ ^l^'O ^% ^^T ^ajir ^it^t: I 

inn^% n^ ^^ ^l^- fWTiT^: iiiJii 

^ I ^s^: I rR I ^"^'^ I ^'i: I ^^'n- 1 ^^^- ' ^HS^*. i 

THTTS^ 1 1? I ^' I ^%^ I H^: I n^* I ^STTrain: II 5i " 

?mt mHT^«f3i%^ mt im ^: ^^Qm^fl ii w i tf^im^ ^f^ ^'^^"'Z^^Z^ 

ininffTfHi 1^ ^€t: ^T|^ ^^^ ^^: I 

Tjfi^ I ^ I f^.sfrTt I ^^i^: I ^rrrt: 1 1? i H^ i f^prtft: ii mi 

^ f^ ffxTPTx^^m^git: gj ^5»TT^ gpr^ fg^^ gv^ ^j g,jif^ ^rir^^ 

^ ^^rtfto fft:^ f ft«n ^t^^ mf^ ulir^ ^w^ i 

^ I w^^ I ffts^: I ifts«n I €Nr I TjTff I Tltff^ I ^ttpI I 
t?t I ^ I ^* I ^Tijiiui I ^;7^i ^qT^T^ I ^ I ^^ I hs^r: ii!,ii 
% ffr^ ?r<,«iras( ^Ti^T^grRi ¥m^ iftw?r mtnT 5r?rrfw MRf< i '0«^(0*iir^ ^ir^Tfti 

^l¥^5TOf>q^TfipiT| g^t^ ^^^\^ ^^ \ 

^ »3;^fff ^^ ^llHtlT^ ^^1 ^fftg: ti-?frT 11.911 

^¥S^T^ I ^i^TnfiTSHf I gwst^ I ^^s^?f I f s^fi; i 
^^ ^ ^Jh ' ^'^* ' ^fflfff s?w I ti I 'th^t: I ^frg: I TpTff ii^ii 

•^ ^W^TPT^?! ^al^ <;n ; <i ( ij j?tTTr»i VRri ^ffw 5i"t«*n3f?t<**<H(fl<i g^i^jrfTfmfit^ 
^- ^f^w^ m^ ^^ Jj;Ejt?i i ^fiWrr i w^rrf i mft^'. wtg^»T'?rr: ^^m: i<i^ i ^^ ii 

'^^W ^w vi^ ^ ¥^ff[f%w^ xijg i?^^ ^ iN^: II til 

^^ I ^^: i"^: I ^ST^i: i ^l^t: i m^'- 1 ftr^ i ^i^t;: i ?5 1 ^tsfm^^i 

^T^ I ^!?n: I ^^ I ^ I ¥^: I "l^^t- > "TT^ I Ti^^ I ^ I %: ii b ii 

Yy 2 

^r^nrsrr: ii 

ti\'^V'l^\ ^STJ^^ I ^^ I rfTfi=i: I f^S^^: I H^ I i||qT: ii^ii 
j ^ grt <i < 4i ^r^ ^ftt^ mfHTf^'HrfH: w^rfir^ tt^ ^n incH HS^n: i 'fm^: « ^ 

^W: I # I ti- « 1^^^' I ^H I ^ I VHt I ^S|ci I It I 
^'^^1 ^'^ I ^^%n} ^ ^ffi I c^ I ^1 1 '^: I ^'TT: I ^f^?: mo " 

^'\siM*«: I '^ '^ ?m I 'mnwTR^niWM^ ^m^r^ 4^«dfiis(*i^ i ^ftf^ i^^^ifa ^i 
m1^ I ih^m TtTT 1^: TfcRTu: i t<*<e>uriti. i ^^t^ i ^n <**<♦!< ^^ t^^t^ Tsmrf^m i " 

^^TJ^^g^rT^ ^Ri^ TTH ^f^ ^^H M^^ n*^ll 

t^it'i ^ I ^fl^ I wm^i \ m I ^4 1 ^sftm I wMt n-^ii 

^ smwmr n « ^mii ^ 

4.^^^n<at4i ire ^ itt5(3i( M 4 ^t tTOT if^ pm: ^m^: ^''L^.SS i *ot 

v^ «^?^ ff^t TPrr g^^ ipnTf: gmft ^ mm ffiHt yini ^tf«fft f<^ ^ 

^ i^ '^ 5% mi jfm ^w: i ^^ ^ ^j^vj&h imi 

rrrjji- ^rra: ix^^ni-i wRiijdl«)i»ii^ ii ^^5lf?:7fr W\ tv^w- 1 mfrf?! fT!fr%<i7TTijrfiF 

1^ ^^ ^5TT f^^r ^J^jn^ %xii I ^viT T5ft ^ %fti?n tifw^-?^ ii ^ ii 
l^ ?f7i I ^ I ^fs^ I f^sim I %: I ^m i ^ i ^xrf i ^^ i t^ft 
tfH I ^ I ^ftr^i I nfii: I ^^ iR II 

^fwfW ^^T^: 'jprfr ^<^*^*<ii'!|(«ji>5vfg<(n*ii<^i^ ^t^^ Tt^ %Rn'«TT;wtii: i ^n v^ ^'^h'rw ii 

^4 1 i^: I i^: I TiiTt% I ^ I tih: I rri ^^iiitji: i f^H^^T^ i 
1*^ I XI ^ I wf^^*^s^T^ II ? II 

'!F%t ^? g% 3rr«pi, f%»T^m^ f^rwm «^f^ ii m«i^^^ f^ i n^ ^m^ ^^'^ ii ^ t^ 

^■^^qtfic^^ W ^^m«: ii^% I 'T^^^^^: ^ ?5i* II 8 ii 
^^i I W^: I ii: I ^1^ I M I ^^^J ' ^^ I ^^- ' f^s^^: i 
'jtn^ii: Hi} II 

V^^% !5ffn: I ?ra[T i '^rr^: ^"^ ^ffr^ng?: i ^sTnwtif ^«widqi*i, ii ^wt^: flrim^ 

9M0 H ^p^: n [^•b.^«M.'?i«^^, 

^y Jje ^ %^rTT ^^^ rTT ^ ^^ I ^fw f^nf «ri I^HTSff^ II H II 

f^fn^s^n^ II Mil 

^ ts[: %irt?tT%f^ 5j^^m ^i^T^ snfrrnifft i ^wrsJ^ft f*RTcT: i tjfUTTT^ ^ in- 

^i^irrff^inBTWwr II ^srarr I 'rf^i 'wi^ i %^ ysft" *i*i^l?J^ i Tnr^'^ift srt^t^ %?!nJ: i ^ 
finrrwrt ff«rf ft ifB[ un^ i n- ' UHqif*< s ( ' i ti^"^ »imf«fti^^: i n^tf^ i *n*<i'«»iM? ii ^ 'Tt^ j 

'T?! I tJ-Jwirrt^f^RBJiT I Sitf^»lfW n II i^$ II 

I? I ^[^^ I ^^^s^'^n: I ^^f4: i ?T(T^ i 'jt: i ^^W I W^f: i 'T i 
^sfi^: I WBfl^ II If II 

irifHfTT I ^?rr I ^fw ^ifiTsra: i ira^tir ^^^^ i 'J *^: ^ff f^mj^ inTrfwr ftf^^TTi^- 
Tffx^ 'g^nsn^i: ^r^ipr^ ^^^ ^Rg^: ftfW^: ^in^: i 'TfT I ^rgftf^ mjTTm i ^?m 
jfTTTfir^ THT^ f^Trwrrf3[^ "smr i n-^ ^^i^t: i "Wj^ x^ ii ^ g^t^rfn ^^: grrtf: " 

^5ii I ii: I ^?R I ^ s %^U I ^% I Tw^jRW, I ff ^Tll^ I ^rl Sf^: i ^1^ i 
^\T^: ii^ii 

jn^i ffTTTT^ ff^wf TT ■ *i<vdg^<^ i rv m^: i f^Rfjnr i ^H i T^: i '^ti^tWh wfww i 

^^ ^ ^^T N^^ ^^^^: I ^T^^T ^5 ^VT^fH 3 11 b 11 
^frTI^Tf^ lltll 

^ n^ %frTH^ ^^m^ YI ^^ ' ^^^ ^^ «^T^- II <ill 

?rl^l W^: IKlll 

w^ II «4-^A*ii <^r«i>^id:jig i^ ^m Tfri i ^tf^ tmm H?pt; ^^ i ^if%^ i ^ qj^jp ftp|- 

f^^i ^moii 

^^ ^^I^ ^i^^^ WT% ^t^^^ ^rH«|rH II S*) II 
^ I ^ I llrl^l ^^^ lUfrT I FIT I ^Sftf^: I ?r«n I ^^3^1 |:sfH^: I V^ I 

^^: I ^TT^i ^^ sf^ I |ro s^ I u I ^^: I ^1 ^^ si^ I fms w in«i II 

% ''f^ «<*!i<)fa"s^ I ^T m 'e^ * ii ^ <. 4J wfv^Ttt 1 5Tr ^ Trfn Tpj «rr siammii* v^ i ^m^^- 
'rfrfiin vm TT I ^ra^ inf*ifl<iif^«i'^ : i i^i^ ^ ^^Sf ^^''^ ^^ ^<«yi ff^^»rra: 

Pf ^ T<*^*<<tn<t . I Ti fai v C 'ji ^ ^^ I lf*rf^ 'TT'TT ^^ ipm Tf'T i»iii«j 1*1^*1 ?ralTk: i ^ 
^'^•f'l^ g7» M<>iXu !t <in< I ira-nftn; i TiTrefrf^ f^^ifw: ^fTiy^TFJ^ h » ^^^ ii 

9M^ H ^'%^: H [^•b.^«^.'3io^^ 

Tj?n^ I ^f%w ^ I '3WT 'a ^ %an frmrr nm^ gOf^^f^ irfT^rpft^n i ttt* a- «)^.i t:fn « 

^rn?^: n '^w: ^'^ i ^^ ' JT '?fr f^f^: i Trer ^im ^^^^ g^ i TrrfnMf<t*yl«iifl>^TTi: i g«^ 
^ 'srt^tt: II t?ra ^nmrn: ?nl^'^^ ?mHW w^ W " ^Hi^rr^: flpf^ ^f^ «fa- 
ftf^ Hvent^: I f%*rRt%<f<R-<j^«nf«f7i ^: i ^ wwr^n: n ^ tttj^ u g?j^ (f^^ro^: n 
^ifiTJTTnmzi^ Ti\^ \ w. I irsiifm ^ftfn i ^nrr i ^ Trf^r ^^^f«<ni ii ^ ir^ i ^ r»i'K% ^ i 
nmwrt ^ W¥5f w^r^"^ fwiTsref 1= I ^y^ ^^*n«i«iTOll9i I <(l«5*a^i<*i: i 3% a^ 
f^^if^*)! f7iT?[ ^it: 11 f*g gf^ gf^^mf^ *<vmH^iff?i 1 ^rarr 1 ^f^^^n gt^ 1 "^ifro- 

#3^cj "ffTi ^iWTf^ I w ?re^ I WFtm^^ffi^: u nf« ^ ^ra^ ■"H^.tM: 11 

^^Ttsi^ I TRsf^ I ^^ ?jf?r I jq^HTst^ I wart I ^; i ^ i ?^: ' 
|HT st^r I ff I w: I ^^^ I ^^g I ^ I ^ I ^H 1 Hff ^ s ^ I ^s m^^Hi'^ii 

^^ i < i ^t<n4<.mi'i?*<ni<j«) : II 'S^: fi^irn?: 1 ^^ji^^u i ir^'*'^ T^rwra: 11 wrol^ ^^^S\ 
M^TTrt^'? H TT^fr^: 'TOfxii wsgiTO^ ^: i 'tii'i<if^*A'!iifl'^<i^nj«J^^'^'^'^[^^'^ 
^3 f«nm?T^ 'STT^ I ?R ^ST^ *ra^: ^ra^i: 1 ifltT 1 ^rrif imfmarmTiTf^ ^^r^ L^^i 
V»RrH 1 71^ »T^ I viJT^ «iy4«ini«J«i: 1 Tfr ^ irrg: ifftg: ^: '^nw^: 1 ''^]^« 
TTH T7^ ^i 4 i r<«B : u t?*^ fmf^n 'TOT THj: frroTW^ ffft ^^^ nrif^ "''^LS^ 
wt^ ^nwT vnfw^ Ti\ ff I «^: ^ B ^r%*t ^ 1 rt<n^ i Kr»mra ; 11 'rfl^ 'f^^. 

?n^^ ^jfT^^ TT^T ^^•^ f^ ^f^ if ftrt i 

^S^ I ^?I^S5^ I q^T I TOS^ I f^^ I ^: I W I 'jft?^ I 
^:s^ i'|:^s^: I ^s-5ri^ I TTfitsJTT^TS?^^ I ^5nT: i ^s^ h^h 

^(^»rr^ jT^ufi: h ^: «t«^R(^«<if<»ii fm. ii 't%^ 'i^ t^ ii g^ ^Rmrr: « 5ft 'tot ^rmbft 
?iuf^^ f^ '"(im'TImI ^ 'T^^^RTq'^J^^^rnrr i^ i ^?itt^ ii ^^O'ht^^ «t^ ^aflw- 
ara: i if^re i i%«f2 f%sy^ %/)f7i f%^ i fini ^jn5vT<preTnftft^ m.^M^g i xn» ^. ^. m^:. i 

t^^rtHT <1R(fli*ft <sjf?ifi<<THl h'r: ii ^N%: t!^ < i ^# | ii« i f<n< fsramt^wr^: i ^fm ^ 
gwrf^m^wTRRi ^: ii ^rft^jn^^ MR^inini^ 'rft^fti^'ft ^fw^i: «ft4<<iiu i i'jfi<fj i mR^ t- 
Tra^T'j f^fft ^g^ g^^ ^ir^ ^^ ^i^^: i |^T5^;^tm: i ^Ri*ft ff ^^rr^nm^ ^ ganin- 
TRi, I It' ST» <\- <»«. I 'rati I itfi^i**^ ^fK^ 'TcjT\V H^ 'TT q^nfT ?ft" 'tmr ^irg ^^ ^n^n: 
4^^Mj^\ f(wm II ^i^ |^r|[^w»ff7raiX7!!^T^ i TPn i ^g%«rrf^ ^rrawni: ii 

^ ^^ f^T^ g^ ^^^t^^ ^JRJ Wft^ II81I 

^^ 5f7t I ^: I ^ ^ I ftmrts^^ I T|^ I ^TS^ I ^ I ^qrflf 

^frt ^?fl'51[^ I gif I 

^^s?«j I ^ I f5R:qis?5«r \ ^^ i ^'htRts^^ 1 1^ i ^ i JTfire ii {{ii 

^ ^B^rw »ft 'g^ I ^^ ^(vn^ I ^srft mrft ^f^^ «^: 1 ft^ ftmrrm 'rem 
ft^ Jrfn grr ^ ^^^^ ^^nr: tt??!; 1 ?iit 1 httii ^wrr ^^irarrr: h HTrwt ftTrd ^ 1 t^- 

fiinii ?tt?NT^ icfii ftJi%^^TTm II 'srarr 1 T^ 0^*«i«<> w^: » ff^^frgwro^ 1 ^ 
^irar^: 11 1^?^ ^r«n 'Tnrf qwf^mr^ TTwr^ «*rffg7«r^ 

*nWT^aB>^Trtn^gpT7T^ <j<tl*i4)a< i a^'T »T^:iigT^T^ 

^^K l <r«* i: |TiT»8. ^8m.*i ?^^I 'a<lTti<iMl pg*rf|[f4 fw?li^^TTW « li^^^^l 

ttm I ?nnTTf( p jrnrf^ ^ h si t<< i d i «ntA ^««tiMRfl1miiN t^tt: i w^ ^ v«tKf<^V 

'^^fT^r jt^tt: 7t^ ^h^ MrK » \m*i h^: i ^^^n^ ^fCT?tTm i ^^ J^^ ^J* 
^^'Tif I ?iinjft g^ ?reT < i n^n}*<H l '^' t: Ji?!^ f<i*<««<1<j«i^l*i JTOT 1^ I '^m^ri I 

VOL. IV. z z 

^^ItiTT ^spim ^r^^ ^^^ ^^^ 1^ "^ " 

fa«5i(n.fl B ?mT flf^Tm V^mv^ i g^m^wr, i flf^ %im^ fl^««<,5!»i ^gTrf^m irnrtiifii i 
wm*^ f { <i.< i iV\M^i'^ «^: I ^^ 'HTTT «pj ?ifl«<«imir»i wi?f»T T^TTt vmf*T ire^: #r ?ft 
^n^ i:^rm nf^rt^ i^ ^f^ x^ mrm g^ ii ift ir^piT^ i f*reT i ^t^dtw^ it %»r ^ 

Tfr <iq i a^ MR-M<.t i n«1 ^^^^^^lf*^ ■ ^ l i{41v>uii9<i «w^ H^ yR-«<<.«in<n «^: « ^^TO^: 

H«» so« w ^ ^« «|ol,.] II inr^s^^: n ^,j^ 

fTpgrg^ffTtsi: » nw ^T?J T^ i[if f»r^ i <tirfl«i > mft«i ' ^ ; » Sunn Smwft annWV r flra?^- 
5'mf^ ^ '^ »»^^^^TT^^tTT^ ^ tnr *rng ?n:T!rifW vtO<.*f a» < irrrrfW »rwv^- 

w>i^ I 'T I ^q^i ^nwwr I ^$^t I ^: R I q^i mn;i t^'W 

^ y<ri*jig^«i5^ai^i<:«f^»Pt- Ti%^ qirrf^ in rt<<mjn ^rtrrf^ %?ft i v^ i qt^r b t% f% 
'iT'jr^w ?i^ »iO<,*i^3 'HtSrg dO<i5iM i M<if^a ^f^ i ^< « «ii*^«<i i 'd^^trnq ?rf^: i 
'n im*^. R. ?c. I ^ ^: II ^^?T^^ I <ig i fd^>^ i <^ i <(f f^TT^ t '^^m Mririi<n t^ 

in<ii<' ^<iiif<^t vm^i II TiTfifr ^ Mi<^<<n<H ! nrfl<.riv<>' » "^^pn^gflrttft XT^ gmnroi i 
^'jwtn: II '^ng ^rnfr i gf^ ^f^wr|T^ u sa x^ mgf^ y*(7i i ^'i^ i a,<.««i i ^i*^ ^Knm- 
f^ran}: « t«4 ^ i ^rentf^ ^lem 9>^H\Tn w(: g: i ■wm^i^ ^^rnrnt ^^fW^ i tftf 1^^T- 
f^wiT'R: R 7T7t: ^ T^ T^fhrt vn^ vnrrf*f ^^^ i ir^ wm^ n f^ H i ^m^ign : i 
Tn«i<fl<iiTfl«!«<iiiirf»i^«um: r ^rj i ^*»rfllii4««4i i v"^Hi*ft% r ^K*i*<i ! i^ iT tw r 

^ *ni^ I ^<<(i«Oqnf^m ir^rraw: h «5tf%m i *rnt vn i y i f^M«<< s q<t »< f t r ^i^?Hff^ w. i 
"'T^ wfii 'wm^irf?! njniiiq^*i i fl;ytn;i«im^«t i vv i ^^7»«gaifl« ^ ^n^; i ^nc^ 
^t^: R vx:»j^ ?p*<t ^Tfirr f^ftid iO ^<m tw ^jnft'iT i tsTftrrj** i ir^ wi: r 'giTtrrf- 
""^ i^<wtW^ f^^iff mr'^.^M8.iTWT?t I < i .^< ii f^i<w« ; i ^< R iK>a1q*<ii<w i ^- 
^^^^fn^nf^fii *R!rtff«fr ^M I f^ ¥1^: R 'rm 'wnof^ xm^ni^ qf^ninftw ^t^tt 
'^^t?ft -t^pffi}^ fWiSfSrfn wmfi r fqt y^ r ^i^WiNt y^t^i^ Mgrf) i ^ gy i ^- 
"^^1^ ^ Vi^t^ ifi^ I Tmv^ JPWT irerw infr^ r ^i^tflr: n<iiv»»i«4r t ^wniri% 

Z Z 2 

^W^ TT>ftl ^^ ^^^^ 'H^ ^^ ^^^* ' 

ttxtt: 4^q« a m^ ^T'n TTV 'sr^ frrr: <T?^^f 7n% ^g iro R<^i«<: i ^r^: ii f^ upi i 

WTj^: I ^<i^5f wr^^; 'ag ii w^^^sttpr: i ff^TtTr^fwnr: i ^rvilJi'i^^ljjf w:^ nn»^. 
^. M^ I Tt^ irrgttw^ ^ i ^H^isiifflc^ ^jwin^ql niii 'tnj h%% ti?^^ ntiij^ fN 
^T «^n<<* < H : ^ «^ I wrtm ii ^ra: i ^ ^mft i ''wr^: *4ndHi<ji 5[^ ^ ^ i^'D- 

^%^^fi* noil 

^iTt»it^ II ^ ir^ I '^WTWT^ ^^t^ I ^iT'ra v;^ in;: W^ i 'n^ ^Wfv^^iH#?- 

^mwni^r^^^ awrrfr y^: ii f^rft^ »mnnifTt i ^f^^[T%q.i Twrrg gt^ M i q>ii'ii^»i= i 
^#^ I % t ^ ^ I ^rw^TJft »rf*m, I i?t ^ ^i<*i : h ^nn ^rrtn "ft: *i*' ^^J\" ^' ^' 

?R^ « tr^'sinn^J ii 

vTt ^rgfiifn nfpSf ^^m\ fi[z\ ^ f^; i ^iiit^ s^Hfrf^Tj^ <^<^ i < ir ^f^wr ir^nrnfT 

?T% ^^fii": ftnjfJ^twm^Ti^: ^i^ ^^wt w^f^ ii <^ ii 

^nf^: I ^?^i Ti^ I Tn^^ I ^^T I f^'^ I ^'H I cT^i^: i frr: i ^JiiU i 

jq^ 1 5^: ifTnjs^: I ^ I ^ I ^npi;! ^: R^: I ^^mrn ^T^ II «l II 

<Rrf? ' H^^rrtHPi : ^^ <<#>«< wi l d, I ^ifl^fd I ^r^T^f^wrm 'siwiifl^fliyT 'sMfT'i, ^im »rprf 
i^ I ^j^Ni^mT^tsti^ I ^ Tni w^f^T»^ ^f^ ^"^nm i^: ii 

^ I f|f^ I ^fy?!!TS^: I ^: I ^ J ^s^: i ^l i ^ i ^^ i 

%WS^t: I ^ijTTSi^ I >^^ I ^-s^t: I 'St'T I w I fwt^ I wi'' II ^ II 

^f^nin^nfr < R cii«i p(^ Kijnt ^fmi t^wft ^nmr^ ^a^: mi^i t^ f^ 
f^i^: I finjfir I * ii *< i ^*f l a> i ^ijHialmuii t^wM^mi i ^ra^ "^rar^ ^TTtr d ^ ^^ - 

^:^'w^^»T^i^t^% ffityin4w i «jHi< u'T^^^'^^''nr^':^^'''^''^'^*^^^^^ 

x: I ^^ 8- ')?'=• I i^ftTTW^: u gifcMfl'jg*tfti'i^: i il^ i «^ i IHT I ^^T^ ^jjjjn ^; 
gjdMt ^fdfii^ftf^ mf^ ^^wmr ^frirr ^ ?^ i w^: i thi %^pn^ i f^ ^i^ 

TdWRT <i^<qfi<*ji II iiej<jmwq4i T^ I vj' ?. «). soq. i imrnmnr^ f*nrffim: i Tirufinni 
ftffd i M^B i *) iR«iir* i «^ ^ I Ti^jTwtwT 5»irfn I H^i'ift«i*iP« I ?TOT^i|Tiit ^^Trrinnn- 

^Tinrtt "^ni"!^ ^f^'i, «jxi^^ ^srfn xt^ |f^: I 

^TTTOTt 4y>iriTwft't ng^Tmnrti '^fS^ ^p}^ ^h* ^«Nj ^"mt «ii4*<'4n1<»*iif<«i v 
jft" 5^^^ 5wt s[|«i<qir*Js(i^<^ni<iif^*fl^ 5^ *j^*<i«»r ff^'^^% i ^»#t ^ iwffi ^rrfir i 
^\^fi ^ n t%w a^ 1 5ff^^sT'!mJ'g^^i''i ^T^ Tft ^pw: II ^ff*f*if^«m^«fv«<.5lfii 
'qm i f<<a<. : » nf*B^ ^ ^reir;: gwf^i ^f?i^: n1ur«ifir i ?> ^ ?t»^ ^^«ft ffff^ TnNffir i 

Wff iifwn*i<m«1 <f^»u i q i -«m*ti« »; ire^i: is^ gw: "^ ""^ ^^'^'^'^'^ 

ft I ^ I ^^ I rt I ^ ?fit I S)OTl3 I ^: I iraS'^ I ^STrf I ^3^5^ I 

W. I ^5^ I iT^: I %5 1 fiT^: I m I trtr: i ^fr^mt i ttt^ iiI,ii 

iwrTW««^^iWTF: I J^ wmm wsn iTmTf*TfTT i Tratsfmrra b ^ ^ i flR i ^f^Tirat 
^tWf^: » ^^«nr^ ^rw^ siRtiii, <nflKfi<rfl pf?T i ^Rmu i ^iH^ ?n«inS^: qR^iti^ r h 

^R[T I ^I^B^ <\H«ai^<.HI!<^*nej|«||(*)i«ir«1 ^^ trOTTftT mmfn I Vm\ ^ ^ W^ ^- 

^grgTO ^?^i!!T »n ^^ i^f^^ ^^^ ^ns((w I 
^TOT^ "51^ ^ 5^ wm ^^w ^ ^^ f^5rT5R; IIS II 

^^IHT I w4 I ^f^ I TT I ^fk I ^ft^T I -^5 1 ^H I ^1 fftlW I 
^TQT I ^4 1 ^^ I ^: I h: I ^inin I ^f^TlIT R^ I 'f^ I ft[S^5l^ IIS II 

•pnwfw I v^ f^<.< i jiR<rti i <i)H t fi. I Hw ^^TfW I f*^ 'ETW «rg^ I ^^ I ^nftfriT^ ^t^: i 

1^ ^fl^ >pi^ ^tn^ ^f^%qt ^cT II bii 

?I I %n : I H>g: 1 5T I ■% S ^ 1 1| : I ^ I ft^ I 'T I 'arq^ I f I Ht^: I 


Htm *na i r«(iiO vi T f^^ i * ! * ! ^nrd n irg: t t flrt^ i ^^ »»*! TW^: i ^?ni^ jrf » 
^ 'nft I '<ifii^rm t n i w)*an. I ^ ^- 8- 1 H'nH mmf^^n;: « f*reret itTT %g: i t mqiTfl n 'nn 
"nft I ftrft ^ ^nr: ftpftfir ^: » twt i ft^^ i ^n!j<«flnif*ifli »rtf7i i ^"^^J' 

>it^ f5i^: gtfvt ^11^ ^5rT ^[^_^{ ^ ^W: i 
%T fsir^:^ ^Tjm %T ftix^"^ ^^: w^ ii ^ii 
^3n: I fsfr^ri ;|ifvf I ^f^'i ^ I >^5n: I f^^^ 

^^0 II wk^* H [^*b»^*^.^»^|; 

f^: II m Tn% nn% ^ I ig i »^ « ri^' i ^sjnSvng^wrWr ^'. i wf^nTJ^Jraifiren^ i ^ tj^ 

)%^^ I ^ » ^ I 'prfir I ^^ I i^wr^ i w^ i ^^ i ^^j^^trt i 
j^t^T^ I ij^i ^^^s^ I ^^ I T^fl:sf?f I'l^'ns^ I f^ moil 

jft^n^ ^r? ^ ! uiti< ii f*(*i*< ^ 'B 5prf?r i MPL^fK**!: *i«j*n«gi<lf?i it ^^fhrrwr^: n 
JTOTsiPflT I g »'«i i t^«iM tiT'i'^i^r^fi m '^h^^ w^ i irt««ifl<f\fl»ii ■"j^wrm ^Tfh:pnrTjftwiT 

%T»i 51 JT^rfH I ^iit I g^^Tsft^ I g^iTTfw vi^nfn ^rar: wrftf^t ^^(km\ jht^ i ^t ^m 
q<<f^i i f<fi)l^9d i wjrfJT n^ qft^ R(di*«if<Ri<»^'»d » vft^^m v^i^mvi itfw^ 
^^ \i m : 1 trf^:fSTf^ TfJi ^: ^ I ■'in<<-*''d <, tf^ 1^: M»ffl*^<,^ b ^!^ ^'mf^ b fit 

)^5!l[^TOts"^ >ll!g )it^: ^^H5ft%| ^ ll<l<ill 

>^5f \ ^p^: I ^s^ii^: I ^iT I ^s^i TSt I ^ I ^^f^wn: J 
)^5i i'I^to: I ^ I H^ I >lt^' I ^H?T ' ^S^^i^^ I ^ ii^iSii 

*nTmBfarai%im^ftf^ra^i^mTPT'J^t^iT3|^trp3^^^W7ftv:« «S" 

mm I ^ '^ i(W^ i^^^r^ ^^ imn griwt 'ftm^ it ^ 1 ^ ^I^SL'"^ 

^i»i i R 1 v^ n ^«Tro: ^r^ t'rm 1 Pai^flqngtjm i g^ ti^st^ 'sr ^ «T«w 'TWJi 
^WJTOTg ^: TH!!^ ^jnn 1 mn ^^r^nm* 1 ftif»Nf?ft TjftifiTT#^il^T m ^^ ^ ^ 

qn^f^f^' ^ MRd<ywjm1rt|vi TOT^ ^smr: Will n*>» 

ju^^wmr « nl.^*i^g ^ lUT^ jrr»r^ iimfm: « ''ir^iff «tMirH«<i4 i i trt ^ *r% «j%m- 

%^5ft^: I *rfm n^^a-iiPr H^ «t i^tt i7«nJ; ii ^ fiiar^ i ^ii^jmtliaiif^^i i ftBniRi: i 
qir^ ^^ imo'o. <^.<\o^.\ x^ II miifri^m^ ^ f% i ftirare: 'ag i ti?t i '»TT%: ^tk^- 
^'jR^wvJ ^ TTff^iSHT'miT^'^chf! I «iT ?rcft^ WPT jmftfJT I fTii^RXerr ^n^nrr »fg f 
T^ I ^t ^^i^Tft f^TJi: I ^ ^rr^ 5(rr ■ ^It '^^rtj fd : i ^f^nra^^fffn: i ajfri^ing w?f^- 
(ir5f f^rffTf: I ^ra[T i ^reng gfiti^ am: ii ^vr^fifsfr^ ft^fii ^ n Hmj|^ai i <flq ^ '«ii^f^ 

V^ f*f*<^rt\ *l<,*1< UTTfiajTf^Mi t%^ ^^ I f^o <^<\. :m. II 

'f^^: 11 ^ifflf^m ^^ ^ftm Heft '?rTTf*T i g^irfN WR»rni^rrf»i i f^T$ i ft ^t^- 
■'Siwwi.O^ ti^iftiHTftjrrpJTft JTf^ f^rtO»|i *« W JiiR ^41 R ^fll <*i*i<^«mi ^ ^rrf'T i 
f'iRTtwKR^: II ^iff^ ifTnfnERinft: i »ri% fan?: ii ■«iR<4<(«)i<rd**<mi«ii?i«i fim^rr >t^ ttw- 
^^ 'j: I g^rr^rr ^y^'^ i Trin^ i ^aj^n. i n^ %«i iwif^ \m*ii 'rar: w^^^rramt i 

^^ I ii' I ^^ I ^ I ^^^ I ^^ 1 1^ I |ri^: I ^t: I ^q^)Tr^i 
^1^1 n^a[i?[^i f^^ I ^1 ^m \^\mi\ »Tts4frT: i^t: i »t^ ii?ii 

'TTf ft ^ ^vif ^^ 7\T^ji ^V^ tm^r[^ I 

T ^ ^Iffi ^^"»T>^TT frrfig^ tjTirR: ^^i^ 11 {{II 

VOL. ly. 3 A 

?! I HI ^ r^^: I ^^' I fjnn ^^ I W?: i ^^ ii«ii 

^h?t: I H ^ i ia-i i ^^ rfff I ffT^^ II ^^^ ^ I qi*i*»<i4riyifl: h ^ l fl'^iwtr*<< ^p»f^ 
jmr^tf^ II ^ I 'M i ^. i '^ fsFii gTm»i: i ^ ^ ii Mfl«j!»n«i 'wKr ^»ftTT 'wrarfii^ f ^i 
Hiftjlj^p i II 3?? ^FT^Tt »T^'TTfl[^: II nw^ ^niR: ^f»t^ nifmM<;i«^ii im: ^: ij^ | 

W ij^ ^^ ^in^^rTT^n^m^T ^ fw'Tn ii m ii 

^: I ^ I ^^: I ^^ I ^^pT^i ^^'^ I ^ I ^;w^ > ^TpJ^T I ^ I firnfT ami 

wit: itsr: tj^: i % ^»t ift'T'RfHTTJJrafn % «T^ t^ «i«fl^«ft*airtM<Irti^ri 'mft 
grw ^ i ^ndacflP i ^ffK^ T^t «^f»mT: mR < !W*< m t ^n m^: « *!*«««*<: u 'tt "^^^r^ml 
!TT iprr Tr% ^sRfNr: ^i g^^gsrra wrm, i ^<«i<<44fli<<?<*^<i i f*rf*ri}»?^ » '»^*ffi ¥i i 

^Tnft ^WT^ fnnn ^1tu! i '«ii*iM i <iMirn ^ i n^rr^^wrf^iRw^ ^ »to ^n '?(r?- 

»ra: I ^m: im«$. 8.<«8$-i TfiT ?ii!r: i ^T^ mr? » ^: '^- ^rra^>«Tf*» ^ « ^^^ 
mftTftmira: i ^: ii: « f^ ^ ^1^- vm^TiTi^ 'tyr^^^^'t^" ^ 'j^ ,, 

us^TOTT^ q^^nwifir: vixfwi ^ir^vm ^^^j ^sm \ wfl?i<»wf« ii ^i ^ir ^ ra i?<i ii 
^f H««H^^: ^TtftjrlT ^3IT^ ^fHl]^ ^^mi I 

^ I ^ I ^f I f^ I »f^w I %t! I ^'t I ^Wr|;i ^^: I TTO'I: I ^tN: I ?i!^ii b II 

^fm yfivwn: i g^^ <t iJJqnnt y4M<M9Pn<(<,«*i ii mfin Ten^rr *ni*ifi*i: i v^sj i ^f^iw 

if»n^ ''B^t^: ^^ Tr!rffr>f^rreT inmwr '^ tt inr t? gw<t^ ^rm ^ anrn. i wr^: h 
'i*l*^*<r« ^^«a^^f»iA tf^ m^mnf^^ g^ I ^if^wr^T^ ii ^tw ^ % ^fNt ii aft: tn^m f^ 
"^^ g^pm: ii 'nrr^'t t ^ f^ H^m i fwrsi gig: n i^rfj f^^r^rnNrrf^^ g^ ii 'iim^ 

^ ^fjn:% I ii?rtt 'pt g^[f*rtn ^^ g^ I g'lT'm: i ?ra1r^?!^ «t^: i 'i?! i wf^ ^ i 
M<,*-*i^^: II 

^rott m fTot TIT ^^ ^ ^ T^H 1>^^ ^l^'' H^ll 

^'Fiit I w I ^Toi I HT I ^: I m: I ^ I ^ I 'nt I ^s»ft I H^n^ II e II 

'"Tmnmr: i fTTfr tn^itcrtf^ i^m<T; i fmr^^i « Trft wt wt ^Wft ntMY gut i 
''^ I ^^in^^iT^'r I w g g^T »n: i iis( i <l^i 'i^ i ^^ ^^% g ^ ht^ ?t w^tm^ 
"f^ ^ M^fli<M<i*«ii JTsrm I w "^ 'ra "^ f^n^rnr i fwni ««^si^w«I: « 

%^ibn ^ ^^<^'^< i yT^nt v^ ^^ ^^' "'^©ii 

3 A 2 

Hl^f l%^|iq^Si^i^^fHi^Si^i'5i:if^:i^f^t^:i^l%i:, 

% ^n^in I rTRTf I t^> ^firr: iri'iin h^^stt '^sif^n^ra 1n%: i 'srprfJT i fi^T'im^Tinf^ 

IJ I ?JT I ^W^: I ^^^: I ^1 m^' I "4^ I fn^rft: I ^^# I 

^ tnir^r: 'g^ t^'t ^m< jt f^T^iif'iT i T^n i <jisHif*(<,M4di Tra ^^t ^i^ finnft- 
Mwt ?TT^ fqvT^ iTsm f?Wt f^^TT'w 'a^ig i ?f^TfiNfg i 't?! i f»T^: u ^rai^ 
m^ iig II 4Jl«* { M i 'gT?TTf«4r«WTTRfT nr^: ii ^^sgai^: ii it ^i^ ^Wiw^"^!!! 
« fi i) H |(g<}i« ii <«i ^g I ^J^wr^inrag i f^^ f*mTt wrftm ^ tt ffwfjncf^i^ ?Ri?t 
^^m Ht»ra^Wwrf^ ^rnmrq f^T %VTf^ 'w^if^rwJ ^^ ii t^ ^ <ft^- 
f^ii: I d<«n^.<fii ^vg:«! i v^r^^ TfH »Tf^^r^ ^^ i ^ ^'^rfNTftrm yn^m: ii n^ii 

^ttl'TRT %^ ir^^nOrfn » i?ft W^i^fm: ii 

^'t^in^ ^^1 ^%TT^ "l^t: ihmirT ^?t ii s ii 

^%f7j?TO»rR^ I w^^ ^'TqTJT I ^ s^TsFr mm -^ i ^ff^'Ir^wfiwTff^H*^ 
»rr^ ^fjjiT I .^i^i h^i jj f^f^^^m^T ^Tun^TOi^ i 'stt xtt « TTft xj^wr^f^ i '«''^' 

^5i?rT% t^ au RiR aR « ^fNnrre: i ^Jrre^r:: ii m^ ^V^' f'lrf^'^ "^ ^^^!^ 

flftPifri^^ iT^wt JTTTrfw qi*i^T^f<T: II fT^tr^ i^Ji it Tf^ "^'iS,^^ 
Tmro^ f ?^: i ir^Tf^^reif: i ^ni: u grft^jror: g: u ?mT kv^(^ ^jSfSr- i uh 
irnTf^nn ^t^ft ^ff^;«jni: i jsV^: i 'w?^ «w^ ?W^t tto»t^ wf^ TT^tfTTT^- 

3fN: I W(^ I WJ'J I ^s^^t I fsrf^ 1 1? I wr^\ ^ri^^hm^: i 
^s^f^ i^^Ji"ftT^: i^#f^i^a[fti: I ^rftipjTSjj^ 1^ ii%7Trq iRii 

jiWr f^: 'flWt TTTTSwt^mTw: i tmnn'm^Tra^jnn: 4J<<ii*^«imftftMMf jr^nrrof 
q i ij^^Mfl«t irnr^ipi: I ^ ^WtiJ^m ii "^m: ^ftft vrg^irrat n^ irm ^ ^» itm- 

f*w?% Mnm3M<j*<*1 itn<»^.8.^^.ii[fH f mr^^ irfTRntrrat n^ ?mT% ^j^nj^nr^- 
H |rn^ irif rlW W rlM TTt ^^ ^^^ II ^H 


?T I ^t4 I ITSif I HW I W I iT^ I TTl I '3ftrf I ^f%^^ II ? II 

^^ ffwHf^: I % ^W^ ^^ "sJTfv: I ^^1^^ WHXTJTRj^^Tfv: TfrrH il "3^^^ ^: 
f%: 1 m" ?. ^. ^;^. I x^ fsBTi?8r?i: n ^wr: ■spctt f^(%^ ^im^ ^ftrrsi^^ i g^ |^ ^sftffl^ 

vimm Trf^ 1 gf^ ^ ^ff^: i ^^ffrr^fiR^TfTn^-f^fn ^tc^h: i w^ 'gfiT<gTn'm: i wsj^- 
t^t: I «,<«»wi<,5f II n^ a^T^mn grr w^ ii ff Tfft ff^ 'et i ^^'sftrnTf^: fIfR: i giwr^- 
"^t^: I f^a[^*^ wrg,'tsif>?f f^r^Tf*nJi«5rr^Tirr*rR: i ^^iMyRfKn^m vf^ g'?: ?T^?sf y 

i^innT^^rRsmtg i m» =i. ?• ^?- 1 twtw^^^ i ■^n^r^^ff^srrw i m" q. 8- ?8- 1 Tfn jnm ^ir^- 
'WTT II Tm fstfi: I ^rar q fV * H j) TTtfr 5M Tf^ TTW Tm w^ ^vm t h<*i»i«jPi fi?^ 

H^T 5rr^ ^t^^^^lwT 1^ ^^H xiT^ ^TTi; ii^ii 

1^: I ^rTWf I ^iT I ^ I ^s^^^: I rnt^ I ^ I f%SH^: I 


^^«^T: II fJK^<^iefti ^(©^^^1^% VT^^TTWTO fn^- f^rawT ^^13: II *i^r4ri ^ | ^^ re »ini 
'T^niRr ^i<t(^M«n< i i I 'Enfl^ |^: ^rrfwr n w^ irms 1 ^ftr w: 1 Tfrn?r?n: ffn an^: 

^^s^d I ^H I %f¥^i M: I ^* I Vt^ I >?^ 1 1!?« I ^»f I 
fN I mrm i ^^ i ^f^^i ^f^rfii: i ^^ i ^^ i ^ i t i^^: iimi 

^TfTT I ^m n^ ft^: '9^ 'i^ aiiH««is^<(i^ftra<i: ^fM»T|W»l"g ^jrg^ ^«rT^i%ni»hii «^ i 

t^T»tt q f\'i|<^ n j^^ M fd^ l iii ^^^f»r5Rt JTR^^N^ I '<I*lfl«<l<flffiT I TJI^ ^Wl^ 1 ^ ^^T 

^1%^ ^t ^Wt ^«n^'tT^ I "^^ <^o. cq. 8<i. I ^Riif< *♦!«!! ^^ ^ lir 'Tsrr ws^r^ j^. 
'j^i'M^nul i^;#rf^ f^jw^iTiJ^ vriff »ft^^vr^tfTf?r Tif<T^v y<iTiMf^?ra1^ ^[tTi 

^: 1^ l"^: I ^^: i ^'^f: l 'T^: l ^rf I TJ#?r: l ^^^ I ^wn: I W^ 
siq^t I Tg#: I ^: ii^ii 

n q^ ji^m^ j Infi ll fi j-r i tjm?it^ ^TnpifsfTT »Tra: u 

^^^ ^^nrrat f;^ W^^R^^ • ^ I^T^ Hjj>iijj*;Mi^^^te^ iisii 

^:s^ I ^^SWT^ I ^ \^' I f^TSf^^ I ^i I ^f^' > W^ • 

^: II f^ 'r»> JT^TmiT a i ^«j.ll« i ^ ! ii : II ^ f^ftif^^ II Tn^THT%.i3i^^\JTTn: i ^""^ 

^T^ I H^^*»4 r i^<n< ffiwrn ^wtrfn im» «i. 840. ^.i H":^!'^ jrfTWWT^ ^'^tl! 

H3iT^ I ?pt ^ I m" ^. <i- 8"Q. I Tf?r 'Prnw: 11 ««t f*w«rtvn«i ^J»«^rii ^^^' *"'"* 
^rtw *<T*iMi*i^ I %^^ « II ^ II 

?rf»w t a> <n4»[^*l<fti<ai ^ %5w I miWt ^ ^fM^PM : i tt ^ Tf T ^ft n\^ ^r^ 
Tt^ vmm: 1 ii nn^wr*<< 1 ^: «r*<.^m i: wrs^rmrft •><.iia*i<*niflT:jH^^^^"^^. 

wm^ ii^ I ff^ ■? I «f»Tift ^IrfTT ^^ T«rf§ 'n iw^.^-i fft » '^^-fj,, 

^ I ^ I ^ I f^SHf : I f%f^^ I <^ I |it: I ^: i ^jif^ i irs^: h <\ \\ 

^ TTfrrmi; i «ni i f<rti«id<m(W^ i * i ^ i ^hr? ai«\^% ttttt n^ jftir: '"Jkr^ Ttn i 
^^ I ^T^^fa' I ^\ t^ ^ II ^ ^i ^ t^ I ftr^ff^vT^sTHT^p^t^: II f*^ JT'iiTfn I »nq^nr^- 

^f^k t^ -i^m 'rt^ ^>i: 3H^^: I 

WSf^^: 1 1^': I ^^: I ^ I ^ I ^l% i ^^ i ^sfn: I ^swm\: i 

% ^ < N *<<Ht^i4>m i ■^Tffi I ^Jinra? I ^^: i ^n^sr^ |m»ii«i5i«i n y ^ttt^^: 
'NWrf^: I ^R^^r^r: ii ti: I tf^rr^WT^flr i 'v^w. im^^TR: 'W^mai: ^T^fWj^ : 

^if^ mn\M MTJjf^H HT^ ^ftrf^ ^f^ ?f«ia^ >fi^w^«n!n'«rr ^ro^: i ^ ^in^ , 
g-MWij: I '^'^ ^T^ ^€lt?i wt I ^si^T I wrpt^r^ ^frg»i, sTS^: » ^*i< ii «i-«^ T^»rr^pT|^ 
f#i%; v^^iu Mmns f^wr^ ^^wrm- nr^n t^ fBRt i ^ntn! i '^rrfi^ i ?tot '^ fSpw: i 

jra% I f%f%^^ ^^ H^ JTrf^T I ?TOT ^%»4tifl[^ ^ejw^wrtt gf^ ^ ^fr»t f^rat 

**i^Hfll: I ^f-rm I f^ I ^^m i Trf?is«T: i ^ i m^w. \ ^4»irt: i 
\^i I ^: I ^frft: I f^-t^Sl?^: I'^wt: I »T^ I ^tts^^i: imii 

W 1< ^4« BIMM^ fin I iSi-r^ [ ^*K I m^"^ Wfa ^Jt^O<W^ ^j » H ^^ « 1 i rt< n« l^H W^ II ^ 
gf^fm H^ U II c H 

f^ %^ ^ift ^^ Wf^ f^4 ^*rq«i ^^ ll^ll 

W I ^^^rft ^»* I ^ tfii I ^^^ ^1 ^WTT^ I ^^T I fn r^^l 

f^ ^ I ^H^ ^1 ^rft ^ I ^^^ ^i ^S^^ I ^fti I fM I 


*t<a«ial II ^v!i 'TO TTfr I mfl^M^ Jt Hi ^tfiH^ ^^ 1 W^^ v^[^ I 'raiT » w^:'^ 
iv^^; n ^tc>iMil<»n I v;^ ^re^ ^i^ ^a^rsiit?! ^^rprwYr^ it* '«rii ^ -gTrettra: \^^- 

^t^ <f> r q . ii r ?^ tnii i r*<^l i ?ra[T i ^ftirfr ^f*Rr ^T^n^friW^ i ffrf^ 3^^^^ J^ 


1«in ftTrkr wht g^^ ft?^^ ^ ^^^ 'i^ J 
H^i^m %^ qfT^ hp^ 5%fH: wf^ f^^fnt ii^ii 

^s%^ I f^^ I ^ ^ I ijr^ I ^fir: I iTS%t I f^ ii^ii 

51^ ZIJlJ^ <<l'ir*lfiH<J II <I^<^*4«f ^Ql-HWij: II ^ fJTJTRT Rfi^*< [ .<ljfM I 4<i;ft | ft^ | 

ni<w'<»ft4<^ : *^*3*4i«nrfl f^^^Jn ^nrr: i ^<^ffl4ft *< ^4< M i<a nrt^T ^x^shfr ^jt^ g<fNt 
qnfn^ Hi'*n»f i^^ f^ <ia<*i^M f^mmf^'ft^rnsi a^ftfa: v f ^^rr n g'^«nM r <a*< T '^ i!i ?i?t 

fmt ^^Hft^ ^^ Ht^ift ^«; ^^ II t II 

W I 5T: I ^ I Wtrft I ^4 I ^ I ?35t I ^T^rl^l p I trTitift I 

fir^: i1^: I ^|: i ^ i ^^i ^^^ i ^^rft 1 5|S^^: i ^^ ii bii 

»nT^ I 'HTT ^ i r<<n : 1 7T^ ^^ ^Wh: ii cT%^ar5 ^<^< i f<<!=(^st i vf" 8. q. c§. i ftp- 
^M^ ^ II 'fti'^r^ irt g^ f^pj^ i wr^ i <t^ fg^^fg^ ^%^ »r?n ^r^^rfirfn 

TffTrftreft ^^^3i: ^t^ g'l^r^^ =ir|ft*r 'hrt ^g 1 ^i«l<<j 1 »i^i^ 11 «^wffe ^^- 
^^WPT^'^: II 

^^ ttfT RPMrit ^^I'lT^^ rt^Tf^I "^ f^n^ II ^11 

fr I ^ I itiT: I ff^: r ^^ffifi^ 1 \-^ 1 i^ 1 p 1 ^% 1 f^T^j; 11 a 11 

^T^: I ifM^^i55ft > i^Md^ *< m"1<M ; I ^?rraf^ %f?T ^fraT'i^: H*niM<w 11 'ffj'ljj 

^^^^'Ht ?I^ I g^t^ II 

VOL. IV. ~ ' 3 B 

^TO?if*i: *<gnji4i«n*l^ grnfr ^1*1 *<m ttt tit ^qfinfhT 1 ft^^ f*Tf^^ 1 'ayqi^ i 
»rr^ ?n^ ^ "^ ^l^1(Hif<<» : « ''m tr^rimt^ft^Tm gft^: ir«HRT»ft 5^i»nT?i, u ^z- 

«m<<*<ai^<i i f^ I '^ni m»ira^ '^iT^ ^ran» 1 ^rrsiTH '^rirsm ynsi««fli! mM fft; ^jf ^ 
i^ans^ ^ f1?i II ijft Rr*i*i1<i: II 

R^M* i W I 'm H« i Hi*<«< i *< II t^ spft I «?l?rei#^ H ft ^ ft<^ '^^nL!^««iwi 

irenq^ ^t^jgfei TRiT ^raw p»?t »frf»T: «?n^ i jjgmftfir i Triiftifq ^lif ^»iff^ 

^5: f^ ^frt w^ ^^fk fwm: 4fxq^i^%i I 

^IP^ ^^S^flt >|^: ^f?T%: ^ipiT ^lirftw: 11 ^11 

ii: I f^ I ^t| I ^^ I %^ I ^; I f^ I fmw: 1 xrf^s^i ^^hi 1 

?nf|^i^5Tflf ^^i^'5^rT:i>|^f!;i'Tt: mfH:i%:i^5^: i^hs^tT: ii?ii 

<Cwi«(i«^51 J^^TTf^: 1 -— II fl^ ig^ftw '^ ^'Ri: I 'fP^ II «^»^ I qw^^^i^riMifl : II 

^^ f^f^ rifTPTT W^ ^K ^ ^ ^Hfm II 8 II 

^: I HfT I T(^j\: \ ^^ I ^m I ^f'^'TTTi;! ^if^i^rsfi^: 1 ajxnR: 1 

^^ I f%i^i f^T I Hrn^ I T^^ I ^vrt I ^: I ^^4 1 w^snfm ii^h 

9nit I ^rf^ «n*i i ^f ^»r «i i:flT i^: II ?m: f"^ Ns(J5^q T3ji«^<«ftir*i f*i ctjtr i ^Htnrar- 

tgt %: TifiTTn^ Tjf^T f^'^ ^ ^^'TT f fw 'J^ I 

1^* ^SrT»lT?[%^T!! ^Twi f^r^^5T wfNl^ II M II 

^: I f^: I wfwsin^ I Tjf^: 1 fv^i i %^ i ^TT I ffit I ^ 1 

IT^Tl f^l ^ I W I W[^\ ^fm I ^^ I ^1 Wi^^ I ^iifl^Ft "'< » 

t^ ^^Ni^ ^rv ! >-*i T <a irfiTTR TF^ Hrflr^iPyfisO f^^ 'f'*^ ''^^ 'Era«rrfn%3[i 
^W«rn} WTTrfri 1 =3^ ^^ ifftraiinraTm'w^ ftrr h ^i*i*)<i<r*ivi<i: 11 ^»f«j ^ ?rtf1f 

^rfgTtq» m i v i ^ ii ^TO^'hr npaw 1 ^«1«**<<im*<'«0i » ^rfir: ^Ht vrg: 1 f«rfe jprr^Wr- 
^'^'(H: I fi i w^iHHm HffTrmt 'twfP?: 1 ^^^ ^»^: ^STTOwt: mT»c.8.§<».iiifiT^ifW 

3 B 2 

^iTW^ g^ I flffti gjjj: I ff^Ji^Rwra: 11 '^nmt ^ ^^ v^jfNr wr^^^^n'friwTi^ 
Ti'"*'**' ^^^ ^m'!^ ?rei vjjn ^^m vm^'if ^^ ^\^^ fi &^\m ti^ f^ ^vsn^ \ fturftpj. 
^TTflr II t^f^ «in*i«ii*ii%f7r f^ tiTw % ?ra^rwR^^ mst^ »pi^^nTw«r: n 

^?^r^ f^ T5R sr ^ft 'T f^ II ?^: ^n^ ftr^ 1 ^^ t »n;^fiim7t: 11 ti^t^" ^: 11 iti: 

«TMTf^T I Tpr^^ «(«(*> «l II 

i %^ ^ ^ ^?kn»n^ w ^ ^ ^;fii^: iibii 

'^irourm *r«t thhrt: Hq«« ii R<<«<«jn ^nit ft t«iw atrg: 1 f^^ im: 1 nr ^iru t?^ 
ira% %^ II ^ ^T% I ^^*i4\ %t7» ^w^ im"» 9. ?• M§. 8.1 Twnn?^-t'«t. 1 qmyi-Bi^fi^^T- 
'jrTfiicg'fnTT^rft^TTm 11 h^ut^ ^: 1 vcifH 1 ^ra^fn ^ 1 ^ra TmTrem: 1 1 ^srnf: ^'["^ 
^THiw^ at fe?i I gi^ ^^ I gTifr ^^ -g gi I Tuarr ft g^m* Jraf ^ sn »i?rf*[T'^' g^'H'swft 
i^^m ^ gr I ^lfl««5^i<r*iiiji<<«i«iwm«n ^n^fawi: u g; 1 f^ipi^T?^ 'ffH»r^ ftwtif^«"'*^'' 
amftf^ SFT^: I iTTT^rf^: 1 ^: 1 ii*^i } wv}« jii faf^1w 1( ^* 11 tt^jtwrj: 11 

^•<\o.^«>^.^»«^<^^.] II w?i?ts^?R: II 


^ iS\i^ I f'*g 'ff^ TimiiWr tw^' ii 

^i^flT ^ ^f^^ ^'^^ ^- ^'J'Tt ^ f^: moil 

w^^' I ftiv I ^^:st^ I wf^ I H^Tr^i ini: i wfpr: i Y-sf^iriLi^JWt i 

^W I ^ I ^ I TTif^T I ^^?T I ^^ ?f?T I ^rg: I ^^t: 1 1? I f^^^ 

HwHt: II €1^ ^rfwfrfH wlWT^: I ^^?<a\M«<^t»if«f?f ^^ I ii«ng<(\vrf i tt a?^^^ 
'j^^rait^: II ^li'^ii: ^jr^ "Wi: fil^ 'ag^ «(Sn,«T^«t: i ^i»i^n. i ^"^ i^: i ^^Mtti 

^rei^t^: t^nn^ ^ 1^ I •«^i*ii ^ ??^hnt^ mt^nif^ ^m«*<fii*i^jj ii *i*>*^i^(+i m^- 
^rrf^^fr fw^ II II <i<i II 

t^ fq%fW ^irt TJft^ ^ ^jw^ ih:w^^ tr f^^qjfr^ ^fii: I nm ^ptRj^ i 
^^^ ^^ ^T ^^7i^F^f>^% ^^Ti H ^TH II S II 

?i I W I ^fiTs^^ I jgr!^ I TniT:s^pr: i w^ i f? i ^tsiflfa: i 

^^^ I Ifi% i ^ I ^^^ I ^^: I ^ I ^l^t I H I W3JT?T II <l II 

^ t^ ?^ MPdiMw % % ^iTOwlirnHt^ II 'si^mbrpT^nrra: i Trer ^n:: ii 'i^^ gTrerr^igT^ 
'^ arm^ ^T?ntiw f^ ii ^^jmt^^i^Tf^^'n''^ xn^rt^fcrr^fwrn: ii mn:^n: in7!:^i% 
ifHfjimTw: H \ i{*i i ^ f? I gn\^ wt I ^^^ f^'J^: JTBTRfi Ti^ irm^: i w i irm:«T^: i 
^rmv. g: I irm:?{^ flt'T rr^wm ^ {H^-^rn^^ wf^ ^T- ^^^^ " ^'^ ^^^- 
Tif^?fT?^jh^7!t^rfT«4 1 ^t^ I ^¥wWt: ii mfr ^ ^^ «^ ?* Wf!P(^ i^^[wtf^\ 

f^iiT ^"it^: w i-5(^V>WTf^ ^fHJi^w^: iRii 

^: I ^ \~T^: \^^: i sr^l^^ i ^ i ?5 1 ^''l « ^s^^ i ^iff \ 


^^8 tt W^' » ['^•^.^•i'^»^^. 

^h^m I ^%T I ^^^ I %^: I ^^: I wMf I w"^^ I 

^m\fi^: 1 15 1 Hf^sfn: i f^a^i \ mfH>r: i 'n^^ i f^s^ ii^ii 

t tsT ^R^fldi M ^R^'^i^^M^ gj^ TfJT ^ II ff^^P^f ^3?^ ^^ ^^wr ?toi!|: 
^: vn^n %K ^ <»\^ ^*H'^M\<ti\*i nfft 'T^ TT I ^rarr I m^m xfi( n^[^: i n ■^^vm i 

» ir^ ^ ^<.4»i M'^ T^ 'winmr^: ^^^ ^ f*'^ ^?" tt^'J^ i ^t»rn^ «Bt m ii 
TRJI Hli ^f T^T^ H^iffel^ TT^ d^^*^ ?rNf^1fiT I 
H^ ^ fftr»ift5 1%:" Wf>^^ fH^* < '^_H4 ll«ll 

fTrl^i #%: iVi iftsln: I ?H ^: I fi^: i ^ i fi^^ i ^^ i ^ 118" 

^tii^4^1 r<i rv« .Hw ^w<^ i ^« j< jpinwra: 1 *<«n<ii<r*iyin: 11 f*i^^: fjrn^ t^ gw^Rrwrt: 
fira P^T5T«T«w ^n*<' a ^ ! iui*<^if*<'8<^ Tifrati'w^ ^tir^trt ^nt? 1 wra? 11 

^ ^ igtfv rfif^^^ ^ ^ ??^ ^ % ^'i: "Mil 

Wi ^'^i ^s^n^ 1 1? I ^^ I ^5Tgs^ I T^ I "^^ < 
^: I ^ I ^sf^ I'rTf^^* I firm I «: I ^ I H^til I ^: I fe I ^'^^ 1'^" 

% tsr 'rt^rarn: II ft^: sf^ ^ iii^ i g*i i fa < n^i^ i * <: b «W iftTT^^^^IwwTg''^'^ 

«mT#^ I 'wrre^TPfT^ T^ft^ « ^ tsT ^jf wyr:^^ €m% ?i^t^ ^'^t «^ 
^rer^-. ^h»i:il«^»ra:i^»t«T«^IW?T^i^TO^tT^ii »«^^» 

fjTn: I ^f^TfHTT^^^T ^ v^ ^W ftnnftfiT I viimif^^ji^ : o ^jfireroTfT^^ ^ ^ t^T 
JtTftfn iBP^Mlrt: II 

^^# I ^ I TT^^Tft^SHinfH I OT I ^^ I ^^5TT I ^^ I f^ llSii 

^ tsT iw *i*«i«ii ^r^ t^^nnra: i iw T«reTR in< i i« i tinr<<! ! « i <i. i ^j^rift^rs^ ^nmfV 
^^: fnvT ^^yvT I firnvr^ i 'Wi^ f% s^fil i nifty*(ij|«iffl n t^ w^Jrot i f^re^Tjfwt 
5 H«ii*«lM< II 'vwrm ^3irti*i1*»«irn ^prt ^nniTf»f ?i ?^ *?^»rrmTarf?ni?m ^t^nifn 
g^i'WH^fn.i?ren7af?»g?i^l^i«1*ji*«i*i«ig ii 

^?rs^: I ^r^m: \ ^fi i ^s%^5Tt i w^j i i^i^ i m ii tii 

^f^m <<<if« I Ti^: ^ni^: g^: u ^ i gifr g^ ^: i |t^ y ?iiTf»r 7TTf*r i «?fN»i^: i 
"^'rf'^TiiTn ^%^ ^ Trmtmirenifr: i ^rafrfwrftf^ ii 

^ ^ 'srt f«mfl*<*<n t aii)«i » m ni*i f* <wiy: i f^ ^^ ii ^^Kif<<i<?r i m»^. ?. ;^(i. i x^ 
^"^ i^Pin jft^Tf^: II 

«f^m*ii ^H: II II <i? II no. 11 

^ij^-f g^ ^t^n fWTtM I THJ 7!*r#f?r ^^ ira»i ^?w^ 1 iiTnn^^ *rm ^^ ^: 1 
"vnn f^jH, fti^ ^iw: I wm '^T^fi 1 ^m^ ipra^^'rf^^TitirfTr h ^nr^jr^rre^iff^ 

^"Ijff ^^ T?f|Tn5TfTTf|^ ^J^ ^t^' ^5^t ^R^ II «i II 

rf I ^^ I in^hif^^ ^ I HS^rWT I f^^f^: 1^*1: 1 ^^ I ^ I W^J 
^1 ^1 fW^: I Tif|i?T^ I ?f|^ I '^ I ^^ I ^s^n^ I ^^^H ii^ii 

^^m ^? %7TOafr ^ ^i^r «< <n -ijniarv;^ ^ f^rt^: ^^: ^^: wrer 11 ^Rrt^i'H; 
t^ig^Tri: I Tno ;?. 8. 9^. II HH^"g;^ ^ ^^ ITl^t ift^ ^«««(i«i|di I TW I ^n?j ^ 

fi ir5 (<jr* Js (<j< i(i<»t: tnSrrt ^ '^ '^^it^ irmt?i: 11 itji ^ ^^f^: 1 siuaii<'^'ti nwwT8TJm: » 

W^rfrS VQ^ ^^^^4^ ^^-'^ ^>^_^i!?t: II ^ II 
^': i'?]i: I ?TOS^f I ^^T^sf»^: 1 ^^ 1 ^^^^T^ 1 ^W^ < ^^- "'"' 

vj%*«n^ sh^) i ri i r^7qi^*<H i ^ «% ^ftr 1^: n ^Jt^Rn ^^fi^ '^^^^'''^^JLmi 9«^' 

I^^Tf^rT fwr 5ftq: I ^^ftJii^r^wM: i f?Tf^ ^"t^rrrercftfTT »i%f^^7i: ii <f^^ ii Brarf^ 
%^3i^t: II ?i^ f^^^nf^ ft^ iraTunig if?i i ^ij^f i ir#Tf ^m ii ^sg ^ i ^ i ^t^- 

*(^dwj^i(«*ii 'at^qr^'i; ii ^wtq»:^i^: « '^tJ^ i »i^ ^^-^^ ^ ^^ h 

^ tsft ^TSTTT 11^ II ^^ TTTf >It% i WT^^TOf f^Tz: ^RT^ II ^T^nTi M^ ^v: ^rf^afirT^jyr I 
^ar^jTiJ^^^ri; II ^: i ^ ifj^" i fgrt^ i imj^^^iTfjifrr f^rtmi^^^^ ^^?;i!r^^f'n^^Tfn 

H^w trofTi 1 sTTTTfn I fsB^Tff ^^»Tfg<i: I ^uTT^uf^eTfi; I ^!r«mt ;(n?i^: 11 wf; ira^ 1 
fan: I Tf% «mt^: 11 ?rf ^^;inTr ^^Ti^ ^^fi: 1 '?f^^'iTr^^?c 1 N<»m^ft: 1 ^m ^ ^ »rft?i 

TRi g^>* ^TT^nstT II ^ ^?rTW«J: W^ I ^ JTSraTf^frl f^^T^THa?^: || ^H^^'^^g^^isfTJl, I 

f*i^¥»i^<tfi: 11 ^ffn: ^^ ^irg: 11 

^ill ti' I ^^ I r^^' I ^^iT I ^^^'^* I ?n^TjfV^ ?fr^ I ^^^H I 

^^ I ^^TCf^l ^ftr?T: I ^^ I '^TR^ I ^^ I ^^M I ^Wl^ I ^V^ II M II 

'''T^ ^ ^ t^^rf^'V^^'^: %^: «^ 'fd^njsm I '?r»i'^?fj; 11 v^ ^ t^rf^: 1 T^^iani: 11 
^TT I tjm«T i^^^^^r I %Tr'nfl^ 1 JiwrflV^iw^^^: 1 ^ in ^tt^t^^ in'TT^aqV 
^f^: n gifr^rraT: g: 11 ^a^rf^TU irffT^rRrvm 1 ?!^fr:f^fn^iif^vfH"^^: 1 -gf^: n^^ 
^ff^*r: ^ i< i » i * i «n*r<j ^^?i^T«T<l I ^VK^ I fts"^ I f'T^T^ ^virm ^v^ ff^irsi^ ^i^% 
^^g^^^« inBii 

tS^T^ fff^^t*^ f^-dvsM ^^T^ ^^^TT H^^ I 
^^ 3T|qt 'sq^^si^Tft fw ni+OT tj^'^H 11 ^11 

VOL."lV. ~ " 3 c 

^^i»T f TT fwTi VTWt ^T?«rr MOfi 'rf^ 'ftCT n jf^: ^n^ n: i irfin^nr^ Tfit ^: i 
'^isr^JT'rvtfi: II 

T?T \ ^Wftl I immfk I ^^i I JTff s^: I ^TTT^ I ^sf?j^: 1 
t^TTT I imi I ^^ I ^«# I f^ I ti: I iTfT I ^s^m \ ^^?j^ ii^ii 

^^sjTsra: II < t i<^<*i i f^ ^nf*! ^rHrftr whrg: ^^fm^TRTOTi: n i[th. jit^ i f^rfe ^ i^ni: ftnftfii 

f^^^ \^w. I w^ I ^WTt I ^ I ^^^'PT > ^s^sn I ^^ I 
^ I ^ I ^1 1 1?^^ I ^'^^n I ^ : I ^ I ^^ : I ^ I ^ I m^j^ II t II 

xrreft: II ffftmJTff g ^ * <Mi * < n <4 . ^ gg Tft^ms^TRtri 1 ^w^r^ 1 tt^stM^^ wrrf^^m 

t& ^4 ^ 'f^ ^ ^i^^i^TTH^T "^ ^^^ »<iii 

ijff: I ^W^' \ -^J^^'i ^^sfn: r^f*+: I ^^f^ I n I ^^ > 

^; I ^f^ I ^ I -^^ I ^ I ^wr^ I TTOS'fT^ \ 'J^ • ?*^^ "^" 

"^UTT^: I ti^^nr^ I »«T» ^. 8. RO. II »r^: h#^: 11 Ti^iHtwi^ *^^?_??LS™^ Vr^ ' 


g s ?riW: I f^ 1 1: s?]ffT 1 1^ I f^$ ?f7^ I ^ I ;t: I ^^T I JTiy I ^ra II <) II 

■^ t^ w ^TBTT ^'snt^ TfrjTTraigHTf*! g^Etw ^1^ vnf*i !H(h«t «t i '(irfri ^ra^ i 

^ II ipqW^Tft ^im ^<^*nf?T ftiif.ino g^ I f%TJrTr»m: i ftrj: f^r^^»rr^RTTfwrrT?j^TT: n 
g5tf«: ^ jj7tt»%>5^: ^ft^ir fwr ^rirfir ifrm ftTmf»T Tnnf*r ?n:T 1 1 tsT ^^ir<*i*^iiift F 
jmi ^i«mT^ ftTBWTTi 'fti^?(Vq ^V^t<I1<i^*i ^y^n^ g ^ f%^ i f^ ^ i wnft- 

^^ II B <^M II 

tmtn ?[ir# f^:^ ^ i 'afW^m t^^ ^eft: i tpwi: g^ wi ^ i ^npff ^^i^ i ftrsr- 

^ ^^ f^;^ ^^^^^^ »TT!ffr5[t 3inm i 

f^^¥?^ f^^TOT ^"^^^■^: ^^difTW^ mil 

^% I ^s^m I f%s^ I f% I ^^: I rT^; I ff^ I ^TirfT:'^ i ^nri? i 

f|^: I tt4: I f^fiimTiiT: I ^^M«l I '^: i ^m: i ^Sl?t^^ I ^i ii s ii 

^t?Tn:% q ^* <i* ft < »i <i'<t<nM-*< i r<a<4^j fg jftft ^TTPR I »mnT«(, i ^r^ 'Erf^urr'f i *ii*iJ!«< 
^w^ra: I ^^^Tq^:^rffn i ^ %^: ^mwi f si'jRrtiTsnTTJ^ i t^TR^jH^ fS |^ 

^^f^ 1^ 'a^^^w^^'i: I ^rrrnn: i n^^frw^: ii t^'rera T^nr ^wnr: Trf?ig^fn ^ i f^fV^^uT: i 
^^ vrrT% • W[^r\ i ^: ^: i ^f^ i f^ v7t% i ^c^fvm ^tt^ i ^w«<aF^m ^nftf?r 3[Htht^- 

"fnnj: I f« i «igf< i «ifl^*ti'^*i ^ n a R ^T itthjit rnfr^fg ^jftTif^R^rW: ^i^im vtfH ^*um i 
^ "^ f^rft^xri^ ^_^^ ^^ % ^'^^^ '^' » 

'Hflt ^f ^^: ^^ fir^H ^ 'n »jif^ ^ iRii 
ifw! I fH I f%^: I Bfi^: I firs^ iT?^ I ^: I Tjifg 1 1^^ iRii 

3 C 2 

?bo II ^^' II [^•b.^«^.^o<|^^ 

mftira: ^f^%f?i«i?ft^^T^TraH: ^Ht^<i«n*rim*i% % ^t^^fr fbS ?raft 'j'la^ ^^. 

^ts^rq^T I ^ffr: i ^s^^: i ^sitfft^ i ^^^rif^ i w i 
imi I gsTT% I ^im I f^ 1 ^^' I ^^ i"^: I ^f^T I ^vnz^i ii ?ii 

•^(J^iM^ ^iJ^IIlUT g^: ftft^^T q"^in: ^^IH^KT ^flBJft^ 1rtH*l<sH5r<|i^(1l^3n 
■%fl[<5«j»iif% TTTflsqTfsi q^T^51?rrf'I ^T^F '^t^TrRl ^T ^% I ^^|.^<<f?I | T^t ^^ |Wr 

f^ijft fft^t ^f^fTT^ gtiiffT gwf ^wft' ^"PTR'Tt ^3mi»j5((siix!fT ^T f^ ^^: I fire^ 
«^: I TR 'JW %5rr |^t '^itjut^ Jrm^ i ^rf^^iiV ^^iTf5^: i ^^»Tni ft^^fvr; i 

f«rarT ^mft^rr efhzwit^ii^TT^j^^Nf're^ ii*ig*iini wrrf'T ^ i ^sTT^n^^^fW i »ren irf^ 

^m TRT ^ m»f vjK<irfl II 

it xn^ TirJflTtnw^fniTW Tqrrr'^:^ ^ ^\"fe| wwt iiiJii 

1^: I ^SqTt§: I W I Hgt I m I W^ I «: I f^l f^ I >=[^^ if^ l^l 

ff I m^ I i^w I wm I ^rr: i rr i ^m i Tfe| i ^: i ^ ^fi^ i\^^' 

Tqrlt II B II 

•^^T^ijfK I Btj^'^i«T^«ir ^r^?i I fl 'a « 'ag irmt m^ T^ i ^f* ' ^n^^"^^" " 

i^rrt^<T ^i^jfrnf*;'^ i 'W i ?r^^ ?i^ri> i^n^ i Ti^^d^ TTim^rrTWTfn'B^rr'i. i ^^^^^^ 
f«llI<T l^o^oc.^.l Xfn ^: I TT^^ '^T^^Tf^^inr f^^ii I € Tt f^ ^ ^'* ^^ ^^ 
f^"^ <^m«R» I flfH f? nT% uTTraif^ it ^'>«|7|: g^T ^fNi f^rerrTJ g\^ i "^^5!!^ 
ij vjk^ q f<va >taR * i JT'relfnTi: h ^d-itt m-^ i nft : i ^fcw^ Trf% ^iTfi^"^ "^'^^^^^ 
M I m" ^. 8. <^«a. c. I ^ «ft i r<t fl lM : II '^jfTJ^ ^nft^ ^i^'Sfiiw I ^ ^rnri frm ^i^raf ' 

^cm f^nfj ^^^ ^^>T?:^ ^w ^t ^fe^fk i 

S^^lft? ^ ■^^ifr ^\| ^f pSHtT^^" fTTTi^ H^gj II ^ II 
^S^T§ I f^wt: I ^^: I ^^:sf)q: i ^^ i ^w i mjt i sn^fff i 
i^fftr I ^ I ^ct: I ^T^ I ^1^ I ^TT^ I f^J^ \ ^^ nm, 

thStitt^'^ f*w[% I fifiS*?^ II vi^T^ I ^fT Ti^frfn wr: i 'iff ff*rf^'ro%ffi qir^ix?!^: i 
*n*i^f?i qs^fti ^^ I aii<j}rfi^ ?i^n I qt" ^. ^. ^M. 1 1^ ^4 qe (H9rd< ^ « jt ii h «i^ « 

^^sN^sn^ I ^ I ^^t: I ^^4?t: i ^t^ i ^ i ^yw: i ^sit^tjj i 

^^ I f5[S^4 I ^^^: I If^m I ^^SmTTT«Tf ITT I ^ I ^fff II % II 

^ ^rmr^T ^TR^rg^^^' ^it^Tfrf^^^t ■q^i^vt^ i qf2^irm:i ?TfqT^?T^T»fT i 
■ii^'miqT(3[«iM'ft f^^amrr: i ff ^rafasft i -^v^m ^^^ wq%^ ^ra: i ^^g^i i[t^ i 
■^^T^ ^^gt^^ tt I '^ T^cq^Wr: i u^ »Tf|^: i wf^w^rrf^nfj- ^ i %^: trr^nY 
fTf^sPT ^ 'q^ mr: I T[^ qf^ir^ffT I 'Stfif^al*! ^ qf^iiif?T ?T^^^«r^ ^fvra?: 

^Hf^^^^: I TH" ^. °i- q?. I ^si^i^^nq^mTO: i jt^ ^t: ii g;T^ii?n3n?s'ir3infl[Tn^^*rtfTTq^rt 
w^xfv Traisn^f^ ^'vm: ^?t: iiwrf^^w ^K*ia: giq^ *<*nm ii g^O^tiqi wirn:: ti 

iraw ^qi<*if« II 'ifgT xjsnf ^gr: n^tsfnt^rfr^ u 

^^^i rft^ ^ P H ^^^?r W TtM^ ^rT^ 11^911 

'^:s^T!Ej I ^ I HffHT^: I ^ I H I iftct: f ^^T I H i ^T^ i ^ i 

^TmN I r!^ I ^: I p I Ti I ^^1 ^ I W I TISfxR^ I ^iT^ H^H 

^ "^^ uft^ ^T '^ift^'J ft^f^ II 'IT m% I qr^Tf^ fq^itti: i ^^w^^malq^ i 

^^Wf^ -H r iwA: ^ m^i!Si M^ rn^*^ ^ HbM 

^m I *iff^: I ^^ I ^^»H ^^ I f^sf^ { TTT^fft I ^^11 til 

^ri^vT ^^ra^T^ wTt^^^rqii^ t^ M^^mir*! '^i ?fN *nfr tt^ imr r^^ 

i[fH ^^: II t%«r ^if^>in ^<{Mti<^i^a ^W 'rf'^'^Ti: ^w^^t^ ^r^^fr <«)q^iv Msi h^i 
TrfHf^^ Tfmw<9T!i ^i^T!Tf^4?TTfHfTH%: II ^ff^sf^ fw^ vmsrti: i a^ ^^pK^ i 

wm I Tfli^^fTflT^^n^^'^MT^^'Jnfi: I ^''HTfti ^ I ^^Tm ^Tftf fqf^w yt 

ijfjq ^ "R^"^ "^tfir t«i^ -p ^^iwt ^^: I 

^21 ^R f^ 4^^vqt ^^ ^^ ^^«T f^ %t: mo II 

^^q I ^^ I f^ I >T^ I w: I ^ I ^'i- 1 ^^^ » f«l I ffrr: ii«|oii 

11% %5nrrgT ^wn: gfV^: i i>%^ g^t^i^g^ra^ i 'j^^^i^ ^ t?^ ^^tr ^^ ' 

im^ I ''nf^: '^ ^^m: i nvi ^rr^pftii i f%ni i^ipt ^fi^m ^^^ im^jq ^T»rt f^ycirsR^- 
^^yr qf^ ^5|;r[^ui ^ ^ ^^^ H^ Hfi |rq^ ^^ II c^ II 

f%^: I Ii!^i fW[: I rT^Til^ I ^^: i ^ i ^: i T^jTif^ I ^tis^ i wii^ i 

5fhf wff J^ffai II f <rer «t»n»^«5> ?:f7i sRilfw 'THiw^: ii jjm^ '^^^ ^^r^ i ^^mf ti 

^fniT^ 1^ ^^ ?^ ^ ^^l^TJTj ^q ^qt II ^ II 

^fq: I f I HT?4 I ^f^ I ^ I ^^: S rtn: I ^ I ^: I ^5Tt I ^W I >T^5!T I ^m I 

^R^si^^Tt I ^ I gs^t^T: I ?5=i: I ^ I ^«mTrr: i n^^ i f«ji ir ii 

wg^rfi?5i%^ ^Tfj; H ^inf^Tnfr: ^4^^jft.;f^T»T n gTrVsmrr spu ii ir^rr 4*<f<4jui i ?ft^ 
^t^ui '^T vrf^ I trswphJr^ ^g i ?mt ^ ^rpit vR^rrr ii ^^i ^ i %7ft w^h'i^'t 

W^'? i^mt: iifr»nr!r«ftifi<«^l5l ?ftft ^(TftfW ^: i ?t^ jsiw. i r^t i ^m^: irtswpj: 

sra; I f*rf^gf%TTg«frTm ii '^t n^T^wi^ Tj^tn^jranJ ^trt ^t?^ in^ h ^?n^: ^- 
^»%fn »T?^^ ^: II '^ nT<fiTy Pa RgiT r <**» t!i^<«*'^?f ^^ ii ^^^F?;^ '^^fWarrf^MTOgx- 
%ir: I ^n^^'^t^: ii w#«T ^fj ff^^ TRrt i 'T^rr i "^sirer i ^frigfi^fffRi: i ^^-rt ^"^ 
ffjRt irm^ I ^fi% f^n: I 4^ 1 1 ^f^ ^sRfTi 1%" m" q. t. r. m. i t^^ ^f^wr^Tfiffti^ 
^f^ ?m^ unr^m M<l t *< i f^Tt^'T I »??m^5Tfi, i iiiTfj Jrff^ ^ JTfT^R^rtinnf^wfiiTr^^: 
?rT^ I *{h1|'<J<s g^^ t^ni<T i x[^gxpTftm^<T ii ?it^ i t»^ tt% i t^: tmft t%^ i if 
^. a. ;?§. I TfH 'raYq «f^ WTT^ '^ ^ ^ II 'HT I ^<ftf7t ^: I *ll«jn<'*««l 5i»rf?tmt II 
31%^naj^ W{ Wffiff^ 4T I <*lrM -rtl "i^VTTirr^^^: II 

fl( m^ I ^ I ^^^M^ I ^^ I ^^: I ^ I ^TTTt: I Tift I ^ I ^^t: I 
^ I T^Hi^: I ^^^: I ^ I ^^ I ^^"fT I 'l^ ' ^ ' ^^f^* 1 1^^ ii^ii 

\m\: II ^1: ^'i. I flf^'^JT^T^ w^ftr ^fw ^w^i i ^T ^. q. ^. <\. I Tf?f fl[^'^iUTT^: i ^^m?n- 

^(fn H^jft fqfW^ ^5^^ II ^f^ I ^si%^^ 1 ^^fmr^r^rorTri: ii ^v^t i ii ^: fsRTtq^: ii ^-^tt 
T^ T'sara: ^ 'I'Tt: h^^at^t ^f^^ x^ ^trt^ it fn^ft: ti^ij i^nn: f^^m<\•. wm- 
fw^a: ^R^ ^5r^ f^fi f^tgri^M^^Tf^ ^t^ hti f^ ^m 'nfrT i ^fifH^f^^ 

W' I ^1 ^rftr: I ^^SffTi: i ws^^T i ^w. \ ^t^ i ^t^ \ ri^^: i 
^rf^: I tq^ I jpqrT: i ^: i ^ft^ i ^f^: i \^ i ^^i i ^^- 1 ^J n^" 

if,tMd*i: II ^npt: ! U°<i'5i ^ ra{H ' 4\«nf^«<i ai^Jm^: ii ^^rfrru^ ^m '^m ti^ ««'^'' ^*^t ii 
<^gi^\r^^^l(M*^ l^i<i1<^lT^ n ^P^: ii wr: '^^tn;: ^p^^ 'rer ^ mfifri^: ii ^rfiw^rjT^ 

^■^"^iT^Tg I T^g II ^ ^r^ wrf^: i ^gT^'fr 'j^hit^ x^ f?T«^^^rfm ii ^m ^ » 
^*?l f^€t ^;^ ^ ^ Hfif^T?!^ ^v^^^^^ [\%\\ 

^ 1^ ' ^^i^ '"^- ^^i^^ " ^^'^ '^«- ^•'^^•' ^ 'TTim^: n ?rtH»Tftr3Er ^ ^ ^iftr- 

»ftw^: II 
^^ftrR^: ^ ^ft^^ ^ ^^: ^?i^ ^: i 

??f^ ^^r^ ^5T: Jgij ^T^: I 'iirr 1 ^gf^wrer tt^^itjr: i ^itk.' f^: 1 ^%^ *j>m44 i t ) tmTHj< 
H^: I ^f^T^: 9R*i^gfi{^d*?tl^: ^ fftW^dira i<«TMg v»m^TW#l^ ^ 1 ^i:^ 11 ^ h^ 
TW^ ^ffrrnprt ^^M^if^Pfl ^?t ii firrret n ^i^ i[^ gfvm: gffm^Fr: ii ^iTir^aioi ^fwr- 

^igfV^ fiimffl<i: I ffVTTP^T^^ X^ Vlf%mM\*iK II ^TTTqft 'Sflj ^m^l*» l « li: II T ^- 

'TTi f^o ^. M. Ufa m^; I ^ffim^ ^49<i<<n ^iftfiT^ JTTgm^^nvnM^TTm ^ ^ii^wtn 11 

T|Tl<n'IT<^f^TOT7i: II 

^ T^Ti^^flT^rf^T^ r^tn^fT^ ^*^ ^ ^ I 

^wf frrni I 'tPTf^ait^rtjsn^ i ^5^1 g^ 1 '^m «rr ^^iFRiftfn Ji( < j u ii ^n Hgtw*< i « » w i <^ 1 ww^ 

'^ffm ^n^ ^[fjrf^ I ^\f7i H fTT I r!pi^i»%tW ^: 1 '^i^rraTrerq: 11 f*^ ^ «Tt t«\H\H 1 ^ww n 
VTT'nft wr?f»T II 

VOL. IV. 3 D 

^fii I HT I ^ I ^Sf^^ I T": \ ^TTS^^; i.^^^: I ^^^1 
rn^i ^ I Tn^ I 'p^h: I '^ \ ^^hf^i ^^^1 ^^1 ^ i ^^t^; i ^^ i 

^nft: I ?r: I ^ I ^«^T^: i "^yi^jX \\<i.\\ 

^t^^rra^ M II <ie II 

fq^ ^J^ ^rT tf^T^ ft^ ^^^ lri% ¥"^1? I 
fxHr TT^ ^% f^^H' ^^^ »T«4^T?%T ^^^ II «l II 

M I #4 1 ^ I i^T't I "W I ^i I if^^ I ^f^^ I 

f^i I TT^ I ^^^ I iW't: I W I H^: i ij^i i5 1 ^ 1 1^^ n ^ii 

fgtS>rt<ir^'*i(^« ^< t ^?r^ f^wrfTif^: ii 1 ^ifwrf?!ii^'^ iRf^ f^T^ ?7j^ f ^ ?g ^»i f^ « 

ftiir<«ii fniiTfc'^Tm II Tnftim^ i vwm^: jt^it^ ^»t fq^ i t^ jt^^.i-w-Ji-^V 
mf^ II m ?^^^ ^'NRT$^^Tm'i: I iTMTit % t^ gi'gTTt H^m p^ I ^^fJT^ft^n- 
5?nffi^ I ^^ II gi^fi: i g«r grfl jftTrf«[^= > '^rf^wm'ra^^MfRtTi %Mm^: ii 

^xm I fiT^ I ws^h: I iis%irT^ I ti » 'Bt'^ter I ^t I ^ I ^H^ I 
^fws^: I ^frTOT I ^^_^ I ^^■^^: I W I ^i^HR II ^ II 

^ fl^jii H rgTrer ^tirer 4< ^wN «^^ HTTmfHg^^ TM^ ii irf^'^ i f^re^: ^J^ftr ^^ ' 

«^ I ^ra[T I iwfT^ i^TP-f^ I ^^t^ it^ ^1^ ^l^iTisr 'alJTTijn^ ti^^fw ^'^^^J 
ifiT^^ w II fwrri%Tf^^!nnf*mr it: i Tf^np^fijgq'^^T tfn n^ i T^*" 
.^j8(^r*iRi ^ra^rn^ i i^S^q^ 3'!i: i €r»T»rra i ^3irRTf^ gwf 'i'^ Tf^ ^^ • ^t^^^tt"^ 
fw»tf«T f^i^^ ?r^f«rfcfNt w^ ftjRf^^j^fi: I f^^'xTsng^TrM ii 

'R'R^ I i^T I %: I ;hN: I ^ UTTi^ I ^: ii|^ I Tiif^^g , 
WFT^ J ^^ I ^-sr: I ^ I HTri I ^?i I f^Tsf^Tpf^ I ^ ,1^,1 

^% t? m wt f^ f^ ar^: ;jWr im'^ i ^af^^n^wnr^iTtn jtt^ot i ^ ^,^% 

^Tj^ I ^ ^^i^ ,f^ ,xT,a^ v^ ^^ Bm^T'rf^ ^ ^ jm^Tii Jiirm^ I ^(vrnk- 
r»RT7r ftn^: II f^ ^ infsf^cx!iTf^ WN^ft I «^m im^ I ^ ,n^^ „ f^^j^m i ^ 

^ f¥^|t Wf^^ ^Tf?q5t ^ ^wq xiftf^lRTfi*: I 

T^T ^TT^ IT>trT^ ^^l ^^ t^T^^T ^^^^ II 8 II 

W I fis^lt: I ^m^: I ^5 1 ti: I ^ I ^s«ri , T^ftsf^ 1 ^li: 1 

Tf^i ^i^^ms>trr^nRs^:m^T I %^Ti^^s^ 1^1^^11811 

^r^ II ^rflTiT: I '^jJi^ihii^twTf^ ?7rq; I ^^ *?ITI ?ra[Ti ^w^ 1 ^1f: ^irsmr^: 1 ^?t 

?fT«n%<im^mT^^T«iT ?fiT ^ng 1 •v\n^n 1 ^m nw^: 1 % tif '^wrrr 1 ^re^: unnr: 1 
^ ^" f^^'^'^"^^ "^^ni I ^w^ ^^wtm ^: fan?: II ?RT I ^w^i ^ar^: 1 ^w^ ^% 

^^^^^^qi^ 5^: ^ %^ fe^wT'TT^ ^Hwrgfi^Rra ^5!irf«^#»r J^^ \ j^ ii^r^x 11 j^- 
^t^ttttt'^ %Tli 3jai%5n?j)%tj^ 1 %^ 1 1^%^ 1 ^1^ v <Hc«jiir*< gTramT«T^»^^: 11 

^4 ^ ^ ^c?r ^^f^ WiftRIT ^ir^^Rj ^ II M II 

f^ I fipiqiffi I ^rQ-^ I )jn^ff^ I ^^ I ft^^^:T i it^ i ^ws^^f i 
^3^ 1 ^ I ^: 1 ^f^ I ^^ I vfifj^ \ ^T^ I fear^ 1"^ im II 

% t?" m^Tf^ Twrerrf^ UmiV^ n^'mvnT^;vni^ f^?nj *nini^ Ji^rrjpH, 11 wrj ^^ 11 
9 ^ 'ng^m II g i^ ^(^ vrg: 1 »=rTgrHT%?«R ^r^^: i^'^. ;^. q'o^. <^. \ fsp^^ f^ 1 
^^^T^ *f3Mm^*i^: II mgwTRT f%?j t^TTftr in-nfU atoVnw^ ?rgff 1 '^i^^mfrg- 

^ f^^ I f%f^ 1^ ai«<i«i?l II Ji^^Wt ^sf%VRf*raTfv^T% ^- n ^nfinftw irflPrRr 
^rf^ "mr fg I Tiff^iifir 11 'sSm^l^ Tfr^f^^^r ^ m 11 ;>o n 

^wspwi^rr: «^f)^»f?^^ ^^v^ II ^11 

3 D 2 

f^ I ^^: I is I H^ I ^RTf« I w^i: I %tr ss:^ \ ^^^'. \ ^Mrsirhft: i 
^TOT^l T^S^' I ^:sfH: i ^^TS^: I ifqf I ^[^^ ii % ii 

m^Tre W(«raT^e^ TPm i m» §. 8. <^o$. <». i ^ ^jrt^: ii «i«iifiimjfl: i iifwft mfTt^firii 

>n^f^w^: I ^rfi 'TRranrei^tH^'^'j: ii fqMJ^<<<f t^ ^raN^nftwin^: i tn» §. ?. t;^. i 
'«fs(*(w1i,n^<i'«^«t f»itiT7iMT!i I viX' if. ^. ^M. <\. I ' ^4 i 'rtMRfl<n4 nr yft via1 ' ^<iiK*ji i «i< i t<^ 

TTf^ra I ^^ I 'RiT I fiv^ I Tiara f;f?j TTT[^: i ?t ^vk I ^sr^JW^T ff Wt T«i% « 

^^^ I ff^: I 'TOS^ I g4 1 T[w I Tif^ I #STT?^i ^tjir: i i^^t^ i 
g4 1 ^: I 'i^s^ I g«q i TT^: i ^f^ 1 15 1 f^^ i ^ i irsftiirT^ ii^ii 

5n^: I w^jftA tf^ w: I ♦iT'iniaMRflT^'raT '^rf^israTt^^f 11 1 *ra^»i: gwi^^ ^"tii: ^n: h 
^f^ ^ wi'i,. <\. ^<\^. I i«i<^4i^<«i II g«r^^rra grtrrirrf^: tJii: 1 % t^ ft yO^m^fi 1 
»T^^ 1 f%^ Tiftsra^ ^n(vii*tif-fi<"^n' Trf?t h^itM ^»i ft^ II ^^^^fM^Ti: 1 ^nii 1 

5Brf% I ?5l I i? 1 1» sf^cTT I fHT I f^fl^ I ^?f : I ^fil^ I W^ I ^ I ^4 I 

vf^n: I vfii I f^H% I !^ I ^hit: i ^h i ^?^5=t^ i ^^rt: 11 1 11 

% t5[ nf^mr nf^rrp^MT^f^ urft%Jrrf«r 11 Bwrsr^ Tr^ir: 11 f^'^fif^?!: 1 T^'wrrt 1 
w^^ I ^n: I 'g^ i^arawrjr 1 fi^fv^ 1 vrnTi 1 ^^ irf^ 11 ^vi^ft '^f^^H^T^tn fw 
^jnSvTg*««<if«5^i'i*i: n xt^t 'Rmf'r *i'fl*fl«<«iO^iim<0f% ^ vtt;^ ii P^^f^*iif4iT 
*4*siflM,H»i<(: II ^mft ^ ^W ft^ I ?T?i: hii^tt: i iflipiTftfi! irsfHit 1 ^t twIt: hji^t ^ 
Hft I^flr I ?^: I ^JTiiT??! vrrr^^f*! 11 f^f?t: "i ii^Tq i^ T 1 T^^ft »if«: 11 TTwa^wnra 

^nrt ^ xrft ^tfcT "^ ^ ww^ v^^^^iki^ ii<iii 

IT I tqftlS^ I ^ S^^ I ^^ I ftri^S??! I n I t^C^ I 5TT^ I ^^: » 
^^:s^ I nft I ^ijjf I \^: I ^ I ^|^*i«qf I ^fJJ^: \ ^sfif^: i ^ n ^h 

WtTnTit^»Rnn«[TW^ ^rfTt^: ii fvvnfin m^ »wri ^m w(^ ^r^ifw TT?^lsT^»ft^^: 
^^ y ^^ I m^rrf^ II t^ 'nfr I ^^ti^ ^rsg^wwrntir: ii ^m% ^ ttot t4 i 

^ ^ 'ir^HJi VM^ v^TO flCTcTTT ^f?r^i^rar|T!n^t'?nT^ % ^ II ii;5<,ii 

^ ^ Tf^ "^ ^^ fw I f*rg^i*<ifiK« 'ssft: i nm*<if^<fi% gRsft ftr^: ^ f^: i 

siifflTfqfiT II Tift f«rf*T^t»i: II 

^ I % I ^ ^ i"!^!: I -qy I ?f!;i ^M I ^5: 1 ^ I ^ftf IT I ^xt I ij^ I ipt|: I 
^Ht ^fH Rf^: I TJWrT: R I ^ I ^fF I ^ I ^TO^ l^mt R I f^i^ in II 

fH^: iTO»f 5if?H^»ji^«iirf4i»r mf^jfir 1 ^ % ^: 'irg ^"W^ ^ 1 ^: 1 »f urBr^n. 1 

??:i!r: I ^i^wr ^ fl*iifu!<i »nfT*T 4«m«rM ^snfr JiTwrJ^q ara^fn 1 ^»f\^ ^itm 11 ^wrftpT: 
^ I ^^ $. <4. ^0^. I fTUPg^Trm II 'gvrffTit ift^iit ^ ^n^ ^5wt^ i f«i( ^^ vw^ir^qw 1 
^Ri Wf I ^ I ^TRTs^iiEi^ I griTTi: un^m g^^:^^ TfinH 'Tti ^^rfn 1 «nMq">ii? 11 ^ 
'3^^ t'^^: • ?^ T"^ flt<iR<ft: I fT^ mrrn?! irgrg^ »rsnrr^ xfn f^w»iTTg^r?m 11 

f^ m^: ^^ %^^ ^wt f^ ^ftint 5T f^^ II ^ II 

^: I w^ I ^Tn^4 1 f^: 1 ^5^s^t7![ i «^ i i,nsriiJi i ^s^pg^ i 

f^t mfi: I ^?5^ I ^^ I ^ I ^ ?f7t I f^i ^: I Hflmt R I f^ IR II 

'nr ^an<<*i?i:' *<,< ! i*<4 i * l f^ w^ gi^ 1 *nir:#4jKT%^ ?* Winrftai^: « ?ra|?l 1 wf^ f|pn- 


^^ TT?ra?fn It ^i « >^TqT<<Tf <ri< m i-^ K I fi t^ II m»^^ i ^rror mr^ ^tt: ii ^^ ^n^WS^- 
u^K H«rfn I ^rmir^ w^smWJ: i ^mftt '^wftg ii %T?nrra%f7i ifK i vc 8. q. ^o. n '^ping 

?af^: I '^reiT^sfrg: ^: ^-Jtj jr^rm: i ^^r^^fi; i ^^ ^Ivxm i%ti: in^ Trfl" i f%f^ Ttg^ « 
nff ?T^t f^rmw. ^^ Trf% I T H^fn I H^ f? ^^f«: 'iftlH i ^ tci: tpj;^: ^twmt^^ 

>J#^Tf!;i ?[r!;i 51Tlim^R I rT^qi^ I ?[T^m# I ^ I TOH I ^^ I 
^ ^fri I ff I ^W^ I T«rts^^ \ W I ^S^'q I ^4 I fireiT I TT^: II Mil 

pn*) i f<<i I vrTrf*r «[^t^ " ? ''T^r^TWt: sprrf^: i Hi<(ii'ii i^: ii 'rf^ ^^^n?): s^t^'i™ " 
fjfi: « g;gi ^ T<« *) M< I TT^ ^rn7!!»TTf i ttoV \m^ ff i ^ ^ i ^niif^ ^ i vw^ ^ ^^' 

^ I ^4 1 f^^ I ^its w: I ^ I iB^tftr I -^y: i ?it^i «: i TTPi < 

if I ^jm \ ^ffT I TTt ^ff^ l^'^'i I^^Tf S^^: l»T^ l%^S^^ II 1(11 
'WJTfft f'^ifn I ^wu%7n WHSsfiii: ^ %^ t^ 'ref «t JT^f?i 'tr *fN M^rtrrw 

'^ftrnr n^TfH I T li^sr su^ f^ jt^ fT«rer ^ ^^ t?v UTra ^Tt^sm: ii <t^i^^ ^r^jwror- 
TrfwsT'srrf^flr'ifrr i ^rvt %\iiin?rtii i tt* <»• ?• $~o- 1 v^rH v ii«r ^s^fa ii ^ira^ ?( f*nc4^ 

\i<(Ryi«: n '^(T Tpj ^*(?iT<\ II ^: ^pj^TTft i Tr» ?. j^. ^c. i ^^ ft(if*r: i ism '^^mm^m 
f fir: II ^^^rfmrf^^ww ^wit: ^ %«)Hiivri «^f?! i ^^^trrti^T»H«if?T i iret^'j ^^ tret tii^ i 

"Rff^TgrtflJAfflffl I ?TOT3f^^Wf^fT7nJrfiTRlfHTrr^: 11 

^^^T^^ ^^Ft|^^Tftn:4^ rmf>^ ^ ii s ii 

^^ I ?r!;i w'Fy: I ^ftjrt I ^^gtfw I ^ I ^p^t?r i ^4 1 "i% i ^ft^: i 

^^ I ^^T I ^^^rr: I ^^w^^ i ip!^ i ^^r: i ^ij^iiw i ^fv{ \ ^sip^ ii s ii 

w^ ftf^l gi^'?iT^ iiiftjH ^^ iftwrt a«infri I i^iTtfW I fTTn^T'i 'R'pf It II Tw: wrfr 
gwur: II ^rapg^^rgft^TTW^^^fl^T^ f% i '^rf'T'ft vnrni^^rfii k f^ «r^% ■■w^if^s*: i 
^g?!T%f(, II ^^irr^rr^ grrnft 3?rr wr^nJti^^: ^rrwr^TWTT'rr^Br^gi'rhiT'i i ^rmnw. 
fn^T^fr »T^ II tr«i7)* j^rt^ <j ttP i gf?:;i%^:f^f?T g^ ^i^: u % ^r^n ^^ftr jt^^t'h: 

^g^^trf^ fljq^lrfH^ ^M^ii'M^lljTTfH^llR: II til 


f II ^:wr qrr%t m ^?Rt i f^f^rv T^fn ii %: tu^frt i 'n" '^- ?• Ji'ii ^[srrai^ ii n^m 

^^^l7ff^*it vnrfSf ^^snf : ii 


II ^1%^: II [^•t.^»!r."^*^8. 



vim t f^rt^: I qiT^ 1 3iT^: II f^ ^ITfft aTl^'^ffJir^^: I ^^Hi^^l^ f%^Tf»ramT^TW 
5WT»n^: II n'in imm^ ^^ in^ ?j^ ^ '^rft ^ ^^J'^ " in^i^^^Jf^ 

1 giftfi: 1 1 n«(^d : I <T^rra^ vRirf^ « ir^ ^iiifi^flv}: ii ii^^ ii 

^ Wtfff ''^^ ''^ ^^*<*<<n<j j ri^ ^"1^q<<*j<i«i Tra^ I T^lfify^iaT I Tivr ^T»pwi^ I 
'^ f^T^ ' < ii *<<r«<< ■^«T^ TT^ TTsni f??f5T II TTBWT^i^rpnrPwt^ \<^*in'iw'«i I 'gf^ 
^ I ^^ i< ^* i iV i ^TTf^TnTOT^i^ ?ftr H<Rmr*4 n T ^tiwi^'^tt I w ^. «i§. I iln ii umrg^n^- 

iff^ fvrK»gf»rn:rt*rr^TlTW ^stn^r snjn i ^f^ '^ i ^trtr ^t^ Ht ^«n<afl**n: ^n%i^ i^ 
«rf^ I ^» «• <^!^. I Tf'' II 

^ I i^ I fir I ^ W I ^ m^^ I ^ I ^ I ^^ I ^f^s ^iT nil 

^um i c II ^^ f*raT% I m" ^. s. ^oq. I van^^Tfm ii 

^^r^ ^Ht ^mf?^ v^ ^^% I ^?W 1^: ^Hft^t^T II ^ II 

w(m itiT'i. ?.^8.ii ^ainu'^ ^f^^^ ^r^arenfHff^mTnt^ I^f^ TrfTufr^ 1 1^ w^ « 
«? f^ »ft^Tf^^: I ^^%^ii ^^ ^T ^ 1^ ^51^1 'n^Tftt ^mfw^Tl^rm^fl^ 

#ti: I aiw^ ?j^ T*i,i f^t^ '^^r?nra^ »i%f^^mi: ii 

^ttm: ^«W^ <t^ I 'wsr^ ^«m I w infW! ^m ^^t^ ^^ T" in^rtl'''n«m 

^i^rfti: i^i'^si5^iii^STnft^:i^s^rin^^iiR: ifT^s^^* "^ 

iiif^r|?N if^m 5TO3ii^ I ^Jjr«i! finfr wr^fir i ^tfn: i »i^imW ^tiHf}wmim : ^ttini: 
^fJimtW^'h fr^HT^ «(\w)*ii*i: ft«T^: >a<\w> ^ *<[^i<««i. i ^it?t i ^"^ vrt 

nt^TRff: ^f^%'^%*^ f^iRT^ I ft rrt ?^iT fli^i: II Mil 

Tf tIhT ^^f§ ^^'Rlf^i ^^^rT I ^^twf »JltHw ll!(ll 

if I Timj I ^ft I ^^ I ^ftr I ^fT^H I ^«f I 1^ Sttfrf ll^ll 

^t^ I ^g[W %t^TJlff^ II 3[5^tf7J ^m^ tVJ'^.^H^H-^. I TfH 'SR^.II frrfH ^?^ ^TfWR 

^^f %r '^^ftrai^ TWi^ ^f 1 5rrrxn ^w^ ^f^ff ii ^ ii 

^^>^^ I ^f^^ I ^^ 1 1[^: I FT I ^ I '^tit: I ^rf^ I ^^f iisii 

^ Fsr^ T?rft'%5T Bim^ iJT^'q: I ^^^^ ^iif[^ II b II 

?t: I Fi I ^ I urft^ I ufri I #^ I ^t^smt^: i ^^s^^^ i ^^ii bii 

^ ^ »ft^Tf^: I ^ft 1^^ I grmw^ft^TJi: lyr-a-q. ^?. 1 ^fa mgvT^^'^r if^ i 

?t f^ i^f)H^^ ^^Tf «Tf|^\ I ^T^i ^J^ ^^ II eii 

rf I r^ I r^lsU: I ^^S^^: I f silS^f I ^ I |f^ I ^f^i^ I HT^^ I ^T^ ll^ll 

% ^ 'svipn wyf^TTrer *<^*<m i ^^raii ffnm 'ftrrt Jrr?F «Ti«i«-4f^rt^ ^ ^tit^ 

?«: ^ i^Trantinti yB« i m i i41<<. 1 ^nrt '^nr^mrm ij; ^Bf^■. 1 « iif t^m 1 ^'n ^T»pis«j^ 1 

VOL. IV. 3 ^ 


ijf^ II fw^nTjfw sin^sgfiTfn ^^^ *iH<i«i*itii i ^g^ 'nr^mm ^'\ i m ^t^ i gf^ mtn- 
i|rf^ ftRt g^ 1 ff«wWr^f*mT7i: ii 

TI ^Ht T^ ^^H ^3^i iftm ^'i^ I ff^'T^^TTflfH II ^11 

H l"5nrTi: S^^ I ^MH: I ^1 'n I ^T: I ^W I f f^l ^^^^ I ^i I ifn IR II 

^vnh ^t ^'nwRT mm 'n m^ vm fm?ft»nr^ 7ra[rq^T: 'j^m m m «*^«n<- 
^miT I 'a^N?^ II ^^ ^ng[^T^> 'wti^ i m* <». ?. ^m. i f,ftii(*i«lM< h *n*)n*mt 

^^«Wlt II 

^5^t xl^m ^-TOH T^fl^ ?[«ip?^: \ ff^T^tH^rnqftfir ii?ii 

^ HT TTfrrtfkfT ^T^ \^^ flT^ I ffwt^^T^TfiFTfTl II « II 

^xiiTn mfn: i^fwH i^q^ i^^s^ I fiNiff^J 'Bt'i^i^^! i?fi* 

wif^(^ I mm H^f^ im mm is^mnm ?t^: fw^ h^ ^^ H^r^fti tt^ji ii 

^f rf^^ -^^ T^^^fH 1^ irfif I ff^t^5R^^*lf?t "Mil 

ji%?T rrm Tm 'i^ *iKf^ fi mN *aM' i Tim^^^r^ • m^rnt t^ m m^^sftft tj?^ 

ipjT^: I % ?T^W^rwi:mm ffs^imt w^rrg: i it ^n^tafn 1 1 tf ^«^^^ 
f*W7T ilT» ff ^: inn»«»8.'o.H.^?.B ^ inimrST i ^ii<\*»ir*<rfl m nawm^ 'wwt^ ^^ 

5Tf? ^ d«W ^ ^ ^ ^ irfit I f^4 < €^^^^ ^^ 4r*^rcj h^h 
sff^ I H I Tt^# ifrt I ^^ ?fTT I ^ I iT^ I ^^ I nftl I |tr^ nitric I 

^ ^ ^ffrn >|^wl^»?t tJM^* Hft* I ff^mtWTTITf*TfT+ II bll 

^>i I ^ I Hf|?n I f4 ' ^^ ' F^ • iM^* ' '!^* ' f^^« ^^ ' 
frqi TjfM^^t ik is:i^j %f ^ i ff^n^^mif^frt iiaii 

frT I ^f I TjWV I ^ 1 f?ri ^(f^ I ?f I ^ I ^5 I ^ I ^^ 1 5Rt^^ I 


#^i:Trqf^^i ^TRfrft^ %f ^t I ff^mtH^XTTftrfTT 1^011 
^ I ^i^l "^fMy I ^f I ^^Rtf^ I ?! I ^ I ?g I ^T I ff^l ^Tl^ I 

f^f^ ^ ^: ti#|^ ^^H^tf^ I ffsn^wmrftrfH insii 
%r^ I ^ I wm I ti^: I ^: I ^ I ^If^ I f f^ I ^'t^ I ^ • 

^frt II <\«l II 

% jT^H^^jq: ij^ f^ g^t^ wrfm: i 'fv: 11 y[^iy<;i<r<Ti!H*f*nrffif<*iir*mM«t: 1 ira%- 
TVT^iR H ^vrenprf^raPR^ q^^nf^Bni 1 wkt^ n ara f^%^ 1 ^^^rei gf^ ff^ t^ ^!^ 
I'no'0. 8. c. I i:^; nK i ^ ^f; II f?Tt^ Ml*nN l <*t I ^5?m^ I ■■*ll«lM«f*»«l'i: 11 

^ I ^R I TTfTSiTf : I ^5 w I ^stftm: I ff^ I H{*\^ I 
Wqf l?fct U«|^ll 

3 E 2 

^^% II ^p^: II [«•»?. ^•«.'ai«<). 

3jft ^iw<(<jril "^ijv^ f^T^: I |rf^f^»7Fn^0lfTt IIS? II 

jjf : I ^tTtt I ^Sfrf: I "l^wi: i f^JTS^T^: i ff^rt,i ^^ i ^ i 

im^ i d) ! H^ \ r» 1 •?^fift yiMiiil ^T II vj imi% i ^ i fiii'm:m^f*rf?T *i'^»4< < f*t^T^- 

ai'ii^iiifJTTfY?^: ^TWT^^wra^fi: « II 5?^ II 

^^T^ TRiT^ fWt TT^ f^*iK*i*^ I ^T^fr^gT^ ^^rrfl;^^H'T%^T: n 
irfn Hn*<s^N i fv< < N M<*^ ^i^f<<ft*i i < i H< i <^<«^'^ Tg^^'<Tgi*ii*<iit*iy:v^ wrawr'Tr^T- 

f^;^ Twi ^ f%?rniHfli|^ II 

srrerm i rrflff^ struct ^wfRriw: H^^ fff^^rr^ %j«*ff i mn ^rg^stft i ti^wtt- 
^r^ fff^ ^ II 'TTTfi^Ti'^ift^ fT^^w ^ ^ I 'if^ '^ 1 7if«i*ird -^ gr^rni^w ii%?i 
1 ^« 'Q. ^. I ?:f?! II cin« < Pi^ ^<i i* ^fM-^ i nK<^<) ' M B)t tn'^N ^^ f*i%^^rfMtwr^ i ^[f^ '^ i ""i^ 

^ R fq^M I ^?t ^ I <i a{ *<<i«<ri ^ ^^rr^)ft^7rf^^TO^ i 'SBf «> • «. i Tt^ « "^^^^J 

rrf^^ ^%| ^ ^ ^ ^q^^^xn: I 

^ li^ 1% terfw ^^^ ^ f^ *f<f^^l: mil 

rTft^i^rf^i^rmi^p^i^i^- 1 ^% I ^: I ^^s'Twjr: I 

w. I "st^r: I f^ I ft^I^ 1 ^^ I ^ I ^ I f^^ I Ti^fT I ^- "*'" 

^rerre I ^R^Ti STB fUint <a»fl<«ftK»ua«t ^^^ninf^j'j?* 'nj? ii ^fi ^ ^^^^ w^i^ft^^^ 

^^t^T^^rrfBT ftWTf?r 1 mptm 1 ^ 1 ^am^rapif tn^^^m^^m^frT 1 ?!^ ^ ?n!sw 1 
IT^I^' ^^TOTwniTi i^'-w'^^-S.! icm It ^'JTTH Tm ^litf^ft ^,0^ ^^^m i 
mmr I Tt 'rf^rptw ^: mif^: 1 t^t^ j^ ^m y^^ 11 f^% ^^ gwr: , ^^ T^shftamr- 

^ I WT?^^ T?^ JN?r *n iT<g^jnf^m 1 ?ra[Ti ^ ^mr^nmT?m»Tg tnmff mftpftijfts- 
trrFTT fijff?! II '^ig^^ 1 rn* q. «. ca. , ^anft: qni^nT^M^zmTr^'im^fWTff rfrr ftrihrT 11 ^ 

^^If ^^ H% ^ W 5RiT niJrfT Hcig IRll 

^^fH^wffi t ^rmftt I f^^^nfTT 1 ^sftm 1 'sri?!; i f^rf^wrf'rf?! -^f^^\fl^ jjr?^ mtprHf^m 1 
nr^^^M!i.«i^ a ^TT^t I JTf»rqjrfiT wf^ ?rerTfrfii|;i!r ?n!r^^V7f JT^rfrr 11 <;<i^<. i j<i4<^« i ^ 
^rar^ ^fi!r r=i.^(«r«j: 11 ^^ 11 ^rTiijT?nis^cqr?i^^ fgisi; n f^if^ ^nii^ ^qf^rm iftvf^jm 
H^fiT II 1 ^qrRi^fTT ^i^fw ^^t: irfn^v: 11 ftrn: ^t^: JTsrsreffr: 1 % t^ ^ ?i^ Jitg ?Wg 

'^ ' 5'^^!' '^ ^''^^ '^ ^^ ^f^'^T^rftai^: I ^cird/irn^j^i 11 h^tit i m>iW: ^fiir 

^I^: I ^T^'^: I ^^?Tf I ^ I ?f I ^^: I ^ I *?^ I ?T^^ I ^ J ^ift : II ? II 

^JT^f^^rt^^niflr «?f ^npifTnTW srf^ ^«m ^rmm^: MR.*i*<iui!T XTtrS: 1 jrvn ^ mww 1 
^'*'*'TfST ^ihftr ^TTTfn ^T'lrftr T'rtfli «'W !if?rft>ffv fJiTft^f tt^t? i^- 'w 1. ?. 8. i i^ i 
^^^t^ ^•iitnW: II ^^^4mi«}i4l«!!Tf<^ wwum: 1 ^r^^^mrf^ 'TTrfWonft^z n 

i^jn?j% ^BTrrgftri ?nf ^ MMnmydlPrt i ttot '^ srww i ^ % wh^ ftr^ mrr^ mtri^ 

i»f»Tqtvti I ufiTfj: wt^^ II VTg»iTfl^*«i»i<*tifljfcMrfl<,4 ihl^i^ ^nl^ n f»rj^ % ^n^ ^^ 
^Tf i"^» '^a* <\. ^. 8. 1 TWTf^ srr^npnrnp^ n 

?fiT I f^l ff I i^T I iRt I ^^rf I ^l^S^l^ I'^STl^fw I f^nf: I 
^5ff^: i^T^ tfrT I ftsit I W I H^ UTT I Fq I ^7^ 1 TEJTWSMT^: 1 5: STT^f: 11811 

'«ig^'!i ^^TT 1 n^: ^Ti^s^ « ff %f7T f*r«rnTTrfn^: 11 % ^''^ Tfwr vrfftiTift^ n -^rf^- 
fvr^f^'q: ^: h '^t^: 11 ^^fM»i=<i<l<<*jni ftjjmt^l^rf^ f^ ^ 1 zfxfi\ f^^^: 11 

i^^t I ^^* I ^W| I ^^g I ITS WcT: \ ^Jqt% I Jgft I 

^^ftr I ^ I w^ I ^^:sf^: i ^ i ^ i fsmfk i ^wt i ^^ifftr iimi 

% t?" ^^g^fiT -^^ T%i wi%g irnral 1 ^ irfs^rnrTm: 11 ^r^ j[n^ 1 ^sren^rrm- 
^r^^-*-^<^*ni^m^vTri^^^tfNftxi'!j^tft II f^ f^fi: I g^^irrf^ ^frvrrfrftr 11 wn%" 
fr'^^"^«*)<<4«i i(fn g^rdT^ ^•*<H«j*<: II Jjfr ^^f^ ^ywrf^ 11 g^rr ggf^rfn n^ ^ 11 t^'^- 
H^u! 4ii*ifl: I ^ifti ^ ?t ff^Tgvn^pqr^rratM'raTvrrt^ q^T^\f*i 11 ^^^w^ftt sr^Hfwffl ^^; » 
T^^: 'gt7if»iW1^<nf*i I ui-j^ffl Tn,*jifiT I ^ w^ sfwn li^w ^ f yt^tii!! ^?iTf^ I'JiRf 1 
'<rsm^n?i: 1 ?f^r*«nrp9mf*i ^ finnft 1 *i«(f«i»tfi» 1 *i<a.O*n«i^ : 11 ^ft ?Tg?RT% 1 ^^ 
f^^iTW^ ^: I ^yw ^^^^Mrre#^ 11 11 <» 11 

^ ^^^ ^^T ^ '^^ ^^^ nfriHWlfil ^ II tf II 

^^^ \ i|^5^^ I ^4i ?risri*r i w^ i ^jm i V( i 

w inw^ ^T^^i fenq; ^ ijFTtfw ^Mxj ^^fti n^ h 

y5f% II ^Rt^^^Jr^^^ g^^^f^ ^ ft i ^tft i rq^ftt ftr^ i ^ ^ i^Rrfi^^nnai^^ i ifrm- 
fW(8rmmfTOT7raf?fqv: II ^^ ^ jtttttt ?rara^ ^d^Kua R<i i 4 1 ^ i « ij r v!(- 41 f^i^ ^- 

fW^snirefJT gf^'^ ?rrfiit?i f%jun?n: i '^^ <io. r:(>. 8.i % t? ^: tRTXTijTrq^:^ ^rarf^r ^i^ i 

Trr^t^ II T^ Tift I 3r?q^ -g: u 

^f» »^W T^^frT ^TT^ ^ l^igf ^^^ ^T: II til 

?TTT I -^ I ^^r[;s%: I f^% I ?5bi I 'T^ {'^xrm i ^:sm: i 

Hf : 1 3=^^ I ^^fw I ^STI^: I ^: I ^ I f^^t: I ^^rf^l ^tt i ^^: li bii 

''<Wf*f^: 'I ?T^ xrftHT^ w^Tf^: I wi^: w^i -q: i Tin* ii^^W«n?f^t?q ii ^W<i- 
%^ I '^rftrsfri^ «^: i ^a^\v^ w^i ^ ijni: n ^er^ ^ i in" 8. 8. <)<^^. i ^^wnns^w^ra 

^ B ^^T: ^^ WWT I TPSJ I ^TTf^ tW- I ^Wt ^ ^fi[W t^ ^f7I H< Wfl4, l <l I TTCT 
^•"TWT %^^ T^' II T"! ^lir WTlIt^ I ^n«»I<a*T?fiIT»Wt f^^ l f^T^^T *l* < inj<ti<j |lf<^«ll tq" I 

^^'f^^^ ffn ^ 11 ?T t^ Tfr JTfrfr 'fhr^ tj^m^ t^wt^th ttt fwrii^ f*rff n'?! ^rnr: 
^ '<♦*•' TWtT'rei II f^jnmjfw J*«^<*if*if7f 'WJhn: *i«i^Hwnag«}«f ^ ii tl^ '^ '^t^ti '^nj'j- 
'^'Itn n f^ ^ »fNTf^: II Tf^ II jfms^TWgynS ^r«li«»<9J-«IW I ^<» 8. i?. M«l. I ffii ^TTwra: H 

^'il*<OvM«(i^TaiT^: *i{«n(^fw farq: i »4Ti<M<H»ffl«f(\««i ii fT^ f^wflrrrrfw '^ frin: ^^: ^t 
^iy<.« ^^^^ TRTf«ft«t I inmmnT'nfT iniiTt?^ i yia i fAfli ii r' > «i4 : i ^n[T i ^<^alMlfnlX 
^^^: 'fftr: ^: ^jjttt tt f^rwr^ Tif*rr»n '«wwtf?» ^: i Ti^hjift ^ tsr^wr t^ro f^- 

«oo II ^n(^: II [^•t.^'^.lo^^ 

TT^ 'TfT'^^f^ ^^TWi^r^ ff'^^ftttlH^ I 

^ I H^T^ I ^frl^S%: I ^^^T I ^^1 ^t I H?^ 1 1^ I ^ I 
^^k: I ^Twft*^: I ^m: i ff ^f?t i ^ i ^^«T i ^v^ I ^ iKiii 

»< ^ < j)rrt ^i St teniS^^^S: I ^Ml<<ir<<flT?T^^: II ^T^RT ^nrnrr: ^^nx;: ^^t ^t«»: '^XT^rt 
wf< i 4 t ^ tm^ T^ ft^^ I ^narar^nT^ Hlu!*jffl ii fff^: ifttrRTiS: i wt^rrf^: i ^m^^ 

m'nr^ ^^ ft ^^if^ =^11 lu u 

'rfrf^^m I ?i^ "^[T«prnT i ff T'Bi'wf ^n f?T^»nl: mwraw: m^firfTr ii »m: ^»r^f*«h*i: i 
?nR^<^^ Tf^ ^ TTTarnian: i '^jt" ?. ^. i Tf^ ii ^VJHyi*»3 sirr^rei wf^ flnTgiJi i^ 

^ ^utt; ^WV gigHHT ^ "^T^ f f^^ f^Mii II «i II 
%Tr^S'7>l: I ^ I ^WH I ^^ I ^W I iqw: I ^: I nj^: i ^jfftrl^i 
h: I ^MK I TjftnTi gt I ^wi fRT I wi I'^T^ I ffW I Wh mil 

»r»f: Hia il M?l<.^^MWi ^ 1%" ^« q. M. I. ^. I Tfil I 'liT i ffT'OT'sfri'st "pf^wt^T ^^ ^^^ 
f^TWT ff T'W'nf i«i'>*<^ I ^^ Tni^f*i%: m^ ?R^tT i jn^Tamrf^re^: tJiTTran: ^w- 

^rM% < jt^mf^fniTgrq:w Ttg'^ i h ^ ^fft ^rnmr^ T?^^ifM^: ^i^ ^^ fqqiK^w^ 
w^TT^: ^#^ ^r^: 'jffTf^ ^h^ i i "^'R ^rfrrrr^^ Tsrfxi Trfit « f?T^i»l: gf^'^' 
fwtijT 3it f^^gmft %*<i*<^ir*<|!w*)Mi 40^r^^f*i*<i ^ i ^!i?rt i ^f?TT\«mft:^'rn' > 
'?mfT^ f^ ^*j n ^v^fTK I vHTrf^ II w^ ^-^JH^r^z rT'T 'ETT'S^sTf^t f?r^ I gwrf^- 
^«rre^: n i^rfl I ^anr f^ir^^i R^ M t^nbMtii KV'JUHflt '?7^ i ^ajr i wsiiS w[wm f:fn '^i: » 
'^i^tHarq: II ^^^ I ^ ^ I fi i M t ^i t^fl T^[^ I '^'ra^ ^: H<fliMrfl<?<0*i tt?* g«i n^rm? 

Tfn n ^mrfl^nwi*!^ p^ % f^ iwT ^*T M^ i <ftpsn>iwm«nr<wif<^ "^^'TZIS^ 

^ ^SpinjW ^ ^: ^^ \^T^ |fW f^W II R 11 

w, I ^nms^: I -^s^: i ir^ i ^^ i ^s^^^ i Tisftr^ i ^j^ \ "^^i i 
^ I ^^ I ^'{H I ^^ I ^: I ^f^ i^sjR I ff^^t I f^TT 11^ II 

^ ^rm Tfrvf«i?TT ^ i ti^ ■^ irftn irene iTRPmnrt f^ ^ inftif 'arr^ iirW?! ^^"^ tt ii 
trrg ^njfir^ i m^ t?t. im" §. 8. 98. 1 f^yrorm t?t i inftmftra^W %f?f ^ct 1 g^ ^iM^H - 

JTOT %^ ^rft ^i^ BUmiygna^ 1 ^mfrj ^r^TTfrg^ 1 jn^iivpft Ufsi'. 1 v^ 1 ^x^ 1 jt^ 
ireirf^rfarw^ gvr 11 ^^wi^it 'nfr ^T^TTf^T^r^pn i^jg^nTj^^^ir?^ 11 ^^ ^rm vmm- 

^: v(\mt fHffl^ Mff^ ^iIT 5iTfHt ^)J5 I 

1 ^ ^W ffx^^^^HT^: ^ \'^ji ff^^t f^w II 9 II 

w. I inr^iT: 1 f^sfir^: 1 wff s?^ 1 ij^k: 1 ^1 tr^ft 1 nAm 1 ^>j^ 1 

^:i t^ I ^m I fts^: I ^:str^: 1 ^ \\^i 1 ff^wt i f^^»? ii?ii 

'ft ffTT^R*?: uTTinT: inreTi: 11 tr mn^ sii^if^^: 1 ^rgr^pr lifn fw?ti{^rfrw 11 f^rfSr- 

W^ g^W?r g!ft*iT<jr ^Rmn;: 11 ^usTrOl^ T^f?7ft'T ir^ «mt«i( ^^ t^ft »t^ ii w^ijf^ 

1: Tnmrf?if|-^ i;& II ft "^i^ ^»r^Tf^"Yi»RT%<T: 1 wtw ^antxi^fTi rm^: 1 'V'l^- 

^ '^ i ^^^ ^ f f vnjTift^mfn: aumln : 1 «wrtTt m^: tif^ t?^^: i f^fwr Pu^fdSi^T- 
^»lf^»fl < a T * » '«iw i f 'yi <M<i«'^< i 'ww I ^1X7?^^ *<d«i<^ TW'^Tft Hr«4)i I ^^r^^ iref^fn 
f^q^jwfjw^: I g«N^ ?r: ?rern^: ifw" ^- m- 1 Tsn^nr^ 1 T^fiv^ ^mw^retffT f«re^- 
'f^ ^ « tfift «r: »ni i mR«««^ «IWT Vfnfj, g^^ ff^m 4^*<nji<«^«>q«'3i f^t^: 11 

^I^ f|*l4M"ii^ ^ H^ T^ ^^Tf : I 

ii#rt: ^f^ 11^ ^ ^#i W^ ff^^t Wt? II 8 II 

W 1 1.^ 1 ff^s^: I Sf Sr^ I ^^ I 'a*^ I TWt I ^ I W^' I 

'R'i I prr: 1 wsf^: 1 ^ i ^If ^^ > ^^ '^^^^ ' f^^ ' ^^'! « ^ " 

VOL. IV. 3 *' 

%^ " gg g t iTi ^^^^ BT q ^TiTTyr I Tim T^m i T^ ^^ i <«i<'ft Twr 'j^ ii ^^wf^wr^ h ^m- 
^ivfsifjTvr: I 'T^ %^: ^rf^: h i -^k ht ^sjt^t^it: ^s^mf^ i9ii*'1<n ^T i rrar ^t^f i ^^^ri- 

w. I ^fl^ I t:5Nt: I f^S^: I ^^ \\^^ 1 1 f^^ I f^^ "Mil 

^#5 im ^(fi^ watt Wfi I ^Tv?t T T^m w^xnS'TOTf^TrfWJr^: ii ^^w^TOfwtf?i 
f^qmj^ II nm trs ^ii i f<(«^q ^ilTrfT^ ^ffwn: i i^^ftr^ T^ra "^i.**^ f^^rr^ fsr^mr i ?t^ 

•w^rfvt ~^ ^f^Ht f^jirfiT wi "i^T^ ff^^t Wh II If II 

■^ I ^# ^fH I ^Mm\ w^i^T^ ?fri I ^in ^ai i -r^ \'t^rj^_ ?ffl i 

^^ I ^fti I ^t: I ^T^siH: i f^s>lTf?T I W I "^^T^ I ff^^ i Wh ii % II 

i^o ST=!t. ;^. ft. 8. 1 Tf^ I ^ ^SHTOT T^^T %g»rr ^^^ rror^ <TW»n^ iraT^f Tpn ^ ^r^^ 
^vim II ^'^ ^T^T^f^i^ {"t;^!?!!^ TT^»n^ <\tjrt^ n '?iT'?rn;^ ^iw^i^ '2"^ ^'^ 

^: ^ ^f^ ^3^ ttttt: ^T fTJTTftT H^im II ^pj^'t: ^ftl fMOT l 't^n^'inK Tf^ 1^: 

^xti'i f I 'in^ I ^f ift: I f^^ I ^^^ I 'T^ I V^^' I ^'T^- ' ^^ ' 

»r%i irarrrfn ^VT'n WT^ ^w^t fTtr TT^ rniTRT^ 

if?7fNti^: iTwraw: insimfn: ^(»whf i fir^iBTO i h^ ir^ ,^,rTf^ ^ „ ^ ^ 

^?f^^ Tiff ^ TT^xt^W^ ^Mi?TT ^^^^ I 
^ l^f^ "^ ^ ^^f^ ^^^ |f^^ f^„ II t II 

^: ^\^ I ^v 1^: I ^%: i ^^\i ^^ |^^t4 | ^^ , ^^^ ;, j.„ 

^VT^nvTT^ II ^VT^f rfr in^ , ^THm^unf^m w^ i, tunrrrj: T ^m^ imm . 

^^T?^?[T ^rft^UR ^^"1^4 |fW Wh II ^11 

^n I 5T: I ff fftrf^i ^WT I ^: I ^^^: 1 1?: 1 cij 1 f^ 1 Hrqs^^ I ^irM 1 

^: I ^ I ^n: I Myj: \ ^rft: 1 im^ 1 wi i^^t4 i ff^^t 1 Wfl iieii 

m^ II w^ irTi>lT% I fwf?r f3t di^"l^i.*+j<gr: 1 vn" c|(.. §^-§va. 1 ^f?, firmfurn ir^ i^ 
F^^ 1 7T^ m^sTfl^ ttrr" 9. q. ?M. I TfTT WVT^TBfsi^TTm% fififr T!it%f fift fm^\^ vn(in?i- 
^^"^•Rm II ^ra ffH^fTfrg^ ^i,^if<'n<,M ^3^Tf*i ^twrsj ^»RTOre II gsf%^fw«rTf^- 
^'i'^i^Tj^,^ 'ji^ ^^Ttm II rr# mm Tmfl[ iff n 

^ I 'vrtiwrTfrg: iimp% 1 w^«I'«)'*j: 1^°^. so.i Tfvr 11 =^Nnfipi(«^eiTf ftm^ 1 ^f^ 
'^•r^-«-8iTf?f II 

^"^Iniir f|Hw^ w^ ^w^ ^ti^ xn^^ ^^'V^t mo « 
''«^»t'n# fi^reRlf ^ -^ ^M tnr^ T^^srt iigoii 

3 F 2 

«o8 H W^' H [^'b.^-^.^'M. 

tjft^fntrt 1 1 amfrf?T i w^mf^ qftw ^§ w^^tf*> 'n^: • 'rfri^r «^* ^rf^^ifr*: i ^ 
"^ qc«M*) i 'iRqwi in* 4 « < * <i i i ^ g»fl ^[y*r: f'l^ iro^tw w^ ^i^n^w^ i ir^ i ^rer ^ 
'^ <.<n»iii vrrTt y?!^ t^sxj: ^m i »t%»t ii TW'mT^TfiTfTT nm ^r^rrm H h )j n 

^rgiirrFi i ^ tret f^^wir nrftre ^n^ ^nnwrnrt tj^iff "^ tin ii T»THT»im'«Tftrnif^^- 

W. I TT^^ I ^5^5 1 f^^Svt^IHt I ^f^: I litrft I 'psitf??: I ^S^^ il <) ll 

^^nmv: I ^^f^?Tr"5^: u v^ i f^^nnf ^fSrfn v^wf^ fijKtvi i 'if*! ^mwW i ^rvfn mwf^fimi 
f^^smfT: 'sftf*? I '^M I ^Tit ^mW IN ^M*<.*irflr«)*irflr«i«iw»i ^j^t if«rtfTra wnnTT- 

Wft*r: f^ ^ftH'J^M 'g Xja^ I ^TSTRfitHft ^^prfn m tt ^ i ^wtt^ i %^«twr: I 
fimi!^rfi?f?T ftR, I gm^mapm^ i f«»^Ji*Oyyi^vTnt^ffTnirr^«r tw^ i fui f^w^g^Tnft 

gfl!f«5f7T ^ I iT^fmf^WTf^'S^^JTt^nW « iB^flfrft^: I f^ ^^l«1l«ISIfll fW^I'MI^'B^ 

^^Tw I i«iT%^ iln 'jj^irefiJ^^ I tfrwif ^ 'i^f^ ^ir^^ 4^<"04T %^^t^- 

^«J4lT>(M II 

^f?rf^T5Rr^ ^TV^i'^_ rT^ "1^ ^IIT^ WiT II ^ Ii 
?f?T gS^ I 

T[itsfrff^^i ^^ I HT^ I ^ I i^^ I H^ ("I^t: I ^^nr^ I ^ I w?t iR II 

t ^ ^^w: ifhmmt^ % WH «r€t ^^ ^iti vTn ^ i mwv^ ii f^ irfn^stwft: iijt^ 
^ ^ift iftH'ra^ ^tWTTtr 'n «t f^mf^ ^rirfw iT^rrt^r i ut'i^S^wi; Tf 'gnrSt^Y-? ' 
^M^ i rfuja ii di f^ f^^ffTT'^n^ 11 W irgwrBt: i ^m^ ^fuft nrft ^TfH^fl^^ '^"iSs! 
1 y rf« i ft ! Jj ^ ^ii«l *T fM^aran^ giJWTiiiirdT b ftrf^ »n<inlMUi<n; h ^ry i ft rfJiTf^ 
^JT^TOi^\Tr^m^ww%miRrT^^m»n^mj^mgttrT7N^^ngT^i^ >^^ 
w^ ^nn«^ ^^'^^ tir^= «^i3nran. i ^wntra ^mrf^ ^'rafn i "wn^v*JJ^ 

^^ff^ Sf^noi^ ^^pim ^m_ ^^^ ^JWT IT ^^^ II 911 

w» I yriTtfH I ^s^ I Wi^: I ^Tihi:i ^^^ I ^s^ I ?wf^ I 


^^ I %g I H^ I ^:s"%f I ff^w: 1 1^ I ^ I ^fir;f i 
'pif I ^ftr I ^ffs^ I ^^ nj^ i"!^ I ^ I ^z^ iitf II 

T«Rr ^mi^ ^ vfsvPi irait ^ 1^ gisr ttswistt^ ^ gftftW gr^ft ff Jwirmr i 
^f^- ijlii^iti^ I flljifl^jtiirq *<r»aw°tn(^''«i<4i gTerisfwfwfTT ^nlrrnvt i vr^r: nt^ttw f^rer i 
'ft^'tr ^T^ ^n^ ^^FfB ^tnnjg^ ^TRT^ftTir f%: ^jwmt ^?t %^r*m?rtf grm pm 
''nW'Tfn Jfl^sr: *iH^i*i«im3<!iT ii ff%f>f : H^vnJn v^mM v%: jf^iinnT i ^?t i pPfl^M^T i 

w^T^: II 

R I |?f: I Jmt I ^l[w: I w. I i^wr: i ^nfii i w^ i 
•^ t f^^pT ' '!^* J ^^* I If I «^ I Wt^>^: I »ff^: I f^ I ^^"^: ii m h 
V^^ fjft ^rmf f?ra^ f*igw: TmirV g^: inrf^m: nm i <ft tt «ft^: wnpft^i^rflr i 

"rn*^ I ^wgpffn i ttot ^rgft f<Wi ^^mt ^tnmr'rer ^ '^tWh: ^Vfl: ^jPr^t^irqt ^^nt^ 

^0% H W^^' w [^•b.'3r««.^^. 

' ^tfi^^r^s^ifif^'^s^iwR^sfii^i^'n^roi^^^^s^i 

^?f l^HS^: if^: l^rTTf5ii;5htrt^l^fiT: l^gii?fts^l^^S^% ll^ll 

?r«f^ tnrfMY ^^t ^t^^ giPRrf ^nj^ftJiff TrfW»?t?iJrn!i ^inifST'^ tnft ^f^ 'srrr^ 
A^ ^^i^^'H^f 'TWTi: u ^n^frwTf^: gnrani: 11 'i?;! 1 ^ ftrr: ^: ?rrg: ^i^f^Rt 
^^^rro^ 'em 'fr tt^: 11 ^if^ »ri*y<*^*«i*jM*ik«H' 1 m» §. ^ ^9- «!• 1 Tt^ ^x^pr^^ 
^HT^: I ^ir^tft i,'I^^Sff^i^T«^ II tl^^ f^f%rTrTTrfTiTS|mfi ^rsnjfnfi ^an^'^ 

trf^^'i, ufxTfr T5g|^ Ti^nrsi^ 7i H 'ETsr '^ itth^ l^i^ 1 ^>t^ ^H ^rg^RTan T^^ftf 1 
i^lftl^^T ^^ ^f?^ |rT ^W^T ^'l^ ^n^m: I 

1^ I ?r^i ^wr: I ^^^: 1 f^S"^f^^ 1 |rt 1 f^^T: i ^Tf^H 1 'ii^^- 1 
i^ i"^^: I Hf^T^^ I ^^: I ^^ I ^ I f^TS^^: 1 ^«^ 11 « 11 

a<u<Mi : ffrwr tt^ »i^wr ^n^Tt 1 ''^rafn 1 ^^^rraNi ^t^^ ^f^<i\sr^: 1 <tot ^ '"f'.^^ 
* < f4( i 4t<N ^T% II iTf ^-RT I ^'^rr^WTf^^t wr? w^gnw^: 11 ^aiT: ^^^ ^1^: 1 ^^S^ | 
f^ gi^rr: I ^1^ I ^ f?58[TfSrf*{Ti: uw^r^: 1 n^Wi ^m 'm^ i ^^'«P![^?Tfi: 1 ^s^t^raM 

^zii^tj ^irsfin^g HR^ 1^ xrtrT ^ftsfJr: ^^t ^: lib II 

f?n i^T I ^^ftrei: I ^^H I ^fti'T I 'l^: I ^ I f^^l ' %'*»^' • 

TT^: I ^4 1 ^^iin^^ I VTK^ I ^^ I ^(T I "^rfisrs^: i ^^t 1 ^Tt Ji t n 

« i f*iH»t«^irflirf< i <a i M< ti n}Mfti<^^ i R^ ^^WTf^ nyg ^ II ^ Ft ''^'"^S ^^^X« 
xiW ^ vTx:^ I ^^f^mvm n ^ r<<f* < w 1 R^ 1 •<.»!'< 1 fq«M 1 y^mw 1 ^wn: ximg^ f'W^'ft^'^ 

%arf*rf7r II TT^i^CT ^ijng^w^ i ^t^ i ^ s^<?i«aTM ^f^^^fsnrjlT: i ^» 8. ^. i f:f?t « 

l?wqt ^J]^ ^t|^ ftjTg tt %it Hfrfvft' f?:^ mil 

^4 I %^: I ^^1 ^STi^: I sqtfffis^u^: i T^e: i f^siiT^ i 

^TT I ^t I ^SJ]^ I ^^ I f^n^ I tT I fsTirf: I TTfffs^: I f^ffir mil 

^fCTti^fire^ fT^TTT^ I <Tf^ %H^ ^T^ ^ ?ra>w: I %tm^ Jnf ^ ' ^qH u ff i^enJ: i fwi% i 
f«nfN% f*RfN^f ftimq jfit fwi^wnrx:^ i T'f^ ^^^ f«r^nT^fx:% f^: ^raw ^: 
^ftm^i: I ^Paiif^iw: I cT^ T%m: i v^ ^ps^: ^TTTW^srarST: ^tt^ht: i ^ t%m 

i(TfT% f%?rf*m ■%»( f^in ^vrf^: *i\mO JiRim: ^jfwft ftifii i fr^Ti^fn^ i tj^ i 
l^4fn I gtirtlrtnJ: I fir^ T I ^m ^ro 5^ Trrmfq^T^rr ^tv^tt: ^qt ^nqM i t a iiP i <np^ h 

'»rrf7iiw8.'«>. iTf?f H 
^^^Tct^i ^f^ I ^1 i^iT I ^jj: I 5T»t:S5It: i ^ i f^T^ 1 5^ 1 

^rT^ I ^T#f I ^^ I f^?f^ I iJT^I ^m?r I %ftt I ^ I 'JI^Mri I ^: IRII 

trra^fftcsm: 1 ^^: 1 ^nfr^: 1 ^w^T^irrt — i T** ^'rtn ii^to% h »[ ^ 1 fzif^: 1 

WT^«t g^ II 

^^ I y;^: I ^fir I ^tw^t: i fff^ 1 ^f^^ 1 *nflt: 1 ^s^fer: i 
Wf^ I HRf I ^f^ I ^tttot: I ft^fH I H«4: 1 ^ipTW I m^i II 9 II 

15^31^: ^EUTPt ^T^rnwrg rnvrrw iiT«i Hnai^ tt^ttt^ ^srfwi: uI'^t^wht: i ^rarr 1 



^5T ^h ^f^ flt^T!^4^^f ^TTtf5T TT^i II 8 11 

W^: I ^ I ^?f4«T I f^nt: i fn^t i ^^ i »Tfp^ i fl i »?1^ i 

^^ I ^: I ^ I i^i I ^: I %ri^i ^i' I ^i?rtf5T 1 5n^ ii8 

ffe: ^?nn ii 

-^t^rm ^^ fvm w^r^ i^pm^ ^ ^'t: ii m n 

^TOti: I ^Tt I ^'TSfefw^W I ^^t I f^^ I ^T^ I f^s#??^ I 
^ti^i to^ I ^1 1 fiw: I ^^ I ^'K'l« ^^ I %TW^ I ^: I ^'^J iiMii 

f^mt I ^!ra[T I 3fnc ^wifn: \ m x^ fi(^ \T^^ vvr ^^ ^^i: ^l^itidR^ f^^\ 

^1 f?^^TT7i TwnS: I ft^r^rrei ^'ner vtf*i3 w>g "^Tn: i f^rpTrr ^rtfw^^ jr^f^ i 
^rt^^rtfcflSTfwr ^^n 'raffTr i ?j ^ %^: fi^^i^T ^^i^Rpnm: ^ ffr^ f?TTC*i% ftrt^ra- 


f5tl!?nT^ ^^^ |rT ^H^ ^^T ^U|R ij^^ llffH 

^M I ^SXR§ I ^ I ^r(;i X(M I l^T I ^rf: I l#f I ^lEJcT I ^_ I 

fftiPIST?^ I ^^^W I ^rf I ^^ I %€f I ^f^ I ^Pi H^ll 

% %^ WT wf ig[T f5[%i »r»reT ^^: ^m*<«< i ' »T: w^ntO •n^i'Tfr^ Tw^rwrnvf 

;^8t: I iTO^: I ^fij I ^^ I ^r^mi^i Tp?i^ I f^^ I f%4?j^i ^j^ I ^^^^ 

^Hi^: I W% I ^fir I |W I ^ I ^: HT I ^TTT I ^^THl fWril i livSII 

f ^ f%# %fn ^irsmtTft fnrrraf^ ii «iif5Rf?i gi:^: i tr f^tfi: i ^ i ^: ift»TiT7TW -mf^: i 

5^: ^bgs^TfH '-MrT^nifif ww]ii^ ^w ik^^^ i 

V^l I ^^ll ^ I ^1 ftmtfiT I TTOI^ I r^^ I ^^x I f^S^^ I 

wg: I ''^s^l I "s^f^^ I ^^: i ^^ i ^ i x^^ i f vM iT^ ii bii 

''i^fifWT^ n gw^ 5>it •<:*ii»tf»»«m'9TT: i^ ^trh ^arer ms^ n^m*< i ^ %^ vitt;^ 

^ I 't: I ^ I ^ I ^ I ^ I ?ff I tr^s^m I f%s^ I wnsit^ i 
^: I |^S^i<^RiT r: I ^: S»n: 1 5^^n^ I ^ I H^: I ^ I ^f^nisii 

^'WTsnin: I ^ ^ »fri 4« r tBf*<*i vn^itft i ^amT^ i m^ i m Tmrf^rer: i *lfif i iwndnf 
VOL. IV. 3 a 

fwr: I '^iranra n^pw^Riff: i Tff ^>^ frerrrwTTr^TMT'T^anS: ii 

W I -Hrf^l ^W I ^^: I 3Tf tftr I ^Trl^l ^J^r|^l ^ W I ^jfA I ^*T IR II 

HM^flT'ft fiiO^^^mi: ^wf n^fiT I jnTjrq^TTfiw ^^ irmtfii ii tai4rtit>« ii (4i^v ^ n ?ft#- 
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